Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 51
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
2.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(2): 286-291, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined traumatic injuries to the rectum and bladder are rare. We hypothesized that the combination of bladder and rectal injures would have worse outcomes than rectal injury alone. METHODS: This is an American Association for the Surgery of Trauma multi-institutional retrospective study from 2004 to 2015 traumatic rectal injury patients who were admitted to one of 22 participating centers. Demographics, mechanism, and management of rectal injury were collected. Patients who sustained a rectal injury alone were compared with patients who sustained a combined injury to the bladder and rectum. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine if abdominal complications, mortality, and length of stay were impacted by a concomitant bladder injury after adjusting for cofounders. RESULTS: There were 424 patients who sustained a traumatic rectal injury, of which 117 (28%) had a combined injury to the bladder. When comparing the patients with a combined bladder/rectal injury to the rectal alone group, there was no difference in admission demographics admission physiology, or Injury Severity Score. There were also no differences in management of the rectal injury and no difference in abdominal complications (13% vs. 16%, p = 0.38), mortality (3% vs. 2%, p = 0.68), or length of stay (17 days vs. 21 days, p = 0.10). When looking at only the 117 patients with a combined injury, the addition of a colostomy did not significantly decrease the rate of abdominal complications (14% vs. 8%, p = 0.42), mortality (3% vs. 0%, p = 0.99), or length of stay (17 days vs. 17 days, p = 0.94). After adjusting for cofounders (AAST rectal injury grade, sex, damage-control surgery, diverting colostomy, and length of stay) the presence of a bladder injury did not impact outcomes. CONCLUSION: For patients with traumatic rectal injury, a concomitant bladder injury does not increase the rates of abdominal complications, mortality, or length of stay. Furthermore, the addition of a diverting colostomy for management of traumatic bladder and rectal injury does not change outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV; prognostic/therapeutic.

3.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 4(1): e000351, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799416

RESUMO

Introduction: Gunshot wounds to the brain (GSWB) confer high lethality and uncertain recovery. It is unclear which patients benefit from aggressive resuscitation, and furthermore whether patients with GSWB undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have potential for survival or organ donation. Therefore, we sought to determine the rates of survival and organ donation, as well as identify factors associated with both outcomes in patients with GSWB undergoing CPR. Methods: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study at 25 US trauma centers including dates between June 1, 2011 and December 31, 2017. Patients were included if they suffered isolated GSWB and required CPR at a referring hospital, in the field, or in the trauma resuscitation room. Patients were excluded for significant torso or extremity injuries, or if pregnant. Binomial regression models were used to determine predictors of survival/organ donation. Results: 825 patients met study criteria; the majority were male (87.6%) with a mean age of 36.5 years. Most (67%) underwent CPR in the field and 2.1% (n=17) survived to discharge. Of the non-survivors, 17.5% (n=141) were considered eligible donors, with a donation rate of 58.9% (n=83) in this group. Regression models found several predictors of survival. Hormone replacement was predictive of both survival and organ donation. Conclusion: We found that GSWB requiring CPR during trauma resuscitation was associated with a 2.1% survival rate and overall organ donation rate of 10.3%. Several factors appear to be favorably associated with survival, although predictions are uncertain due to the low number of survivors in this patient population. Hormone replacement was predictive of both survival and organ donation. These results are a starting point for determining appropriate treatment algorithms for this devastating clinical condition. Level of evidence: Level II.

4.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 1028-1032, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638519

