Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 608
Filtrar
1.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First responder populations, such as emergency services and the military, report elevated levels of mental health problems. Although post-deployment or post-incident psychosocial support interventions are widely implemented within these services, its effectiveness in preventing the development of mental disorders is unclear. AIMS: To systematically assess which, if any, post-deployment or post-incident psychosocial interventions are effective at preventing the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and common mental disorders (CMD) amongst military and emergency service worker (ESW) settings. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching four databases for any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled trials of post-deployment or post-incident interventions. The primary outcomes assessed were differences in symptoms of PTSD and CMD. Study quality was examined using the Downs and Black checklist. Pooled effect sizes and 95% CI were calculated using random-effects modelling for main meta-analyses, planned subgroup and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: From 317 articles, seven RCTs were included in the final meta-analysis. Interventions identified included psychological debriefing, screening, stress education, team-based skills training and a peer-delivered risk assessment. A very small but significant effect was found for team-based skills training in reducing CMD symptoms. Some evidence was also found for team cohesion training in reducing both PTSD and CMD. CONCLUSIONS: Limited evidence was found for post-deployment or post-incident psychosocial interventions within military and ESW populations. More high-quality studies, particularly among ESW settings, are urgently needed to determine how to better prevent the development of trauma related disorders after exposure.

2.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is heritable and a potential consequence of exposure to traumatic stress. Evidence suggests that a quantitative approach to PTSD phenotype measurement and incorporation of lifetime trauma exposure (LTE) information could enhance the discovery power of PTSD genome-wide association studies (GWASs). METHODS: A GWAS on PTSD symptoms was performed in 51 cohorts followed by a fixed-effects meta-analysis (N = 182,199 European ancestry participants). A GWAS of LTE burden was performed in the UK Biobank cohort (N = 132,988). Genetic correlations were evaluated with linkage disequilibrium score regression. Multivariate analysis was performed using Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS. Functional mapping and annotation of leading loci was performed with FUMA. Replication was evaluated using the Million Veteran Program GWAS of PTSD total symptoms. RESULTS: GWASs of PTSD symptoms and LTE burden identified 5 and 6 independent genome-wide significant loci, respectively. There was a 72% genetic correlation between PTSD and LTE. PTSD and LTE showed largely similar patterns of genetic correlation with other traits, albeit with some distinctions. Adjusting PTSD for LTE reduced PTSD heritability by 31%. Multivariate analysis of PTSD and LTE increased the effective sample size of the PTSD GWAS by 20% and identified 4 additional loci. Four of these 9 PTSD loci were independently replicated in the Million Veteran Program. CONCLUSIONS: Through using a quantitative trait measure of PTSD, we identified novel risk loci not previously identified using prior case-control analyses. PTSD and LTE have a high genetic overlap that can be leveraged to increase discovery power through multivariate methods.

3.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1901408, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868475

RESUMO

Background: Most refugees are less than 18 years and at heightened risk of common mental disorders (CMDs) relative to other youth. Limited evidence exists for psychosocial programsfor youth in low-resource settings. Early Adolescent Skills for Emotions (EASE) was developed by the World Health Organization to address this gap. Objectives: This study tested the safety, feasibility, and trial procedures of the EASE intervention among Syrian refugee youth in preparation for a definitive randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods: A feasibility RCT was conducted in Amman, Jordan with Syrian children aged 10-14 years who reported psychological distress. Following community screening, youth and their caregivers were randomized to receive either the EASE intervention or enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU). EASE comprised seven group sessions teaching children coping skills, and caregivers received three group sessions to augment the youth sessions. Assessments were conducted at baseline and 1 week following the last EASE session (8 weeks following baseline). Following the trial, a qualitative process evaluation with staff and beneficiaries took place. Primary outcomes were safety and feasibility indicators, and distress was measured by the Paediatric Symptom Checklist. Results: In November 2018, 179 children were screened; 61 (33%) met criteria for distress (34.1%), two were excluded for suicidal risk, and 59 were randomized (EASE = 33, ETAU = 26). Of those who received EASE, 26 children (79%) completed the intervention. Group attendance was high and no adverse events were reported in either arm. Psychological distress did not show signs of abating in either group over time. Conclusion: This feasibility trial demonstrated the safety and acceptability of the intervention. Important lessons were learnt regarding entry criteria into the study and engagement of caregivers in the intervention. A fully powered randomized controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of EASE.

