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1.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend routine preoperative frailty assessment for older people. However, the degree to which frailty instruments improve predictive accuracy when added to traditional risk factors is poorly described. Our objective was to measure the accuracy gained in predicting outcomes important to older patients when adding the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), Fried Phenotype (FP), or Frailty Index (FI) to traditional risk factors. METHODS: This was an analysis of a multicenter prospective cohort of elective noncardiac surgery patients ≥65 years of age. Each frailty instrument was prospectively collected. The added predictive performance of each frailty instrument beyond the baseline model (age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists' score, procedural risk) was estimated using likelihood ratio test, discrimination, calibration, explained variance, and reclassification. Outcomes analyzed included death or new disability, prolonged length of stay (LoS, >75th percentile), and adverse discharge (death or non-home discharge). RESULTS: We included 645 participants (mean age, 74 [standard deviation, 6]); 72 (11.2%) participants died or experienced a new disability, 164 (25.4%) had prolonged LoS, and 60 (9.2%) had adverse discharge. Compared to the baseline model predicting death or new disability (area under the curve [AUC], 0.67; R, 0.08, good calibration), prolonged LoS (AUC, 0.73; R, 0.18, good calibration), and adverse discharge (AUC, 0.78; R, 0.16, poor calibration), the CFS improved fit per the likelihood ratio test (P < .02 for death or new disability, <.001 for LoS, <.001 for discharge), discrimination (AUC = 0.71 for death or new disability, 0.76 for LoS, 0.82 for discharge), calibration (good for death or new disability, LoS, and discharge), explained variance (R = 0.11 for death or new disability, 0.22 for LoS, 0.25 for discharge), and reclassification (appropriate directional reclassification) for all outcomes. The FP improved discrimination and R for all outcomes, but to a lesser degree than the CFS. The FI improved discrimination for death or new disability and R for all outcomes, but to a lesser degree than the CFS and the FP. These results were consistent in internal validation. CONCLUSIONS: Frailty instruments provide meaningful increases in accuracy when predicting postoperative outcomes for older people. Compared to the FP and FI, the CFS appears to improve all measures of predictive performance to the greatest extent and across outcomes. Combined with previous research demonstrating that the CFS is easy to use and requires less time than the FP, clinicians should consider its use in preoperative practice.

2.
Anesthesiology ; 131(5): 1025-1035, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse outcomes and resource use rates are high after hip fracture surgery. Peripheral nerve blocks could improve outcomes through enhanced analgesia and decreased opioid related adverse events. We hypothesized that these benefits would translate into decreased resource use (length of stay [primary outcome] and costs), and better clinical outcomes (pneumonia and mortality). METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of hip fracture surgery patients in Ontario, Canada (2011 to 2015) using linked health administrative data. Multilevel regression, instrumental variable, and propensity scores were used to determine the association of nerve blocks with resource use and outcomes. RESULTS: The authors identified 65,271 hip fracture surgery patients; 10,030 (15.4%) received a block. With a block, the median hospital stay was 7 (interquartile range, 4 to 13) days versus 8 (interquartile range, 5 to 14) days without. Following adjustment, nerve blocks were associated with a 0.6-day decrease in length of stay (95% CI, 0.5 to 0.8). This small difference was consistent with instrumental variable (1.1 days; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.2) and propensity score (0.2 days; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.3) analyses. Costs were lower with a nerve block (adjusted difference, -$1,421; 95% CI, -$1,579 to -$1,289 [Canadian dollars]), but no difference in mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.11) or pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.16) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Receipt of nerve blocks for hip fracture surgery is associated with decreased length of stay and health system costs, although small effect sizes may not reflect clinical significance for length of stay.