RESUMO

Hospitalizations for peptic ulcer disease (PUD) have decreased since the advent of specific medical therapy in the 1980s. The authors' clinical experience at a tertiary center, however, has been that procedures to treat PUD complications have not declined. This study tested the hypothesis that despite decreases in PUD hospitalizations, the volume of procedures for PUD complications has remained consistent. The study population included all inpatient encounters in the state of Maryland from 2009 to 2014 with a primary ICD-9 diagnosis code for PUD. Data on annual patient volume, demographics, anatomic location, procedures, complications, and outcomes were collected, and PUD prevalence rates were calculated. The study population consisted of the state's entire population, not a sample; statistical analysis was not applied. Hospitalizations for PUD declined from 2,502 in 2009 to 2,101 in 2014, whereas the percentage of hospitalizations with procedures increased from 27.1 to 31.5 per cent. Endoscopy was performed in 19.8 per cent of hospitalizations, operation in 9.4 per cent, and angiography in 1.3 per cent. Of 13,974 inpatient encounters, 30 per cent had at least one inhospital complication. Overall inpatient mortality was 2.2 per cent. PUD hospitalizations are declining in Maryland, mirroring national trends. A subset of patients continue to need urgent procedures for PUD complications, including nearly 10 per cent needing operation. Inpatient mortality among patients admitted for PUD was 2.2 per cent, congruent with other studies. Despite the efficacy of modern medical therapy, these data underscore the importance of teaching surgical residents the cognitive and operative skills necessary to manage PUD complications.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Úlcera Péptica/complicações , Úlcera Péptica/cirurgia , Angiografia/efeitos adversos , Angiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Maryland/epidemiologia , Úlcera Péptica/diagnóstico por imagem , Úlcera Péptica/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia
5.
J Surg Res ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retained rectal foreign bodies are a common but incompletely studied problem. This study defined the epidemiology, injury severity, and outcomes after rectal injuries following foreign body insertion. METHODS: Twenty-two level I trauma centers retrospectively identified all patients sustaining a rectal injury in this AAST multi-institutional trial (2005-2014). Only patients injured by foreign body insertion were included in this secondary analysis. Exclusion criteria were death before rectal injury management or ≤48 h of admission. Demographics, clinical data, and outcomes were collected. Study groups were defined as partial thickness (AAST grade I) versus full thickness (AAST grades II-V) injuries. Subgroup analysis was performed by management strategy (nonoperative versus operative). RESULTS: After exclusions, 33 patients were identified. Mean age was 41 y (range 18-57), and 85% (n = 28) were male. Eleven (33%) had full thickness injuries and 22 (67%) had partial thickness injuries, of which 14 (64%) were managed nonoperatively and 8 (36%) operatively (proximal diversion alone [n = 3, 14%]; direct repair with proximal diversion [n = 2, 9%]; laparotomy without rectal intervention [n = 2, 9%]; and direct repair alone [n = 1, 5%]). Subgroup analysis of outcomes after partial thickness injury demonstrated significantly shorter hospital length of stay (2 ± 1; 2 [1-5] versus 5 ± 2; 4 [2-8] d, P = 0.0001) after nonoperative versus operative management. CONCLUSIONS: Although partial thickness rectal injuries do not require intervention, difficulty excluding full thickness injuries led some surgeons in this series to manage partial thickness injuries operatively. This was associated with significantly longer hospital length of stay. Therefore, we recommend nonoperative management after a retained rectal foreign body unless full thickness injury is conclusively identified.

6.
Am J Surg ; 218(6): 1060-1064, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537324

RESUMO

RCTs showed benefits in Lap repair of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). The SWSC Multi-Center Trials Group sought to evaluate whether Lap omental patch repairs compared to Open improved outcomes in PPU in general practice. Data was collected from 9 SWSC Trial Group centers. Demographics, operative time, 30-day complications, length of stay and mortality were included. 461 PATIENTS: Open in 311(67%) patients, Lap in 132(28%) with 20(5%) patients converted from Lap to Open. Groups were similar at baseline. Significant variability was found between centers in their utilization of Lap (0-67%). Complications at 30 days were lower in Lap (18.5% vs. 27.5%, p < 0.05) as was unplanned re-operation (4.7% vs 14%, p < 0.05). Lap reduced LOS (6 vs 8 days, p < 0.001). Ileus was more in Lap (42% vs 18 p < 0.001) operative time was 14 min higher in Lap(p < 0.01) and admission to OR time was 4 h higher in Lap(<0.05). No significant difference readmission or mortality. Our results suggest Lap should be considered a first-line option in suitable PPU patients requiring omental patch repair in centers that have the capacity and resources 24/7.