4.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1997173, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868488

RESUMO

Background: Refugees may be especially vulnerable to the adverse effects of COVID-19. Therefore it is critical that refugee communities are supported to access COVID-19 vaccines and for public health responses to address vaccine hesitancy. Objective: To investigate the key demographic factors, barriers and attitudes associated with vaccine hesitancy in a community sample of refugees. Method: Participants in the Refugee Adjustment Study, a cohort of refugees living in Australia, were invited to complete a survey about their COVID-19 vaccine intentions, barriers to access and attitudes relating to the vaccine. Results: Of the 516 participants, 88% were unvaccinated and 28.1% were classed as vaccine hesitant. Key predictors of vaccine hesitancy were younger age, information and trust barriers, lower logistical barriers, and attitudes relating to low control and risk posed by COVID-19. Conclusions: Findings suggest that public health strategies need to address trust, control and risk perception attitudes to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake in resettled refugee communities.

5.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 91: 102100, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871868

RESUMO

Military service is associated with increased risk of mental health problems. Previous reviews have pointed to under-utilization of mental health services in military populations. Building on the most recent systematic review, our narrative, critical review takes a complementary approach and considers research across the Five-Eyes nations from the past six years to update and broaden the discussion on pathways to mental healthcare in military populations. We find that at a broad population level, there is improvement in several indicators of mental health care access, with greater gains in initial engagement, time to first treatment contact, and subjective satisfaction with care, and smaller gains in objective indicators of adequacy of care. Among individual-level barriers to care-seeking, there is progress in improving recognition of need for care and reducing stigma concerns. Among organizational-level barriers, there are advances in availability of services and cultural acceptance of care-seeking. Other barriers, such as concerns around confidentiality, career impact, and deployability persist, however, and may account for some remaining unmet need. To address these barriers, new initiatives that are more evidence-based, theoretically-driven, and culturally-sensitive, are therefore needed, and must be rigorously evaluated to ensure they bring about additional improvements in pathways to care.

6.
Psychother Psychosom ; : 1-10, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34875669

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and depression have increased markedly during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a lack of evidence-based strategies to address these mental health needs during the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: We aim to conduct a proof-of-concept trial of the efficacy of a brief group-based psychological intervention delivered via videoconferencing for adults in Australia distressed by the pandemic. METHODS: In this single-blind, parallel, randomised controlled trial, adults who screened positive for COVID-related psychological distress across Australia were randomly allocated to either a 6-session group-based program based on behavioural principles (n = 120) or enhanced usual care (EUC, n = 120). Primary outcome was total score on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HADS) anxiety and depression subscales assessed at baseline, 1 week posttreatment, 2 months (primary outcome time point), and 6 months after treatment, as well as secondary outcome measures of worry, sleep impairment, anhedonia, mood, and COVID-19-related stress. RESULTS: Between May 20, 2020, and October 20, 2020, 240 patients were enrolled into the trial. Relative to EUC, at 2 months participants receiving intervention showed greater reduction on anxiety (mean difference, 1.4 [95% CI, 0.3 to 2.6], p = 0.01; effect size, 0.4 [95% CI, 0.1 to 0.7]) and depression (mean difference, 1.6 [95% CI, 0.4 to 2.8], p = 0.009; effect size, 0.4 [95% CI, 0.2 to 0.7]) scales. These effects were maintained at 6 months. There were also greater reductions of worry, anhedonia, COVID-19-related fears, and contamination fears. CONCLUSIONS: This trial provides initial evidence that brief group-based behavioural intervention delivered via videoconferencing results in moderate reductions in common psychological problems arising during the COVID-19 pandemic. This program may offer a viable and scalable means to mitigate the rising mental health problems during the pandemic.