6.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(7): 838-839, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877589
9.
Anesthesiology ; 129(6): 1121-1131, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273269

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: WHAT THIS MANUSCRIPT TELLS US THAT IS NEW: BACKGROUND:: Substantial variation in primary anesthesia type for hip fracture surgery exists. Previous work has demonstrated that patients cared for at hospitals using less than 20 to 25% neuraxial anesthesia have decreased survival. Therefore, the authors aimed to identify sources of variation in anesthesia type, considering patient-, anesthesiologist-, and hospital-level variables. METHODS: Following protocol registration (NCT02787031), the authors conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort using linked administrative data in Ontario, Canada. The authors identified all people greater than 65 yr of age who had emergency hip fracture surgery from April 2002 to March 2014. Generalized linear mixed models were used to account for hierarchal data and measure the adjusted association of hospital-, anesthesiologist-, and patient-level factors with neuraxial anesthesia use. The proportion of variation attributable to each level was estimated using variance partition coefficients and the median odds ratio for receipt of neuraxial anesthesia. RESULTS: Of 107,317 patients, 57,080 (53.2%) had a neuraxial anesthetic. The median odds ratio for receiving neuraxial anesthesia was 2.36 between randomly selected hospitals and 2.36 between randomly selected anesthesiologists. The majority (60.1%) of variation in neuraxial anesthesia use was explained by patient factors; 19.9% was attributable to the anesthesiologist providing care and 20.0% to the hospital where surgery occurred. The strongest patient-level predictors were absence of preoperative anticoagulant or antiplatelet agents, absence of obesity, and presence of pulmonary disease. CONCLUSIONS: While patient factors explain most of the variation in neuraxial anesthesia use for hip fracture surgery, 40% of variation is attributable to anesthesiologist and hospital-level practice. Efforts to change practice patterns will need to consider hospital-level processes and anesthesiologists' intentions and behaviors.

11.
Can J Anaesth ; 65(11): 1196-1209, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Audit and feedback can improve physicians' practice; however, the most effective type of feedback is unknown. Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is associated with postoperative complications and remains common despite the use of effective and safe warming devices. This study aimed to measure the impact of targeted audit and feedback on anesthesiologists' intraoperative temperature management and subsequent patient outcomes. METHODS: This study was a three-arm cluster randomized-controlled trial. Anesthesiologists' intraoperative temperature management performance was analyzed in two phases. The first was a baseline phase with audit but no feedback for eight months, followed by an intervention phase over the next seven-month period after participants had received interventions according to their randomized group allocation of no feedback (control), benchmarked feedback, or ranked feedback. Anesthesiologists' percentage of hypothermic patients at the end of surgery (primary endpoint) and use of a warming device were compared among the groups. RESULTS: Forty-five attending anesthesiologists who took care of 7,846 patients over 15 months were included. The odds of hypothermia (temperature < 36°C at the end of surgery) increased significantly from pre- to post-intervention in the control and ranked groups (control odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.56; P = 0.02; ranked OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.56; P = 0.04) but not in the benchmarked group (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.28; P = 0.58). Between-arm differences in pre- to post-intervention changes were not significant (benchmark vs control OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.10; P = 0.19; ranked vs control OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.33, P = 0.94). No significant overall effect on intraoperative warmer use change was detected. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence to suggest that audit and feedback, using benchmarked or ranked feedback, is more effective than no feedback at all to change anesthesiologists' intraoperative temperature management performance. Feedback may need to be included in a bundle to produce its effect. TRIALS REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02414191). Registered 19 March 2015.

12.
Ann Surg ; 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048320

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of the modified Fried Index (mFI) and the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) to predict death or patient-reported new disability 90 days after major elective surgery. BACKGROUND: The association of frailty with patient-reported outcomes, and comparisons between preoperative frailty instruments are poorly described. METHODS: This was a prospective multicenter cohort study. We determined frailty status in individuals ≥65 years having elective noncardiac surgery using the mFI and CFS. Outcomes included death or patient-reported new disability (primary); safety incidents, length of stay (LOS), and institutional discharge (secondary); ease of use, usefulness, benefit, clinical importance, and feasibility (tertiary). We measured the adjusted association of frailty with outcomes using regression analysis and compared true positive and false positive rates (TPR/FPR). RESULTS: Of 702 participants, 645 had complete follow up. The CFS identified 297 (42.3%) with frailty, the mFI 257 (36.6%); 72 (11.1%) died or experienced a new disability. Frailty was significantly associated with the primary outcome (CFS adjusted odds ratio, OR, 2.51, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.50-4.21; mFI adjusted-OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.57-4.31). TPR and FPR were not significantly different between instruments. Frailty was the only significant predictor of death or new disability in a multivariable analysis. Need for institutional discharge, costs and LOS were significantly increased in individuals with frailty. The CFS was easier to use, required less time and had less missing data. CONCLUSIONS: Older people with frailty are significantly more likely to die or experience a new patient-reported disability after surgery. Clinicians performing frailty assessments before surgery should consider the CFS over the mFI as accuracy was similar, but ease of use and feasibility were higher.