7.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 747-751, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405421

RESUMO

The ACGME work hour restrictions facilitated increased utilization of service-based advanced practice providers (APPs) to offset reduced general surgery resident work hours. Information regarding attending surgeon perceptions of APP impact is limited. The aim of this survey was to gauge these perceptions with respect to workload, length of stay (LOS), safety, best practice, level of function, and clinical judgment. Attending surgeons on surgical teams that employ service-based APPs at an urban tertiary referral center responded to a survey at the completion of academic year 2016. Perceptions regarding APP impact on workload, LOS, safety, best practice, level of function, and clinical judgment were examined. Twenty-two attending surgeons (40%) responded. Respondents agreed that APPs always/usually decrease their workload (77%), decrease LOS (64%), improve safety (68%), contribute to best practice (82%), and decrease near misses (71%). They also agreed that APPs decrease resident workload (87%), but fewer agreed that APPs contribute to resident education (68%). The majority perceived APPs function at the PGY1/2 (43%) or PGY3 (39%) level and always/usually trust their clinical judgment (72%), and felt there was variability in level of function among APPs (56%). This single-center study illustrates that attending surgeons perceive a positive impact on patient care by service-based APPs.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Internato e Residência , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Adulto , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Carga de Trabalho
8.
Am Surg ; 85(6): 595-600, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267899

