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1.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2155-2163, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957868

RESUMO

Randomized clinical trials initially used heart failure (HF) patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to select study populations with high risk to enhance statistical power. However, this use of LVEF in clinical trials has led to oversimplification of the scientific view of a complex syndrome. Descriptive terms such as 'HFrEF' (HF with reduced LVEF), 'HFpEF' (HF with preserved LVEF), and more recently 'HFmrEF' (HF with mid-range LVEF), assigned on arbitrary LVEF cut-off points, have gradually arisen as separate diseases, implying distinct pathophysiologies. In this article, based on pathophysiological reasoning, we challenge the paradigm of classifying HF according to LVEF. Instead, we propose that HF is a heterogeneous syndrome in which disease progression is associated with a dynamic evolution of functional and structural changes leading to unique disease trajectories creating a spectrum of phenotypes with overlapping and distinct characteristics. Moreover, we argue that by recognizing the spectral nature of the disease a novel stratification will arise from new technologies and scientific insights that will shape the design of future trials based on deeper understanding beyond the LVEF construct alone.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(4): 402-424, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859669

RESUMO

Ventricular-arterial coupling (VAC) plays a major role in the physiology of cardiac and aortic mechanics, as well as in the pathophysiology of cardiac disease. VAC assessment possesses independent diagnostic and prognostic value and may be used to refine riskstratification and monitor therapeutic interventions. Traditionally, VAC is assessed by the non-invasive measurement of the ratio of arterial (Ea) to ventricular end-systolic elastance (Ees). With disease progression, both Ea and Ees may become abnormal and the Ea/Ees ratio may approximate its normal values. Therefore, the measurement of each component of this ratio or of novel more sensitive markers of myocardial (e.g. global longitudinal strain) and arterial function (e.g. pulse wave velocity) may better characterize VAC. In valvular heart disease, systemic arterial compliance and valvulo-arterial impedance have an established diagnostic and prognostic value and may monitor the effects of valve replacement on vascular and cardiac function. Treatment guided to improve VAC through improvement of both or each one of its components may delay incidence of heart failure and possibly improve prognosis in heart failure. In this consensus document, we describe the pathophysiology, the methods of assessment as well as the clinical implications of VAC in cardiac diseases and heart failure. Finally, we focus on interventions that may improve VAC and thus modify prognosis.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 272-285, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714667

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a pivotal player in heart failure development and progression. Measurements of (markers of) fibrosis in tissue and blood may help to diagnose and risk stratify patients with heart failure, and its treatment may be effective in preventing heart failure and its progression. A lack of pathophysiological insights and uniform definitions has hampered the research in fibrosis and heart failure. The Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association discussed several aspects of fibrosis in their workshop. Early insidious perturbations such as subclinical hypertension or inflammation may trigger first fibrotic events, while more dramatic triggers such as myocardial infarction and myocarditis give rise to full blown scar formation and ongoing fibrosis in diseased hearts. Aging itself is also associated with a cardiac phenotype that includes fibrosis. Fibrosis is an extremely heterogeneous phenomenon, as several stages of the fibrotic process exist, each with different fibrosis subtypes and a different composition of various cells and proteins - resulting in a very complex pathophysiology. As a result, detection of fibrosis, e.g. using current cardiac imaging modalities or plasma biomarkers, will detect only specific subforms of fibrosis, but cannot capture all aspects of the complex fibrotic process. Furthermore, several anti-fibrotic therapies are under investigation, but such therapies generally target aspecific aspects of the fibrotic process and suffer from a lack of precision. This review discusses the mechanisms and the caveats and proposes a roadmap for future research.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295807

RESUMO

Acute heart failure (HF) and in particular, cardiogenic shock are associated with high morbidity and mortality. A therapeutic dilemma is that the use of positive inotropic agents, such as catecholamines or phosphodiesterase-inhibitors, is associated with increased mortality. Newer drugs, such as levosimendan or omecamtiv mecarbil, target sarcomeres to improve systolic function putatively without elevating intracellular Ca2+. Although meta-analyses of smaller trials suggested that levosimendan is associated with a better outcome than dobutamine, larger comparative trials failed to confirm this observation. For omecamtiv mecarbil, Phase II clinical trials suggest a favourable haemodynamic profile in patients with acute and chronic HF, and a Phase III morbidity/mortality trial in patients with chronic HF has recently begun. Here, we review the pathophysiological basis of systolic dysfunction in patients with HF and the mechanisms through which different inotropic agents improve cardiac function. Since adenosine triphosphate and reactive oxygen species production in mitochondria are intimately linked to the processes of excitation-contraction coupling, we also discuss the impact of inotropic agents on mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox regulation. Therefore, this position paper should help identify novel targets for treatments that could not only safely improve systolic and diastolic function acutely, but potentially also myocardial structure and function over a longer-term.