13.
BMJ Open ; 8(6): e022057, 2018 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29934394

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exercise prehabilitation may improve outcomes after surgery. Frailty is a key predictor of adverse postoperative outcomes in older people; the multidimensional nature of frailty makes this a population who may derive substantial benefit from exercise prehabilitation. The objective of this trial is to test the efficacy of exercise prehabilitation to improve postoperative functional outcomes for people living with frailty having cancer surgery with curative intent. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a single-centre, parallel-arm randomised controlled trial of home-based exercise prehabilitation versus standard care among consenting patients >60 years having elective cancer surgery (intra-abdominal and intrathoracic) and who are frail (Clinical Frailty Scale >4). The intervention consists of > 3 weeks of exercise prehabilitation (strength, aerobic and stretching). The primary outcome is the 6 min walk test at the first postoperative clinic visit. Secondary outcomes include the short physical performance battery, health-related quality of life, disability-free survival, complications and health resource utilisation. The primary outcome will be analysed by intention to treat using analysis of covariance. Outcomes up to 1 year after surgery will be ascertained through linkage to administrative data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted by our ethics review board (Protocol Approval #2016009-01H). Results will be disseminated through presentation at scientific conferences, through peer-reviewed publication, stakeholder organisations and engagement of social and traditional media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02934230; Pre-results.

14.
Trials ; 19(1): 261, 2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radical cystectomy for bladder cancer is associated with a high risk of needing red blood cell transfusion. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during cardiac and orthopedic surgery, but no study has yet evaluated tranexamic acid use during cystectomy. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind (surgeon-, anesthesiologist-, patient-, data-monitor-blinded), placebo-controlled trial of tranexamic acid during cystectomy was initiated in June 2013. Prior to incision, the intervention arm participants receive a 10 mg/kg loading dose of intravenously administered tranexamic acid, followed by a 5 mg/kg/h maintenance infusion. In the control arm, the patient receives an identical volume of normal saline that is indistinguishable from the intervention. The primary outcome is any blood transfusion from the start of surgery up to 30 days post operative. There are no strict criteria to mandate the transfusion of blood products. The decision to transfuse is entirely at the discretion of the treating physicians who are blinded to patient allocation. Physicians are allowed to utilize all resources to make transfusion decisions, including serum hemoglobin concentration and vital signs. To date, 147 patients of a planned 354 have been randomized to the study. DISCUSSION: This protocol reviews pertinent data relating to blood transfusion during radical cystectomy, highlighting the need to identify methods for reducing blood loss and preventing transfusion in patients receiving radical cystectomy. It explains the clinical rationale for using tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss during cystectomy, and outlines the study methods of our ongoing randomized controlled trial. TRIAL REGISTRATIONS: Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR) Protocol: MOP-342559; ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT01869413. Registered on 5 June 2013.