RESUMO

Interhospital transfer of emergency general surgery (EGS) patients is a common occurrence. Modern individual hospital practices for interhospital transfers have unknown variability. A retrospective review of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database was undertaken from 2013 to 2015. EGS encounters were divided into three groups: encounters not transferred, encounters transferred from a hospital, and encounters transferred to a hospital. In total, 380,405 EGS encounters were identified, including 12,153 (3.2%) encounters transferred to a hospital, 10,163 (2.7%) encounters transferred from a hospital, and 358,089 (94.1%) encounters not transferred. For individual hospitals, percentage of encounters transferred to a hospital ranged from 0 to 30.05 per cent, encounters transferred from a hospital from 0.02 to 14.62 per cent, and encounters not transferred from 69.25 to 99.95 per cent of total encounters at individual hospitals. Percentage of encounters transferred from individual hospitals was inversely correlated with annual EGS hospital volume (P < 0.001, r = -0.59), whereas percentage of encounters transferred to individual hospitals was directly correlated with annual EGS hospital volume (P < 0.001, r = 0.51). Individual hospital practices for interhospital transfer of EGS patients have substantial variability. This is the first study to describe individual hospital interhospital transfer practices for EGS.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/organização & administração , Transferência de Pacientes/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Emergências , Feminino , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos , Humanos , Relações Interinstitucionais , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Maryland , Estudos Retrospectivos , Contrato de Transferência de Pacientes
9.
J Surg Res ; 243: 391-398, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the frequent occurrence of interhospital transfers in emergency general surgery (EGS), rates of transfer of complications are undescribed. Improved understanding of hospital transfer patterns has a multitude of implications, including quality measurement. The objective of this study was to describe individual hospital transfer rates of mortal encounters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken from 2013 to 2015 of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database. Two groups of EGS encounters were identified: encounters with death following transfer and encounters with death without transfer. The percentage of mortal encounters transferred was defined as the percentage of EGS hospital encounters with mortality initially presenting to a hospital transferred to another hospital before death at the receiving hospital. RESULTS: Overall, 370,242 total EGS encounters were included, with 17,003 (4.6%) of the total EGS encounters with mortality. Encounters with death without transfer encompassed 15,604 (91.8%) of mortal EGS encounters and encounters with death following transfer 1399 (8.2%). EGS disease categories of esophageal varices or perforation, necrotizing fasciitis, enterocutaneous fistula, and pancreatitis had over 10% of these total mortal encounters with death following transfer. For individual hospitals, percentage of mortal encounters transferred ranged from 0.8% to 35.2%. The percentage of mortal encounters transferred was inversely correlated with annual EGS hospital volume for all state hospitals (P < 0.001, r = -0.57). CONCLUSIONS: Broad variability in individual hospital practices exists for mortality transferred to other institutions. Application of this knowledge of percentage of mortal encounters transferred includes consideration in hospital quality metrics.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos , Doente Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Surg ; 217(6): 1006-1009, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choledocholithiasis is present in up to 15% of cholecystectomy patients. Treatment can be surgical, endoscopic, or via interventional radiology. We hypothesized significant heterogeneity between hospitals exists in the approach to suspected common duct stones. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients that had a preoperative MRCP, endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP), or intra-operative cholangiogram was performed. Comparisons were by Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests with significance of p < 0.05 for paired variables and p < 0.017 for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Twelve participating institutions identified 1263 patients (409 men and 854 women) with a median age of 49 years (IQR: 31-94). Liver function tests (LFT's) were elevated in 939 patients (75%), median bilirubin level 1.75 mg/dl (IQ: 0.8-3.7 mg/dl) and median common duct size 7 mm (IQR 5-10 mm). The most common initial procedure was cholecystectomy with IOC at seven institutions, endoscopy at four and MRCP at one. CONCLUSION: Significant variation exists within the surgical community regarding suspected common duct stones. These results underscore the need for a protocol for common duct stones to minimize multiple, redundant interventions.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/estatística & dados numéricos , Colangiopancreatografia por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Colecistectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Coledocolitíase/diagnóstico por imagem , Coledocolitíase/cirurgia , Endossonografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos
11.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 36(8): 669-674, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The value of defining goals of care (GoC) for geriatric patients is well known to the palliative care community but is a newer concept for many trauma surgeons. Palliative care specialists and trauma surgeons were surveyed to elicit the specialties' attitudes regarding (1) importance of GoC conversations for injured seniors; (2) confidence in their own specialty's ability to conduct these conversations; and (3) confidence in the ability of the other specialty to do so. METHODS: A 13-item survey was developed by the steering committee of a multicenter, palliative care-focused consortium and beta-tested by trauma surgeons and palliative care specialists unaffiliated with the consortium. The finalized instrument was electronically circulated to active physician members of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma and American Academy for Hospice and Palliative Medicine. RESULTS: Respondents included 118 trauma surgeons (8.8%) and 244 palliative care specialists (5.7%). Palliative physicians rated being more familiar with GoC, were more likely to report high-quality training in performing conversations, believed more palliative specialists were needed in intensive care units, and had more interest in conducting conversations relative to trauma surgeons. Both groups believed themselves to perform GoC discussions better than the other specialty perceived them to do so and favored their own specialty leading team discussions. CONCLUSIONS: Both groups believe themselves to conduct GoC discussions for injured seniors better than the other specialty perceived them to do so, which led to disparate views on the optimal leadership of these discussions.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Medicina Paliativa/organização & administração , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Médico-Paciente , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Estados Unidos
12.
Injury ; 50(1): 149-155, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical frailty scores usually involve questionnaires or physical testing. Many trauma patients are not able to participate in these. Radiographic measurement of frailty may be a viable alternative. Individual radiographic markers of frailty have been investigated, such as sarcopenia or osteopenia. The ideal radiographic variable (or variables) to measure frailty in trauma is unknown. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review was performed of restrained drivers ages 40 and greater at a single institution from 2010-2015. Multiple markers of radiographic frailty were measured including: sarcopenia, osteopenia, vascular calcifications, sarcopenic obesity, emphysema, renal volume, cervical spine degeneration, and cerebral atrophy. Frailty was defined as the worst quartile for each radiographic variable, and these values were summed to create a composite marker of frailty. The primary outcome was discharge disposition. We hypothesized that a composite frailty score would be associated with discharge disposition while individual markers would not be associated with discharge disposition. RESULTS: Overall 489 patients were included in this study. Cerebral atrophy (p = 0.05), renal volume (p = 0.004), sarcopenia (p = 0.05), vascular calcifications (p = 0.02) and sarcopenic obesity (p = 0.01) were associated with discharge disposition. Pearson's correlation coefficients between radiographic frailty markers were all less than 0.4. Youden's Index was 0.26 (p < 0.001) at a composite score of 3. In multivariable analysis, the composite score of 3 or greater was associated with poor discharge disposition (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.10-5.18, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Individual radiographic frailty markers are inadequate markers of frailty, as they may miss patients who are frail. This study also suggests that a composite radiographic frailty score may better predict patient outcome than individual radiographic markers of frailty.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Fragilidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Espondilose/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
13.
Injury ; 50(1): 131-136, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) grading grossly differentiates injury characteristics such as luminal stenosis (LS) and aneurysmal disease. The effect of increasing degree of LS beyond the current BCVI grading scale on stroke formation is unknown. STUDY DESIGN: BCVI over a 3-year period were retrospectively reviewed. To investigate influence of LS beyond the BCVI grading scale within aneurysmal and non-aneurysmal BCVI, grade 2 BCVI were subdivided into BCVI with ≥ 25% and ≤ 50% LS and BCVI with > 50% and ≤ 99% LS. Grade 3 BCVI were subdivided into BCVI with pseudoaneurysm (PSA) without LS and BCVI with PSA and LS. We hypothesized increased LS beyond the current BCVI grade distinctions would be associated with higher rates of stroke formation. RESULTS: 312 BCVI were included, of which 140 were carotid BCVI and 172 vertebral BCVI. Sixteen carotid BCVI underwent endovascular intervention (EI) and 19 suffered a stroke. In carotid BCVI stroke rates increased sequentially with BCVI grade except in grade 3. There was a stroke rate of 12% in grade 1 carotid BCVI, 18% in grade 2, 6% in grade 3, and 31% in grade 4. In subgroup analysis for grade 2 carotid BCVI, BCVI with > 50% and ≤ 99% LS had higher rates of stroke (22% vs. 15%, p = 0.44) than BCVI with ≥ 25% and ≤ 50% LS. In subgroup analysis of grade 3 carotid BCVI, BCVI with PSA and LS had higher rates of stroke (9% vs. 4%, p = 0.48) than BCVI with PSA without LS. Higher rates of EI in grade 2 carotid BCVI with > 50% and ≤ 99% LS (22% vs. 5%, p = 0.14) and grade 3 carotid BCVI with PSA and LS (35% vs. 4%, p = 0.01) were noted in subgroup analysis. CONCLUSION: Higher percentage LS beyond the currently used BCVI grading scale has a non-significantly increased rate of stroke in both aneurysmal and non-aneurysmal BCVI. Grade 3 BCVI with PSA and LS seems to be a high-risk subgroup. Use of EI confounds modern measurement of stroke risk in higher LS BCVI.


