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2.
J Surg Res ; 256: 636-644, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diversifying the surgical workforce is a critical component of improving care for underserved patients. To recruit surgeons from diverse backgrounds, we must understand how medical students choose their specialty. We investigate how preclinical students contemplate entering a surgical field. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted semistructured focus groups during two iterations of a seminar class called Service Through Surgery. Discussion goals included identifying student values and assessing how they inform early career decisions. We used a systematic, collaborative, and iterative process for transcript analysis, including developing a codebook, assessing inter-rater reliability, and analyzing themes. RESULTS: Twenty-four preclinical medical students from diverse backgrounds participated in seven focus groups; most were women (16; 67%), in their first year of medical school (19; 79%), and interested in surgery (17; 71%). Participants ranked professional fulfillment, spending time with family, and serving their communities and/or underserved populations among their most important values and agreed that conducting groundbreaking research, working long hours, and finding time for leisure activities were the least important. We constructed a framework to describe student responses surrounding their diverse visions for service in future surgical careers through individual doctoring interactions, roles in academia, and broader public service. CONCLUSIONS: Our framework provides a basis for greater understanding and study of the ways in which preclinical medical students think about their personal values and visions for service in potential future surgical careers. This research can guide early interventions in medical education to promote diversity and care for the underserved in surgery.

3.
Am J Surg ; 219(6): 918-925, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased surgical workforce diversity diminishes health disparities. METHODS: Researchers recruited and nonrandomly enrolled participants into intervention and comparison groups for a quasi-experimental study of the impact of a seminar course on student exposure to diverse mentorship and service through surgery. All metrics were analyzed with chi-squared and paired t-tests. RESULTS: 109 students participated (34 intervention, 75 comparison). There were significant differences in the percentage of participants that newly met a surgeon of their race (intervention, comparison: 100%, 25%), their race and gender (80%, 21%), their religion (23%, 9%), and who completed health disparities research (90%, 45%, p-value for all <0.05). There was a nonsignificant change in participants' attitudes towards underserved populations in intervention and comparison groups. CONCLUSIONS: This preclinical surgery seminar course increased exposure of underrepresented students to surgeons from diverse backgrounds and may impact student attitudes towards the underserved. This class represents a replicable model for increasing mentorship.


Assuntos
Atitude , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Mentores , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
AIDS Behav ; 24(1): 344, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214865

RESUMO

The article Association of Male Circumcision with Women's Knowledge of its Biomedical Effects and With Their Sexual Satisfaction and Function: A Systematic Review, written by Jonathan M. Grund, Tyler S. Bryant, Carlos Toledo, Inimfon Jackson, Kelly Curran, Sheng Zhou, Jorge Martin del Campo, Ling Yang, Apollo Kivumbi, Peizi Li, Naomi Bock, Joanna Taliano, Stephanie M. Davis was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 24 October 2018 without open access.

5.
Int J Hypertens ; 2019: 2137629, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906589

RESUMO

Flavin containing monooxygenase 3 [FMO3] encodes dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 3, which breaks down nitrogen-containing compounds, and has been implicated in blood pressure regulation. Studies have reported conflicting results of the association of a common nonsynonymous variant, E158K (rs2266782), with hypertension. We examined the associations of E158K, along with rare and low frequency exonic variants (minor allele frequency [MAF]<5%) in FMO3 with hypertension, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). We included 7,350 European Americans and 2,814 African Americans in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study with exome sequencing of FMO3. The association of FMO3 variants with SBP and DBP was tested using single variant and gene-based tests followed by the replication or interrogation of significant variants in ancestry-specific cohorts based on Bonferroni corrected thresholds. E158K had significant association with higher SBP in African Americans in ARIC (p=0.03), and two low frequency variants had significant association with higher SBP in African Americans (rs200985584, MAF 0.1%, p=0.0003) and European Americans (rs75904274, MAF 1.7%, p=0.006). These associations were not significant with additional samples: E158K in a meta-analysis of SBP of African ancestry (N=30,841, p=0.43) that included ARIC participants and the two low frequency variants in an independent ancestry-specific exome sequencing study of blood pressure (rs200985584, p=0.94; rs75904274, p=0.81). Our study does not support the association of E158K and low frequency variants in FMO3 with blood pressure and demonstrates the importance of replication in genetic studies.