15.
Anesthesiology ; 128(6): 1140-1150, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29443701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is increasingly prevalent in older patients and is associated with adverse events among medical patients. The impact of polypharmacy on outcomes after elective surgery is poorly described. The authors' objective was to measure the association of polypharmacy with survival, complications, and resource use among older patients undergoing elective surgery. METHODS: After registration (NCT03133182), the authors identified all individuals older than 65 yr old having their first elective noncardiac surgery in Ontario, Canada, between 2002 and 2014. Using linked administrative data, the authors identified all prescriptions dispensed in the 90 days before surgery and classified people receiving five or more unique medications with polypharmacy. The associations of polypharmacy with 90-day survival (primary outcome), complications, length of stay, costs, discharge location, and readmissions were estimated after multilevel, multivariable adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, previous healthcare use, and surgical factors. Prespecified and post hoc sensitivity analyses were also performed. RESULTS: Of 266,499 patients identified, 146,026 (54.8%) had polypharmacy. Death within 90 days occurred in 4,356 (3.0%) patients with polypharmacy and 1,919 (1.6%) without (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.21; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.27). Sensitivity analyses demonstrated no increase in effect when only high-risk medications were considered and attenuation of the effect when only prescriptions filled in the 30 preoperative days were considered (hazard ratio = 1.07). Associations were attenuated or not significant in patients with frailty and higher comorbidity scores. CONCLUSIONS: Older patients with polypharmacy represent a high-risk stratum of the perioperative population. However, the authors' findings call into question the causality and generalizability of the polypharmacy-adverse outcome association that is well documented in nonsurgical patients.

16.
Can J Anaesth ; 65(4): 417-426, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29340856

RESUMO

Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is becoming an integral part of anesthesia practice throughout the world. Despite the growing interest in POCUS among trainees and faculty, POCUS training is variable among universities across Canada. This suggests a need for curriculum development and standardization. International guidelines for Emergency Medicine and Critical Care have common frameworks and may be used as a reference to model anesthesia-specific curricula. The Royal College of Anaesthetists of the United Kingdom currently offers the only nationally approved POCUS curriculum for anesthesia and critical care trainees. Most curricula have in common a stepwise approach that consists of foundation of knowledge and skills and competency building through practice. Nevertheless, a significant variety of didactic modalities have been described, and online learning and simulation offer clear advantages. What constitutes the minimum number of studies necessary to achieve competence is still debated as are the most appropriate tools for assessment of POCUS competency.Availability of trained staff anesthesiologists remains a major limitation to curricula implementation in most centres. A National Curriculum should be modeled on the Competency By Design Approach, in line with the CanMEDS 2015 roles, and start with a focus on basic POCUS modalities and applications. Guidance for the training and certification of POCUS among practicing anesthesiologists is lacking.

19.
Anesthesiology ; 128(3): 480-491, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is consistent and significant variation in neuraxial anesthesia use for hip fracture surgery across jurisdictions. We measured the association of hospital-level utilization of neuraxial anesthesia, independent of patient-level use, with 30-day survival (primary outcome) and length of stay and costs (secondary outcomes). METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data in Ontario, Canada. We identified all hip fracture patients more than 65 yr of age from 2002 to 2014. For each patient, we measured the proportion of hip fracture patients at their hospital who received neuraxial anesthesia in the year before their surgery. Multilevel, multivariable regression was used to measure the association of log-transformed hospital-level neuraxial anesthetic-use proportion with outcomes, controlling for patient-level anesthesia type and confounders. RESULTS: Of 107,317 patients, 57,080 (53.2%) had a neuraxial anesthetic; utilization varied from 0 to 100% between hospitals. In total, 9,122 (8.5%) of patients died within 30 days of surgery. Survival independently improved as hospital-level neuraxial use increased (P = 0.009). Primary and sensitivity analyses demonstrated that most of the survival benefit was realized with increase in hospital-level neuraxial use above 20 to 25%; there did not appear to be a substantial increase in survival above this point. No significant associations between hospital neuraxial anesthesia-use and other outcomes existed. CONCLUSIONS: Hip fracture surgery patients at hospitals that use more than 20 to 25% neuraxial anesthesia have improved survival independent of patient-level anesthesia type and other confounders. The underlying causal mechanism for this association requires a prospective study to guide improvements in perioperative care and outcomes of hip fracture patients. VISUAL ABSTRACT: An online visual overview is available for this article at http://links.lww.com/ALN/B634.

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