Assuntos
Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/complicações , Constrição Patológica/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Adulto , Angiografia Cerebral , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/terapia , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 45(4): 705-711, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947847

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The overuse of temporary abdominal closure and second look (SL) laparotomy in emergency general surgery (EGS) cases has been questioned in the recent literature. In an effort to hopefully decrease the number of open abdomen (OA) patients, we hypothesize that reviewing our cases, many of these SL patients could be managed with single-stage operative therapy and thus decrease the number of OA patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from Jun 2013-Jun 2014, evaluating EGS patients managed with an OA who required bowel resection in either index or SL laparotomy. Demographics, clinical variables, complications and mortality were collected. Fisher's exact t test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: During this time frame, 96 patients were managed with OA and 59 patients required a bowel resection. 55 (57%) of those required one bowel resection at the index operation with 4 (4.2%) only requiring one bowel resection at the second operation. In the patients requiring bowel resections, 18 (30%) required a resection at SL. At SL laparotomy, resection was required for questionably viable bowel at the index operation 60% (11), whereas 39% (7) had normal appearing bowel. Indications for resection at SL laparotomy included evolution of existing ischemia, new onset ischemia, staple line revision, and "other". 23 patients (39%) were hemodynamically unstable, contributing to the need for temporary abdominal closure. In the multivariate analysis, preoperative shock was the only predictor of need for further resection. Complications and mortality were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: Almost one-fifth of the patients undergoing SL laparotomy for open abdomen required bowel resections, with 6.8% of those having normal appearing bowel at index operation, therefore in select EGS patients, SL laparotomy is a reasonable strategy.

15.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(6): 1033-1037, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no clear guidelines for the best test or combination of tests to identify traumatic rectal injuries. We hypothesize that computed tomography (CT) and rigid proctoscopy (RP) will identify all injuries. METHODS: American Association for the Surgery of Trauma multi-institutional retrospective study (2004-2015) of patients who sustained a traumatic rectal injury. Patients with known rectal injuries who underwent both CT and RP as part of their diagnostic workup were included. Only patients with full thickness injuries (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grade II-V) were included. Computed tomography findings of rectal injury, perirectal stranding, or rectal wall thickening and RP findings of blood, mucosal abnormalities, or laceration were considered positive. RESULTS: One hundred six patients were identified. Mean age was 32 years, 85(79%) were male, and 67(63%) involved penetrating mechanisms. A total of 36 (34%) and 100 (94%) patients had positive CT and RP findings, respectively. Only 3 (3%) patients had both a negative CT and negative RP. On further review, each of these three patients had intraperitoneal injuries and had indirect evidence of rectal injury on CT scan including pneumoperitoneum or sacral fracture. CONCLUSION: As stand-alone tests, neither CT nor RP can adequately identify traumatic rectal injuries. However, the combination of both test demonstrates a sensitivity of 97%. Intraperitoneal injuries may be missed by both CT and RP, so patients with a high index of suspicion and/or indirect evidence of rectal injury on CT scan may necessitate laparotomy for definitive diagnosis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic, level IV.