6.
Front Physiol ; 9: 382, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695980

RESUMO

The heart is a highly structured organ consisting of different cell types, including myocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, and inflammatory cells. This pluricellularity provides the opportunity of intercellular communication within the organ, with subsequent optimization of its function. Intercellular cross-talk is indispensable during cardiac development, but also plays a substantial modulatory role in the normal and failing heart of adults. More specifically, factors secreted by cardiac microvascular endothelial cells modulate cardiac performance and either positively or negatively affect cardiac remodeling. The role of endothelium-derived small molecules and peptides-for instance NO or endothelin-1-has been extensively studied and is relatively well defined. However, endothelial cells also secrete numerous larger proteins. Information on the role of these proteins in the heart is scattered throughout the literature. In this review, we will link specific proteins that modulate cardiac contractility or cardiac remodeling to their expression by cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. The following proteins will be discussed: IL-6, periostin, tenascin-C, thrombospondin, follistatin-like 1, frizzled-related protein 3, IGF-1, CTGF, dickkopf-3, BMP-2 and-4, apelin, IL-1ß, placental growth factor, LIF, WISP-1, midkine, and adrenomedullin. In the future, it is likely that some of these proteins can serve as markers of cardiac remodeling and that the concept of endothelial function and dysfunction might have to be redefined as we learn more about other factors secreted by ECs besides NO.

7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(3): 445-459, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29333691

RESUMO

Activation of the immune system in heart failure (HF) has been recognized for over 20 years. Initially, experimental studies demonstrated a maladaptive role of the immune system. However, several phase III trials failed to show beneficial effects in HF with therapies directed against an immune activation. Preclinical studies today describe positive and negative effects of immune activation in HF. These different effects depend on timing and aetiology of HF. Therefore, herein we give a detailed review on immune mechanisms and their importance for the development of HF with a special focus on commonalities and differences between different forms of cardiomyopathies. The role of the immune system in ischaemic, hypertensive, diabetic, toxic, viral, genetic, peripartum, and autoimmune cardiomyopathy is discussed in depth. Overall, initial damage to the heart leads to disease specific activation of the immune system whereas in the chronic phase of HF overlapping mechanisms occur in different aetiologies.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(2): 216-227, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29148148

RESUMO

As heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) rises to epidemic proportions, major steps in patient management and therapeutic development are badly needed. With the current position paper we seek to update our view on HFpEF as a highly complex systemic syndrome, from risk factors and mechanisms to long-term clinical manifestations. We will revise recent advances in animal model development, experimental set-ups and basic and translational science approaches to HFpEF research, highlighting their drawbacks and advantages. Directions are provided for proper model selection as well as for integrative functional evaluation from the in vivo setting to in vitro cell function testing. Additionally, we address new research challenges that require integration of higher-order inter-organ and inter-cell communication to achieve a full systems biology perspective of HFpEF.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(11): 1361-1378, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949064

RESUMO

Despite improvements in medical therapy and device-based treatment, heart failure (HF) continues to impose enormous burdens on patients and health care systems worldwide. Alterations in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity contribute to cardiac disease progression, and the recent development of invasive techniques and electrical stimulation devices has opened new avenues for specific targeting of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS. The Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology recently organized an expert workshop which brought together clinicians, trialists and basic scientists to discuss the ANS as a therapeutic target in HF. The questions addressed were: (i) What are the abnormalities of ANS in HF patients? (ii) What methods are available to measure autonomic dysfunction? (iii) What therapeutic interventions are available to target the ANS in patients with HF, and what are their specific strengths and weaknesses? (iv) What have we learned from previous ANS trials? (v) How should we proceed in the future?


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Cardiologia , Consenso , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Sociedades Médicas , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(5): 603-614, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28105791

RESUMO

A novel generation of drugs is introduced in the treatment of heart failure (HF). These drugs, including phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, guanylate cyclase stimulators and activators, share the feature that their action is either endothelial-mediated or substitutes for endothelial pathways, in particular the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway, thereby influencing homeostatic balances in virtually each organ system in a pleiotropic fashion. Unfortunately, recent clinical trials with some of these drugs have shown disappointing results, at least in the setting of HF with a preserved ejection fraction. This suggests that their clinical use may require approaches that diverge from traditional pharmacological approaches, the latter often titrated on the effects of drugs on haemodynamic parameters or single biomarkers. In this paper we preconize that HF drugs with an endothelial profile should be applied conform to principles of endothelial physiology and systems pharmacology. This type of drug therapy should be viewed as a systems physio-pharmacological intervention and its clinical use accustomed to systems pharmacological principles, comparable to the systemic endothelial-mediated benefits induced by exercise training in HF. We will review the actions of these drugs and define criteria to which trials with these drugs should comply in order to increase chances of success.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatação , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Volume Sistólico
11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 18(11): 1307-1320, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27813305

RESUMO

The left atrium plays an important role in the maintenance of cardiovascular and neurohumoral homeostasis in heart failure. However, with progressive left ventricular dysfunction, left atrial (LA) dilation and mechanical failure develop, which frequently culminate in atrial fibrillation. Moreover, LA mechanical failure is accompanied by LA endocrine failure [deficient atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) processing-synthesis/development of ANP resistance) and LA regulatory failure (dominance of sympathetic nervous system excitatory mechanisms, excessive vasopressin release) contributing to neurohumoral overactivity, vasoconstriction, and volume overload (global LA failure). The purpose of the present review is to describe the characteristics and emphasize the clinical significance of global LA failure in patients with heart failure.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fator Natriurético Atrial/metabolismo , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Vasoconstrição , Vasopressinas/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações
13.
Eur Heart J ; 36(31): 2050-2060, 2015 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25911648

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is an important global health problem with great socioeconomic burden. Outcomes remain sub-optimal. Endothelium-cardiomyocyte interactions play essential roles in cardiovascular homeostasis, and deranged endothelium-related signalling pathways have been implicated in the pathophysiology of HF. In particular, disturbances in nitric oxide (NO)-mediated pathway and neuregulin-mediated pathway have been shown to contribute to the development of HF. These signalling pathways hold the potential as pathophysiological targets for new HF therapies, and may aid in patient selection for future HF trials.

16.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 27(3): 273-80, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22327289

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure are common findings in patients suffering from heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension related to heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: HFpEF is a clinical syndrome with increasing prevalence and a mortality rate similar to heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Because the pathophysiology and even the definition of this disease are still controversial, we will first outline the current conceptual framework around heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Next, we will outline our current knowledge on the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension related to left ventricular failure and diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction induces pulmonary hypertension through passive transmission of elevated end diastolic pressures, reactive pulmonary vasoconstriction, and vascular remodeling. Eventually, right ventricular failure develops that can further potentiate left ventricular failure because of their close mechanical, cellular, and biochemical integration. SUMMARY: Exciting new studies have led to an increased understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and indicate that pulmonary hypertension in heart failure may be treatable.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Diástole , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Vasoconstrição
18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 13(1): 1-10, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21169385

RESUMO

The reductions in mortality and morbidity being achieved among cancer patients with current therapies represent a major achievement. However, given their mechanisms of action, many anti-cancer agents may have significant potential for cardiovascular side effects, including the induction of heart failure. The magnitude of this problem remains unclear and is not readily apparent from current clinical trials of emerging targeted agents, which generally under-represent older patients and those with significant co-morbidities. The risk of adverse events may also increase when novel agents, which frequently modulate survival pathways, are used in combination with each other or with other conventional cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. The extent to which survival and growth pathways in the tumour cell (which we seek to inhibit) coincide with those in cardiovascular cells (which we seek to preserve) is an open question but one that will become ever more important with the development of new cancer therapies that target intracellular signalling pathways. It remains unclear whether potential cardiovascular problems can be predicted from analyses of such basic signalling mechanisms and what pre-clinical evaluation should be undertaken. The screening of patients, optimization of therapeutic schemes, monitoring of cardiovascular function during treatment, and the management of cardiovascular side effects are likely to become increasingly important in cancer patients. This paper summarizes the deliberations of a cross-disciplinary workshop organized by the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology (held in Brussels in May 2009), which brought together clinicians working in cardiology and oncology and those involved in basic, translational, and pharmaceutical science.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Cardiologia/normas , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Cardiotoxinas , Educação , Receptores ErbB/efeitos dos fármacos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Sirolimo/antagonistas & inibidores , Trastuzumab
20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 12(3): 239-48, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20156940

RESUMO

AIMS: Acute heart failure (AHF) has a poor prognosis. We evaluated 3- and 12-month mortality in different clinical classes of AHF patients from 30 European countries who were included in the EuroHeart Failure Survey (EHFS) II. METHODS AND RESULTS: Follow-up data were available for 2981 AHF patients, of these 62% had a history of chronic HF. One-year mortality after discharge was lower in patients with de novo AHF when compared with acutely decompensated chronic HF (ADCHF), 16.4 vs. 23.2% (P < 0.001). Cardiogenic shock conferred the highest cumulative 1-year mortality (52.9%) as a result of in-hospital mortality of 39.3%. Long-term prognosis in decompensated AHF was also dismal. Hypertensive HF was associated with the lowest mortality (13.7% at 1 year). Age, prior myocardial infarction, creatinine level, and low plasma sodium were independently associated with mortality during the whole follow-up period. Diabetes, anaemia, and history of chronic HF were associated with worse and hypertension with better long-term survival. History of cerebrovascular disease was associated with worse short-term outcome. CONCLUSION: Early and late mortality differ between de novo AHF and ADCHF and between clinical classes of AHF. EHFS II identifies clinical risk markers and demonstrates the importance of a thorough characterization of AHF populations according to history and clinical presentation.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Intervalos de Confiança , Coleta de Dados , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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