7.
BJU Int ; 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test feasibility of randomisation to radical prostatectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy (RP) in addition to standard-of-care (SOC) systemic therapy in men with newly diagnosed oligo-metastatic prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective, randomised, non-blinded, feasibility clinical trial with an embedded QuinteT Recruitment Intervention (QRI) to optimise recruitment was conducted in nine tertiary-care nationwide centres undertaking high-volume robotic surgery. We aimed to randomise 50 men with synchronous oligo-metastatic prostate cancer within an 18-month recruitment period to SOC systemic therapy versus SOC plus RP (intervention arm). The main outcome measures were: ability to randomise participants, optimised by a QRI. EQ-5D-5L questionnaires to capture quality-of-life (QOL) data at baseline and three months post-randomisation; routine clinico-pathological assessment to capture adverse events and prostate-specific antigen in both arms, plus standard peri-operative parameters in the surgical arm. RESULTS: 51 men were randomised within 14 months (one was subsequently deemed ineligible), with 60-83% accrual rate in centres that recruited at least two participants. All participants completed the trial follow-up; one participant in the intervention arm subsequently did not undergo the surgical intervention and one in the SOC arm refused all therapies. The QRI positively impacted recruitment. QOL data showed similarly high functioning in both study arms. Surgery for men with oligo-metastatic prostate cancer was found to be safe and had similar impact on early functional outcomes as surgery for standard indication. DISCUSSION: It is feasible to randomise men with synchronous oligo-metastatic prostate cancer to a surgical intervention in addition to standard systemic therapies. While surgery appeared safe with no substantial impact on QOL in this feasibility study, a large randomised controlled trial is now warranted to examine treatment effectiveness of this additional component in the multi-modality management of oligo-metastatic prostate cancer.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260726, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855850

RESUMO

Mental health disorders represent an enormous cost to society, are related to economic outcomes, and have increased markedly since the COVID-19 outbreak. Economic activity contracted dramatically on a global scale in 2020, representing the worst crisis since the Great Depression. This study used the COVID Impact Survey to provide insights on the interactions of mental illness and economic uncertainty during COVID-19. We used a probability-based panel survey, COVID Impact Survey, conducted in the U.S. over three waves in the period April-June 2020. The survey covered individual information on employment, economic and financial uncertainty, mental and physical health, as well as other demographic information. The prevalence of moderate mental distress was measured using a Psychological Distress Scale, a 5-item scale that is scored on a 4-point scale (total range: 0-15). The mental distress effect of employment, economic, and financial uncertainty, was assessed in a logit regression analysis conditioning for demographic and health information. It is found that employment, health coverage, social security, and food provision uncertainty are additional stressors for mental health. These economic factors work in addition to demographic effects, where groups who display increased risk for psychological distress include: women, Hispanics, and those in poor physical health. A decrease in employment and increases in economic uncertainty are associated with a doubling of common mental disorders. The population-representative survey evidence presented strongly suggests that economic policies which support employment (e.g., job keeping, job search support, stimulus spending) provide not only economic security but also constitute a major health intervention. Moving forward, the economic uncertainty effect ought to be reflected in community level intervention and prevention efforts, which should include strengthening economic support to reduce financial and economic strain.

9.
J Psychiatr Res ; 146: 1-10, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933168

RESUMO

Exposure to potentially traumatic events and post-migration living difficulties (PMLDs) may explain the high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in resettled refugees. Latent class analyses (LCAs) in refugees have identified subgroups that differ in symptom profiles of PTSD and comorbid symptoms. However, knowledge on longitudinal symptom profiles in refugees is sparse. Examining longitudinal PTSD and depression symptom profiles could provide information on risk factors underlying worsening of symptoms post-resettlement. Self-rated PTSD (Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale) and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) symptoms were assessed among 613 refugees who had resettled in Australia up to two years previously (W1) and at 6 months follow-up (W2). PTSD and depression symptom profiles were identified using LCAs for W1 and W2 separately. Latent transition analysis was used to examine (predictors of) changes in symptom profiles, including gender, age, trauma exposure, and PMLDs. Four classes were identified that were consistent across timepoints: a No symptoms (W1 61%; W2 68%), Low PTSD/Moderate depression (W1 16%; W2 10%), Moderate PTSD/depression (W1 16%; W2 14%), and High symptoms class (W1 7%; W2 7%). Higher levels of problems with PMLDs, including being discrimination and family separation, predicted movements out of the No symptom class at W1 to classes with psychopathology at W2. To conclude, most participants did not develop PTSD or depression symptoms. The risk of developing these symptoms seems higher when problems with interpersonal PMLDs increased, pointing to the need for considering these stressors when addressing the mental health needs in this population.

10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 637, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916497

RESUMO

The volume of subcortical structures represents a reliable, quantitative, and objective phenotype that captures genetic effects, environmental effects such as trauma, and disease effects such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma and PTSD represent potent exposures that may interact with genetic markers to influence brain structure and function. Genetic variants, associated with subcortical volumes in two large normative discovery samples, were used to compute polygenic scores (PGS) for the volume of seven subcortical structures. These were applied to a target sample enriched for childhood trauma and PTSD. Subcortical volume PGS from the discovery sample were strongly associated in our trauma/PTSD enriched sample (n = 7580) with respective subcortical volumes of the hippocampus (p = 1.10 × 10-20), thalamus (p = 7.46 × 10-10), caudate (p = 1.97 × 10-18), putamen (p = 1.7 × 10-12), and nucleus accumbens (p = 1.99 × 10-7). We found a significant association between the hippocampal volume PGS and hippocampal volume in control subjects from our sample, but was absent in individuals with PTSD (GxE; (beta = -0.10, p = 0.027)). This significant GxE (PGS × PTSD) relationship persisted (p < 1 × 10-19) in four out of five threshold peaks (0.024, 0.133, 0.487, 0.730, and 0.889) used to calculate hippocampal volume PGSs. We detected similar GxE (G × ChildTrauma) relationships in the amygdala for exposure to childhood trauma (rs4702973; p = 2.16 × 10-7) or PTSD (rs10861272; p = 1.78 × 10-6) in the CHST11 gene. The hippocampus and amygdala are pivotal brain structures in mediating PTSD symptomatology. Trauma exposure and PTSD modulate the effect of polygenic markers on hippocampal volume (GxE) and the amygdala volume PGS is associated with PTSD risk, which supports the role of amygdala volume as a risk factor for PTSD.

11.
Neuroimage Clin ; 32: 102902, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficits in emotional processing are conceptualized in prevailing models of anxiety to underpin key symptoms of panic disorder (PD). Neuroimaging studies show evidence of aberrant neural functioning in PD patients during emotional processing, however little is understood about how non-conscious emotional processing impacts neural processes. METHOD: We examined activation and functional connectivity differences in brain regions involved in emotional processing between PD and healthy controls (HC) during subliminal and supraliminal presentations of facial emotions. Twenty-two PD and 33 HC participants were shown happy, sad, neutral, fear, anger and disgust facial expressions during functional magnetic resonance imaging using a 3T MRI scanner. We performed voxelwise ROI analyses at FWE-corrected p < 0.05 for main effects of group and group*emotion interactions. RESULTS: There was less pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) activation to subliminal presentations of happy and sad faces in PD compared to HC participants (group*emotion). In addition, PD patients had less pgACC - right amygdala connectivity than HC participants during sad and fear subliminal processing (group*emotion). PD patients also exhibited lower right cerebellum activity across all supraliminal presentations of facial expressions compared to HC. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that there is aberrant neural processing in PD patients during both conscious and preconscious processing of both positive and negative stimuli, suggesting impaired recruitment of implicit regulatory networks during affective processing. It appears that PD patients may experience deficits in key regulatory connections between inhibitory and emotional neural networks at very early stages of processing of negative affective states.

12.
Depress Anxiety ; 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A common feature of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) is impulsivity. Despite the importance of this characteristic in functional difficulties in CPTSD, little is known about its mechanisms. The aim of this study was to identify the distinctive neural profile of CPTSD during attempted inhibition. METHODS: The present study examined functional alterations in neural networks involved in inhibitory control across functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) paradigms in CPTSD (n = 30), PTSD (n = 40), and healthy control (n = 40) participants who completed a Go/NoGo response inhibition task during separate fMRI and EEG sessions. Brain activations were calculated during the NoGo trials relative to the baseline to evaluate response inhibition functioning. RESULTS: There was reduced bilateral thalamic activation in participants with CPTSD relative to PTSD and controls during inhibition trials, but no activation differences between PTSD and controls for this brain region. There were no differences in functional connectivity between the thalamus and other regions involved in cognitive control between groups. No differences were observed between groups on EEG responses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide initial evidence of aberrant functioning in the neurocircuitry of inhibitory control, involving the thalamus, in CPTSD. This evidence suggests that CPTSD is distinguished from PTSD by impaired neural processes implicated in response inhibition.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 584, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775464

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that activating the attachment system attenuates fear learning. This study aimed to explore whether attachment priming can also impact on fear extinction processes, which underpin the management of anxiety disorders. In this study, 81 participants underwent a standard fear conditioning and extinction protocol on day 1 and returned 24 h later for an extinction recall and reinstatement test. Half the participants were primed to imagine their closest attachment figure prior to undergoing extinction training, while the other half were instructed to imagine a positive situation. Fear-potentiated startle and subjective expectancies of shock were measured as the primary indicators of fear. Attachment priming led to less relapse during the reinstatement test at the physiological but not subjective levels. These findings have translational potential to imply that activating awareness of attachment figures might augment long-term safety memories acquired in existing treatments to reduce relapse of fear.

14.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1991651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777714

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased anxiety and depression around the world. Refugees may be particularly vulnerable to the mental health effects of the pandemic because of their higher rates of mental health disorders, trauma histories, and daily stressors. Objectives: This study used data from a controlled trial of a brief behavioural intervention for psychological distress in Syrian refugees living in Azraq Camp in Jordan to examine the psychological effects of the pandemic on refugee mental health. Method: A total of 410 participants were randomized to either the intervention or control arms of the trial and were assessed at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Half the sample (199; 48.5%) completed their 3-month follow-up assessment after the pandemic restrictions began in Jordan and 211 (51.5%) completed the assessment prior to the pandemic. Refugees were independently assessed for symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression at baseline and follow-up, and pandemic-related worries were assessed at follow-up for those who completed their assessment during the pandemic. Results: The most commonly reported worries were economic difficulties (82.4%), shortage of essential supplies (71.3%), and infecting others (59.7%) or themselves (51.9%). Refugees who were assessed during the pandemic had less severe PTSD symptoms than those assessed prior to the pandemic. Significant predictors of pandemic-related worries were lower levels of depression prior to the pandemic and greater anxiety during the pandemic. Conclusion: These findings highlight the specific needs of refugees during the pandemic and suggest that pre-existing mental health issues may not necessarily be the key risk factors for who will experience major mental health issues or worries during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Refugiados , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Angústia Psicológica , Refugiados/psicologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Síria/etnologia
15.
Depress Anxiety ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To address shortages of mental health specialists in low- and middle-income countries, task-shifting approaches have been employed to train nonspecialists to deliver evidence-based scalable psychosocial interventions. Problem Management Plus (PM+) is a brief transdiagnostic nontrauma focused intervention for people affected by adversity. This study reports on the capacity of PM+ to address specific symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Individual patient data from three randomised controlled trials were combined and analysed to observe the impacts of PM+ (n = 738) or enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU) (n = 742) interventions on specific PTSD symptoms at posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. The PTSD-Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) was used to index PTSD symptoms, and presence of each symptom was defined as moderate severity (score ≥ 2 on individual items). RESULTS: The average PCL-5 score at baseline was 26.1 (SD: 16.8) with 463 (31.3%) scoring above 33, indicative of a diagnosis of PTSD. Following intervention, 12.5% and 5.8% of participants retained a score greater than 33 at postassessment and follow-up, respectively. There was greater symptom reduction for PM+ than for ETAU for most symptoms. Hyperarousal symptoms were the most common residual symptoms after PM+, with more than 30% of participants reporting persistent sleep disturbance, concentration difficulties, and anger. CONCLUSION: PM+ led to greater reduction in symptoms relating to re-experiencing and avoidance. The evidence indicates that strategies focusing on hyperarousal symptoms including sleep, concentration, and anger difficulties, could be strengthened in this brief intervention.

16.
Psychol Trauma ; 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary aims of this study were to identify latent profiles of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms and to evaluate postconcussive symptom differences across the identified profiles as measured by the Acute Stress Disorder Scale and the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation, respectively. METHOD: Participants (N = 315) in the current study were predominantly active-duty (75.0%), enlisted (97.8%) males (97.4%) serving in the U.S. Army (87.8%). Approximately, half of the sample reported being married or engaged (51.1%) and was on average 25.94 (SD = 6.31) years old. Participants were referred to the Air Force Theater Hospital, 332nd Air Expeditionary Wing, Joint Base Balad, Iraq, to be evaluated as part of routine clinical assessment for neurocognitive and psychological symptoms following exposure to a blast. RESULTS: A 3-profile solution was identified as the most parsimonious and best-fitting model based on statistical model fit indices. Blast injured service members in Profile 3 had greater ASD total and subscale severity compared to the other 2 subgroups, with effect size estimates largely differing by hyperarousal and reexperiencing symptoms. Furthermore, Profiles 2 and 3 were more likely to demonstrate postconcussive symptoms compared to Profile 1. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide novel information on heterogenous ASD symptom profiles during the acute phase following a blast injury and highlight the relationship between psychological and physical symptoms. Classification of blast-injured service members may help identify at-risk individuals who would benefit from further clinical care and mitigate long-term psychological and neurocognitive issues. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

17.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 1138-1150, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We report results of an internet-based field study evaluating the diagnostic guidelines for ICD-11 mood disorders. Accuracy of clinicians' diagnostic judgments applying draft ICD-11 as compared to the ICD-10 guidelines to standardized case vignettes was assessed as well as perceived clinical utility. METHODS: 1357 clinician members of the World Health Organization's Global Clinical Practice Network completed the study in English, Spanish, Japanese or Russian. Participants were randomly assigned to apply ICD-11 or ICD-10 guidelines to one of eleven pairs of case vignettes. RESULTS: Clinicians using the ICD-11 and ICD-10 guidelines achieved similar levels of accuracy in diagnosing mood disorders depicted in vignettes. Those using the ICD-11 were more accurate in identifying depressive episode in recurrent depressive disorder. There were no statistically significant differences detected across classifications in the accuracy of identifying dysthymic or cyclothymic disorder. Circumscribed problems with the proposed ICD-11 guidelines were identified including difficulties differentiating bipolar type I from bipolar type II disorder and applying revised severity ratings to depressive episodes. Clinical utility of ICD-11 bipolar disorders was found to be significantly lower than for ICD-10 equivalent categories. LIMITATIONS: Standardized case vignettes were manipulated to evaluate specific changes. The degree of accuracy of clinicians' diagnostic judgments may not reflect clinical decision-making with patients. CONCLUSIONS: Alignment of the ICD-11 with current research appears to have been achieved without sacrificing diagnostic accuracy or clinical utility though specific training may be necessary as ICD-11 is implemented worldwide. Areas in which the ICD-11 guidelines did not perform as intended resulted in further revisions.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Humanos , Julgamento , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Federação Russa
18.
BJPsych Open ; 7(6): e198, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between irritability as a subjective experience and the behavioural indicators typically used to measure the construct are not known. Its links to mood, and contextual relationships, vary with age and are yet to be thoroughly examined. AIMS: First, to interrogate the relationship between the subjective experience of irritability and mood, and that with its behavioural indicators. Second, to determine how these relationships vary with age and over time. METHOD: This study examined data from a previous clinical trial of adolescents and young adults (N = 82) with bipolar disorder, who received a psychological intervention over 18 months. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires, which included assessments of irritability. Analyses of covariance were conducted to examine the interaction between mood symptoms, subjective measures of irritability, behavioural measures of irritability and age over time. RESULTS: Subjective irritability scores differed significantly over time when controlling for manic, but not depressive, symptom scores. Further, subjective irritability significantly differed when controlling for behavioural measures of irritability (temper outbursts and argumentativeness). There were significant interactions between scores of depressive symptoms, temper outbursts and subjective irritability with age, wherein younger participants showed no correlation between depressive symptoms and temper outbursts. In addition, younger participants showed lower correlations between subjective irritability and both depressive and temper outburst scores, than older participants. CONCLUSIONS: Subjective irritability is linked to mood morbidity and behavioural outbursts, and these relationships are contingent on age. Our novel findings suggest that subjective irritability should be assessed in greater detail in patients with mood disorders.

19.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(11): 1131-1137, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency service personnel experience elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There are few controlled trials for PTSD in this population, and none report longer term effects of treatment. This study evaluated the benefits of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for PTSD in emergency service personnel who received either brief exposure (CBT-B) to trauma memories or prolonged exposure (CBT-L) 2 years following treatment. METHODS: One hundred emergency service personnel with PTSD were randomized to CBT-L, CBT-B, or Wait-List (WL). Following posttreatment assessment, WL participants were randomized to an active treatment. Participants randomized to CBT-L or CBT-B were assessed at baseline, posttreatment, 6-month, and 2-year follow-up. Both CBT conditions involved 12 weekly individual sessions comprising education, CBT skills building, imaginal exposure, in vivo exposure, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention. Reliving trauma memories occurred for 40 min per session in CBT-L and for 10 min in CBT-B. RESULTS: At the 2-year follow-up, there were no differences in PTSD severity (Clinician Administered PTSD Scale) between CBT-L and CBT-B. There were very large effect sizes for CBT-L (1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90-1.64) and CBT-B (1.28, 95% CI = 0.05-1.63) from baseline to 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that CBT can be an effective treatment of PTSD in emergency service personnel using either prolonged or brief periods of reliving the trauma memory, and that these benefits can last for at least 2 years after treatment.

20.
J Psychosom Res ; 150: 110615, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Problem anger and poor sleep are common, particularly in military and veteran populations, but the nature of the relationship is poorly understood, and treatment approaches would benefit from improved understanding of how these constructs interact. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is suitable for monitoring day-to-day fluctuations in symptoms, and modelling dynamic relationships between variables. METHODS: This study aimed to examine these fluctuations and relationships involving sleep quality and anger experiences among veterans. A sample of n = 60 veterans with problem anger as assessed by the recommended cut off on the Dimensions of Anger Reactions 5 scale (DAR-5) completed daily assessments of sleep quality and four times daily assessments of anger frequency, over a 10-day period. RESULTS: A Dynamic Structural Equation Model (DESM) estimated and revealed a unidirectional relationship across daily measurements, in that previous night poor sleep quality was associated with more frequent anger on the next day (φASi Estimate -0.791, one-tailed p = .075), but not the reverse. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first longitudinal, naturalistic findings in relation to anger and sleep in a sample self-identifying with significant anger problems. The observed patterns point to the need for further research on mechanisms underpinning this relationship, and raises potential for early intervention for problem anger to include a focus on improving sleep quality.


Assuntos
Veteranos , Ira , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Sono
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...