Assuntos
Reto/lesões , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proctoscopia , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 3(1): e000176, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862323

RESUMO

Oversight of human subject research has evolved considerably since its inception. However, previous studies identified a lack of consistency of institutional review board (IRB) determination for the type of review required and whether informed consent is necessary, especially for prospective observational studies, which pose minimal risk of harm. We hypothesized that there is significant inter-institution variation in IRB requirements for the type of review and necessity of informed consent, especially for prospective observational trials without blood/tissue utilization. We also sought to describe investigators' and IRB members' attitudes toward the type of review and need for consent. Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) and IRB members were sent an electronic survey on IRB review and informed consent requirement. We performed descriptive analyses as well as Fisher's exact test to determine differences between EAST and IRB members' responses. The response rate for EAST members from 113 institutions was 13.5%, whereas a convenience sample of IRB members from 14 institutions had a response rate of 64.4%. Requirement for full IRB review for retrospective studies using patient identifiers was reported by zero IRB member compared with 13.1% of EAST members (p=0.05). Regarding prospective observational trials without blood/tissue collection, 48.1% of EAST members reported their institutions required a full IRB review compared with 9.5% of IRB members (p=0.01). For prospective observational trials with blood/tissue collection, 80% of EAST members indicated requirement to submit a full IRB review compared with only 13.6% of IRB members (p<0.001). Most EAST members (78.6%) stated that informed consent is not ethically necessary in prospective observational trials without blood/tissue collection, whereas most IRB members thought that informed consent was ethically necessary (63.6%, p<0.001). There is significant variation in perception and practice regarding the level of review for prospective observational studies and whether informed consent is necessary. We recommend future interdisciplinary efforts between researchers and IRBs should occur to better standardize local IRB efforts. Level of evidence: IV.

17.
J Burn Care Res ; 39(6): 1000-1005, 2018 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771351

RESUMO

Palliative care specialists (PCS) and burn surgeons (BS) were surveyed regarding: 1) importance of goals of care (GoC) conversations for burned seniors; 2) confidence in their own specialty's ability to conduct these conversations; and 3) confidence in the ability of the other specialty to do so. A 13-item survey was developed by the steering committee of a multicenter consortium dedicated to palliative care in the injured geriatric patient and beta-tested by BS and PCS unaffiliated with the consortium. The finalized instrument was electronically circulated to active physician members of the American Burn Association and American Academy for Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Forty-five BS (7.3%) and 244 PCS (5.7%) responded. Palliative physicians rated being more familiar with GoC, were more comfortable having a discussion with laypeople, were more likely to have reported high-quality training in performing conversations, believed more palliative specialists were needed in intensive care units, and had more interest in conducting conversations relative to BS. Both groups believed themselves to perform GoC discussions better than the other specialty perceived them to do so. BS favored leading team discussions, whereas palliative specialists preferred jointly led discussions. Both groups agreed that discussions should occur within 72 hours of admission. Both groups believe themselves to conduct GoC discussions for burned seniors better than the other specialty perceived them to do so, which led to disparate views on perceptions for the optimal leadership of these discussions.

18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 84(6): 855-863, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538224

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Threatened, perforated, and infarcted bowel is managed with conventional resection and anastomosis (hand sewn [HS] or stapled [ST]). The SHAPES analysis demonstrated equivalence between HS and ST techniques, yet surgeons appeared to prefer HS for the critically ill. We hypothesized that HS is more frequent in patients with higher disease severity as measured by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Emergency General Surgery (AAST EGS) grading system. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of the SHAPES database. Operative reports were submitted by volunteering SHAPES centers. Final AAST grade was compared with various outcomes including duration of stay, physiologic/laboratory data, anastomosis type, anastomosis failure (dehiscence, abscess, or fistula), and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 391 patients were reviewed, with a mean age (±SD) of 61.2 ± 16.8 years, 47% women. Disease severity distribution was as follows: grade I (n = 0, 0%), grade II (n = 106, 27%), grade III (n = 113, 29%), grade IV (n = 123, 31%), and grade V (n = 49, 13%). Increasing AAST grade was associated with acidosis and hypothermia. There was an association between higher AAST grade and likelihood of HS anastomosis. On regression, factors associated with mortality included development of anastomosis complication and vasopressor use but not increasing AAST EGS grade or anastomotic technique. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to use standardized anatomic injury grades for patients undergoing urgent/emergent bowel resection in EGS. Higher AAST severity scores are associated with key clinical outcomes in EGS diseases requiring bowel resection and anastomosis. Anastomotic-specific complications were not associated with higher AAST grade; however, mortality was influenced by anastomosis complication and vasopressor use. Future EGS studies should routinely include AAST grading as a method for reliable comparison of injury between groups. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level III.