6.
AIDS Behav ; 23(5): 1104-1114, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357642

RESUMO

Male circumcision (MC) is a key HIV prevention intervention for men in countries with high HIV prevalence. Women's understanding of MC is important but poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review including women's knowledge of MC's biomedical impacts and its association with female sexual satisfaction and function through October 2017. Thirty-eight articles were identified: thirty-two with knowledge outcomes, seven with sexual satisfaction, and four with sexual function (N = 38). Respondent proportions aware MC protects men from HIV were 9.84-91.8% (median 60.0%). Proportions aware MC protects men from STIs were 14.3-100% (72.6%). Proportions aware MC partially protects men from HIV were 37.5-82% (50.7%). Proportions aware MC is not proven to protect women from infection by an HIV-positive partner were 90.0-96.8% (93.0%). No increases over time were noted. Women's MC knowledge is variable. Education could help women support MC and make better-informed sexual decisions.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina , Coito/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Circuncisão Masculina/educação , Circuncisão Masculina/psicologia , Circuncisão Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(8): 1296-1302, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal cancer incidence is rapidly rising due to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 infection. The dearth of data on effectiveness of national female-only vaccination programs in preventing oral HPV infection and potential herd immunity in unvaccinated males has resulted in considerable controversy regarding the need to vaccinate males, especially in countries with high female vaccination coverage. METHODS: Subjects aged 0-65 years undergoing tonsillectomy for nonmalignant indications were recruited in 6 hospitals in the United Kingdom. Oral samples were collected as follows: oral rinse, tongue base, and pharyngeal wall brushes, then tonsil tissue (tonsillectomy). Vaccination data were obtained from regional health authorities. All samples were centrally tested for HPV DNA by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Of 940 subjects, 243 females and 69 males were aged 12-24 years (median age, 18.6 years), with 189 (78%) females and no males vaccinated against HPV. Overall, oropharyngeal HPV-16 prevalence was significantly lower in vaccinated versus unvaccinated females (0.5% vs 5.6%, P = .04). In contrast, prevalence of any oropharyngeal HPV type was similar in vaccinated and unvaccinated females (19% vs 20%, P = .76). Oropharyngeal HPV-16 prevalence in unvaccinated males was similar to vaccinated females (0% vs 0.5%, P > .99), and lower than unvaccinated females (0% vs 5.6%, P = .08). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the UK female-only vaccination program is associated with significant reductions in oropharyngeal HPV-16 infections. These are also the first data to suggest potential herd immunity from female-only vaccination against oropharyngeal HPV infection in contemporaneously aged males.


Assuntos
Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Imunidade Coletiva , Programas de Imunização , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 18(1): 246, 2018 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few objective tests can be performed at admission for kidney transplantation [KT] to discern risk of increased length of stay [LOS], which is important for patient counseling and is associated with increased costs and mortality. The short physical performance battery [SPPB] is an easily administered, potentially modifiable, 3-part test of lower extremity function. SPPB score is associated with longer hospital LOS in older adults, and may provide similar utility in KT recipients given that ESRD is a disease of accelerated aging. The aim of this study was to characterize the association between SPPB-derived lower extremity function and LOS. METHODS: The SPPB was administered at KT admission in a prospective cohort of 595 recipients (8/2009-6/2016). The independent association between SPPB impairment (score ≤ 10) and LOS was tested with an adjusted conventional generalized gamma parametric survival model. RESULTS: Impaired recipients experienced longer LOS (median: 10 vs. 8 days; P <  0.001) with the greatest difference in percent discharged on day 10 (impaired: 54.5%, unimpaired: 73.3%). Discharge typically took 13% longer in the impaired group (relative time = 1.13; 95%CI: 1.05, 1.21, P = 0.001). Discharge for impaired recipients compared to unimpaired was least likely at day 5 (hazard ratio = 0.71; 95% CI:0.68, 0.74, P <  0.001). No differences in the SPPB impairment-LOS relationship were found by age (interaction P = 0.74). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-KT SPPB impairment was independently associated with longer LOS regardless of age, indicating that it is a useful, objective tool for pre-KT risk assessment in younger and older recipients that may help inform discharge planning.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/tendências , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/tendências , Insuficiência Renal/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Extremidade Inferior/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Lancet Glob Health ; 5(11): e1113-e1122, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29025633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male circumcision reduces men's risk of acquiring HIV and some sexually transmitted infections from heterosexual exposure, and is essential for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies have also investigated associations between male circumcision and risk of acquisition of HIV and sexually transmitted infections in women. We aimed to review all evidence on associations between male circumcision and women's health outcomes to benefit women's health programmes. METHODS: In this systematic review we searched for peer-reviewed and grey literature publications reporting associations between male circumcision and women's health outcomes up to April 11, 2016. All biomedical (not psychological or social) outcomes in all study types were included. Searches were not restricted by year of publication, or to sub-Saharan Africa. Publications without primary data and not in English were excluded. We extracted data and assessed evidence on each outcome as high, medium, or low consistency on the basis of agreement between publications; outcomes found in fewer than three publications were indeterminate consistency. FINDINGS: 60 publications were included in our assessment. High-consistency evidence was found for five outcomes, with male circumcision protecting against cervical cancer, cervical dysplasia, herpes simplex virus type 2, chlamydia, and syphilis. Medium-consistency evidence was found for male circumcision protecting against human papillomavirus and low-risk human papillomavirus. Although the evidence shows a protective association with HIV, it was categorised as low consistency, because one trial showed an increased risk to female partners of HIV-infected men resuming sex early after male circumcision. Seven outcomes including HIV had low-consistency evidence and six were indeterminate. INTERPRETATION: Scale-up of male circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa has public health implications for several outcomes in women. Evidence that female partners are at decreased risk of several diseases is highly consistent. Synergies between male circumcision and women's health programmes should be explored. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Jhpiego.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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