Assuntos
Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Emergências , Enteropatias/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Grampeamento Cirúrgico , Técnicas de Sutura , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 84(2): 225-233, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29140953

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rectal injuries have been historically treated with a combination of modalities including direct repair, resection, proximal diversion, presacral drainage, and distal rectal washout. We hypothesized that intraperitoneal rectal injuries may be selectively managed without diversion and the addition of distal rectal washout and presacral drainage in the management of extraperitoneal injuries are not beneficial. METHODS: This is an American Association for the Surgery of Trauma multi-institutional retrospective study from 2004 to 2015 of all patients who sustained a traumatic rectal injury and were admitted to one of the 22 participating centers. Demographics, mechanism, location and grade of injury, and management of rectal injury were collected. The primary outcome was abdominal complications (abdominal abscess, pelvic abscess, and fascial dehiscence). RESULTS: After exclusions, there were 785 patients in the cohort. Rectal injuries were intraperitoneal in 32%, extraperitoneal in 58%, both in 9%, and not documented in 1%. Rectal injury severity included the following grades I, 28%; II, 41%; III, 13%; IV, 12%; and V, 5%. Patients with intraperitoneal injury managed with a proximal diversion developed more abdominal complications (22% vs 10%, p = 0.003). Among patients with extraperitoneal injuries, there were more abdominal complications in patients who received proximal diversion (p = 0.0002), presacral drain (p = 0.004), or distal rectal washout (p = 0.002). After multivariate analysis, distal rectal washout [3.4 (1.4-8.5), p = 0.008] and presacral drain [2.6 (1.1-6.1), p = 0.02] were independent risk factors to develop abdominal complications. CONCLUSION: Most patients with intraperitoneal injuries undergo direct repair or resection as well as diversion, although diversion is not associated with improved outcomes. While 20% of patients with extraperitoneal injuries still receive a presacral drain and/or distal rectal washout, these additional maneuvers are independently associated with a three-fold increase in abdominal complications and should not be included in the treatment of extraperitoneal rectal injuries. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level III.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Colostomia/métodos , Drenagem/métodos , Reto/lesões , Sociedades Médicas , Traumatologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sigmoidoscopia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Estados Unidos
20.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 83(4): 657-661, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28930958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used analgesic and anti-inflammatory adjuncts. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration may potentially increase the risk of postoperative gastrointestinal anastomotic failure (AF). We aim to determine if perioperative NSAID utilization influences gastrointestinal AF in emergency general surgery (EGS) patients undergoing gastrointestinal resection and anastomosis. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of a multi-institutional prospectively collected database was performed. Anastomotic failure was defined as the occurrence of a dehiscence/leak, fistula, or abscess. Patients using NSAIDs were compared with those without. Summary, univariate, and multivariable analyses were performed. RESULTS: Five hundred thirty-three patients met inclusion criteria with a mean (±SD) age of 60 ± 17.5 years, 53% men. Forty-six percent (n = 244) of the patients were using perioperative NSAIDs. Gastrointestinal AF rate between NSAID and no NSAID was 13.9% versus 10.7% (p = 0.26). No differences existed between groups with respect to perioperative steroid use (16.8% vs. 13.8%; p = 0.34) or mortality (7.39% vs. 6.92%, p = 0.84). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that perioperative corticosteroid (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-4.81) use and the presence of a colocolonic or colorectal anastomoses were independently associated with AF. A subset analysis of the NSAIDs cohort demonstrated an increased AF rate in colocolonic or colorectal anastomosis compared with enteroenteric or enterocolonic anastomoses (30.0% vs. 13.0%; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Perioperative NSAID utilization appears to be safe in EGS patients undergoing small-bowel resection and anastomosis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration should be used cautiously in EGS patients with colon or rectal anastomoses. Future randomized trials should validate the effects of perioperative NSAIDs use on AF. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level III.


Assuntos
Fístula Anastomótica/epidemiologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA