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1.
Vet Microbiol ; 253: 108951, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373884

RESUMO

Brucella, a facultative intracellular bacterium, can survive and replicate in various cell types such as epithelial cell, fibroblasts and macrophage. Macrophage is the most important sites for the survival of Brucella in vivo. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are difficult to address, since the unknown virulence genes are still exist. RNA-seq is available to study transcriptional changes that occur during disease as a way to identify important virulence-related genes. Here we described and analyzed the transcriptional change of avirulent strain Brucella melitensis M5-90 (B. melitensis M5-90) during macrophage infection using RNA-seq technology. We detected 601 significant changed genes of which 428 were upregulated after infection. The upregulated gene L31 which involved in ribosome KEGG pathway was selected to illustrate its effect on virulence in a vaccine strain B. melitensis M5-90 and a virulent strain B. melitensis M28. Deletion of L31 significant attenuates the spleen colonization in model of M5-90 or M28 infection mouse at 7, 21 and 35 days post-infection (P < 0.05). We further examine the role of L31 in a macrophage cell infection model, and the result showed a significant reduction of intracellular M28ΔL31 cells at 48 h post-infection (P < 0.001). In total, our study provided a view of transcriptional landscape of B. melitensis M5-90 intracellular, and found L31 gene is required for the full virulence of B. melitensis.

3.
Virol Sin ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231855

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with severe birth defects and Guillain-Barré syndrome and no approved vaccines or specific therapies to combat ZIKV infection are currently available. To accelerate anti-ZIKV therapeutics research, we developed a stable ZIKV GFP-reporter virus system with considerably improved GFP visibility and stability. In this system a BHK-21 cell line expressing DC-SIGNR was established to facilitate the proliferation of GFP-reporter ZIKV. Using this reporter virus system, we established a high-throughput screening assay and screened a selected plant-sourced compounds library for their ability to block ZIKV infection. More than 31 out of 974 tested compounds effectively decreased ZIKV reporter infection. Four selected compounds, homoharringtonine (HHT), bruceine D (BD), dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and digitonin (DGT), were further validated to inhibit wild-type ZIKV infection in cells of BHK-21 and human cell line A549. The FDA-approved chronic myeloid leukemia treatment drug HHT and BD were identified as broad-spectrum flavivirus inhibitors. DHA, another FDA-approved antimalarial drug effectively inhibited ZIKV infection in BHK-21 cells. HHT, BD and DHA inhibited ZIKV infection at a post-entry stage. Digitonin was found to have inhibitory activity in the early stage of viral infection. Our research provides an efficient high-throughput screening assay for ZIKV inhibitors. The active compounds identified in this study represent potential therapies for the treatment of ZIKV infection.

4.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208464

RESUMO

Rabies virus (RABV) matrix protein (M) plays crucial roles in viral transcription, replication, assembly, and budding; however, its function during the early stage of virus replication remains unknown. Here, we mapped the protein interactome between RABV M and human host factors using a proteomic approach, finding a link to the V-type proton ATPase (V-ATPase) catalytic subunit A (ATP6V1A) which is located in the endosomes where RABV first enters. By downregulating or upregulating ATP6V1A expression in HEK293T cells, we found that ATP6V1A facilitated RABV replication. We further found that ATP6V1A was involved in the dissociation of incoming viral M proteins during viral uncoating. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that M interacted with the full length or middle domain of ATP6V1A, which was dependent on the lysine residue at position 256 and the glutamic acid residue at position 279. RABV growth and uncoating in ATP6V1A-depleted cells was restored by trans-complementation with the full length or interaction domain of ATP6V1A. Moreover, stably overexpressed ATP6V1A enhanced RABV growth in Vero cells which are used for the production of rabies vaccine. Our findings identify a new partner for RABV M proteins and establish a new role of ATP6V1A by promoting virion uncoating during RABV replication.

5.
Vet Microbiol ; 248: 108825, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891953

RESUMO

Bluetongue (BT) is an arbovirus-borne disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) that has the potential to have a serious economic impact. Currently available commercial vaccines include attenuated vaccines and inactivated vaccines, both of which have achieved great success in the prevention and control of BTV. However, these vaccines cannot distinguish between infected animals and immunized animals. To control outbreaks of BTV, the development of labeled vaccines is urgently needed. In this study, we used the plasmid-based reverse genetics system (RGS) of BTV to rescue four recombinant viruses in which HA (influenza hemagglutinin) tags were inserted at different sites of VP2. In vitro, the recombinant tagged viruses exhibited morphologies, plaque, and growth kinetics similar to the parental BTV-16, and expressed both VP2 and HA tag. Subsequently, the selected recombinant tagged viruses were prepared as inactivated vaccines to immunize IFNAR(-/-) mice and sheep, and serological detection results of anti-HA antibody provided discriminative detection. In summary, we used plasmid-based RGS to rescue BTV recombinant viruses with HA tags inserted into VP2, and detected several sites on VP2 that can accommodate HA tags. Some of the recombinant tagged viruses have potential to be developed into distinctive inactivated vaccines.

6.
Infect Immun ; 88(11)2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778612

RESUMO

Brucella, the causative agent of brucellosis, is a stealthy intracellular pathogen that is highly pathogenic to a range of mammals, including humans. The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane and has been implicated in virulence in many bacterial pathogens. However, the roles of the Tat system and related substrates in Brucella remain unclear. We report here that disruption of Tat increases the sensitivity of Brucella melitensis M28 to the membrane stressor sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), indicating cell envelope defects, as well as to EDTA. In addition, mutating Tat renders M28 bacteria more sensitive to oxidative stress caused by H2O2 Further, loss of Tat significantly attenuates B. melitensis infection in murine macrophages ex vivo Using a mouse model for persistent infection, we demonstrate that Tat is required for full virulence of B. melitensis M28. Genome-wide in silico prediction combined with an in vivo amidase reporter assay indicates that at least 23 proteins are authentic Tat substrates, and they are functionally categorized into solute-binding proteins, oxidoreductases, cell envelope biosynthesis enzymes, and others. A comprehensive deletion study revealed that 6 substrates contribute significantly to Brucella virulence, including an l,d-transpeptidase, an ABC transporter solute-binding protein, and a methionine sulfoxide reductase. Collectively, our work establishes that the Tat pathway plays a critical role in Brucella virulence.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4081, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796842

RESUMO

The unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has created a worldwide public health emergency, and there is an urgent need to develop an effective vaccine to control this severe infectious disease. Here, we find that a single vaccination with a replication-defective human type 5 adenovirus encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (Ad5-nCoV) protect mice completely against mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 infection in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Additionally, a single vaccination with Ad5-nCoV protects ferrets from wild-type SARS-CoV-2 infection in the upper respiratory tract. This study suggests that the mucosal vaccination may provide a desirable protective efficacy and this delivery mode is worth further investigation in human clinical trials.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Desenho de Fármacos , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética
8.
Cell Rep ; 32(7): 108044, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814047

RESUMO

Type I interferon (IFN) plays an essential role in the host innate immune responses. Several ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) family members were reported to regulate type I IFN production and host antiviral immune responses. However, the molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Here, we report that UBE2S acts as a negative regulator in the type I IFN signaling pathway. Ectopic expression of UBE2S inhibits host antiviral immune responses and enhances viral replications, whereas deficiency of UBE2S enhances host antiviral immune responses and suppresses viral replications both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of type І IFN production by UBE2S is independent on its E2 and E3 enzymic activity. Mechanistically, UBE2S interacts with TBK1 and recruits ubiquitin-specific protease 15 (USP15) to remove Lys63 (K63)-linked polyubiquitin chains of TBK1. Our findings reveal a role of the UBE2S-USP15-TBK1 axis in the regulation of host antiviral innate immune responses.

10.
Protein Cell ; 11(12): 894-914, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562145

RESUMO

Tripartite motif (TRIM) family proteins are important effectors of innate immunity against viral infections. Here we identified TRIM35 as a regulator of TRAF3 activation. Deficiency in or inhibition of TRIM35 suppressed the production of type I interferon (IFN) in response to viral infection. Trim35-deficient mice were more susceptible to influenza A virus (IAV) infection than were wild-type mice. TRIM35 promoted the RIG-I-mediated signaling by catalyzing Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF3 and the subsequent formation of a signaling complex with VISA and TBK1. IAV PB2 polymerase countered the innate antiviral immune response by impeding the Lys63-linked polyubiquitination and activation of TRAF3. TRIM35 mediated Lys48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of IAV PB2, thereby antagonizing its suppression of TRAF3 activation. Our in vitro and in vivo findings thus reveal novel roles of TRIM35, through catalyzing Lys63- or Lys48-linked polyubiquitination, in RIG-I antiviral immunity and mechanism of defense against IAV infection.

11.
Cell Discov ; 6: 18, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284877

RESUMO

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a dsDNA virus responsible for a severe, highly contagious, and lethal disease affecting both domestic and wild pigs. ASFV has brought enormous economic loss to a number of countries, and effective vaccine and therapy are still lacking. Therefore, a rapid, sensitive, and field-deployable detection of ASFV is important for disease surveillance and control. Herein, we developed a Cas12a-mediated portable paper assay to rapidly and precisely detect ASFV. We identified a robust set of crRNAs that recognized the highly conserved region of essential ASFV genes. The Cas12a-mediated detection assay showed low tolerance for mismatch mutations, and no cross-reactivity against other common swine pathogens. We further developed a paper-based assay to allow instrument-free detection of ASFV. Specifically, we applied gold nanoparticle-antibody conjugate to engineer homemade strips and combined it with Cas12a-mediated ASFV detection. This portable paper, instrument-free diagnostics, faithfully detected ASFV in swine samples, showing comparable sensitivity to the traditionally instrument-dependent qPCR method. Taking together, we developed a highly sensitive, instant, and economic Cas12a-mediated paper diagnostics of ASFV, with a great application potential for monitoring ASFV in the field.

12.
Science ; 368(6494): 1016-1020, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269068

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the infectious disease COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), which was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Despite extensive efforts to control the disease, COVID-19 has now spread to more than 100 countries and caused a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have originated in bats; however, the intermediate animal sources of the virus are unknown. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of ferrets and animals in close contact with humans to SARS-CoV-2. We found that SARS-CoV-2 replicates poorly in dogs, pigs, chickens, and ducks, but ferrets and cats are permissive to infection. Additionally, cats are susceptible to airborne transmission. Our study provides insights into the animal models for SARS-CoV-2 and animal management for COVID-19 control.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Furões , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Gatos , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cães , Patos , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Sus scrofa , Ligação Viral , Replicação Viral
13.
Arch Virol ; 165(5): 1079-1087, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144546

RESUMO

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a member of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae, and has a genome consisting of 10 linear double-stranded (ds) RNA segments. The current reverse genetics system (RGS) for engineering the EHDV genome relies on the use of in vitro-synthesized capped viral RNA transcripts. To obtain more-efficient and simpler RGSs for EHDV, we developed an entirely DNA (plasmid or PCR amplicon)-based RGS for viral rescue. This RGS enabled the rescue of infectious EHDV from BSR-T7 cells following co-transfection with seven helper viral protein expression plasmids and 10 cDNA rescue plasmids or PCR amplicons representing the EHDV genome. Furthermore, we optimized the DNA-based systems and confirmed that some of the helper expression plasmids were not essential for the recovery of infectious EHDV. Thus, DNA-based RGSs may offer a more efficient method of recombinant virus recovery and accelerate the study of the biological characteristics of EHDV and the development of novel vaccines.


Assuntos
Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica/genética , Genética Reversa/métodos , Virologia/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , DNA Complementar/genética , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mesocricetus , Plasmídeos , RNA Viral/genética , Recombinação Genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia
14.
Sci China Life Sci ; 63(5): 623-634, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124180

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating infectious disease in swine that is severely threatening the global pig industry. An efficacious vaccine is urgently required. Here, we used the Chinese ASFV HLJ/18 as a backbone and generated a series of gene-deleted viruses. The virulence, immunogenicity, safety, and protective efficacy evaluation in specific-pathogen-free pigs, commercial pigs, and pregnant sows indicated that one virus, namely HLJ/18-7GD, which has seven genes deleted, is fully attenuated in pigs, cannot convert to the virulent strain, and provides complete protection of pigs against lethal ASFV challenge. Our study shows that HLJ/-18-7GD is a safe and effective vaccine against ASFV, and as such is expected to play an important role in controlling the spread of ASFV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas Virais/genética , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/metabolismo , Animais , Deleção de Genes , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Virulência
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 241: 108549, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928698

RESUMO

Nipah virus (NiV) is a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes high mortality in humans and pigs. Oral immunization in free-roaming animals is one of the most practical approaches to prevent NiV pandemics. We previously generated a recombinant rabies viruses (RABV) Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth (ERA) strain, rERAG333E, which contains a mutation from arginine to glutamic acid at residue 333 of glycoprotein (G333E) and serves as an oral vaccine for dog rabies. In this study, we generated two recombinant RABVs, rERAG333E/NiVG and rERAG333E/NiVF, expressing the NiV Malaysian strain attachment glycoprotein (NiV-G) or fusion glycoprotein (NiV-F) gene based on the rERAG333E vector platform. Both rERAG333E/NiVG and rERAG333E/NiVF displayed growth properties similar to those of rERAG333E and caused marked syncytia formation after co-infection in BSR cell culture. Adult and suckling mice intracerebrally inoculated with the recombinant RABVs showed NiV-G and NiV-F expression did not increase the virulence of rERAG333E. Oral vaccination with rERAG333E/NiVG either singularly or combined with rERAG333E/NiVF induced significant NiV neutralizing antibody against NiV and RABV, and IgG to NiV-G or NiV-F in mice and pigs. rERAG333E/NiVG and rERAG333E/NiVF thus appeared to be suitable candidates for further oral vaccines for potential animal targets in endemic areas of NiV disease and rabies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Vírus Nipah/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/normas , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Neutralização , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade , Suínos , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/normas , Proteínas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Virulência , Zoonoses
17.
J Virol ; 94(2)2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694949

RESUMO

Influenza A virus (IAV) coopts numerous host factors to complete its replication cycle. Here, we identify free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) as a cofactor for IAV entry into host cells. We found that downregulation of FFAR2 or Ffar2 expression significantly reduced the replication of IAV in A549 or RAW 264.7 cells. The treatment of A549 cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting FFAR2 or the FFAR2 pathway agonists 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-methyl-N-(thiazol-2-yl)butanamide (4-CMTB) and compound 58 (Cmp58) [(S)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,3-dimethyl-N-(5-phenylthiazol-2-yl)butanamide] dramatically inhibited the nuclear accumulation of viral nucleoprotein (NP) at early time points postinfection, indicating that FFAR2 functions in the early stage of the IAV replication cycle. FFAR2 downregulation had no effect on the expression of sialic acid (SA) receptors on the cell membrane, the attachment of IAV to the SA receptors, or the activity of the viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex. Rather, the amount of internalized IAVs was significantly reduced in FFAR2-knocked-down or 4-CMTB- or Cmp58-treated A549 cells. Further studies showed that FFAR2 associated with ß-arrestin1 and that ß-arrestin1 interacted with the ß2-subunit of the AP-2 complex (AP2B1), the essential adaptor of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Notably, siRNA knockdown of either ß-arrestin1 or AP2B1 dramatically impaired IAV replication, and AP2B1 knockdown or treatment with Barbadin, an inhibitor targeting the ß-arrestin1/AP2B1 complex, remarkably decreased the amount of internalized IAVs. Moreover, we found that FFAR2 interacted with three G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (i.e., GRK2, GRK5, and GRK6) whose downregulation inhibited IAV replication. Together, our findings demonstrate that the FFAR2 signaling cascade is important for the efficient endocytosis of IAV into host cells.IMPORTANCE To complete its replication cycle, IAV hijacks the host endocytosis machinery to invade cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of how IAV is internalized into host cells remain poorly understood, emphasizing the need to elucidate the role of host factors in IAV entry into cells. In this study, we identified FFAR2 as an important host factor for the efficient replication of both low-pathogenic and highly pathogenic IAV. We revealed that FFAR2 facilitates the internalization of IAV into target cells during the early stage of infection. Upon further characterization of the role of FFAR2-associated proteins in virus replication, we found that the FFAR2-ß-arrestin1-AP2B1 signaling cascade is important for the efficient endocytosis of IAV. Our findings thus further our understanding of the biological details of IAV entry into host cells and establish FFAR2 as a potential target for antiviral drug development.


Assuntos
Endocitose , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Internalização do Vírus , Células A549 , Subunidades beta do Complexo de Proteínas Adaptadoras/genética , Subunidades beta do Complexo de Proteínas Adaptadoras/metabolismo , Animais , Cães , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , beta-Arrestina 1/genética , beta-Arrestina 1/metabolismo
18.
J Virol ; 94(2)2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666383

RESUMO

Rabies virus (RABV) is a widespread pathogen that causes fatal disease in humans and animals. It has been suggested that multiple host factors are involved in RABV host entry. Here, we showed that RABV uses integrin ß1 (ITGB1) for cellular entry. RABV infection was drastically decreased after ITGB1 short interfering RNA knockdown and moderately increased after ITGB1 overexpression in cells. ITGB1 directly interacts with RABV glycoprotein. Upon infection, ITGB1 is internalized into cells and transported to late endosomes together with RABV. The infectivity of cell-adapted RABV in cells and street RABV in mice was neutralized by ITGB1 ectodomain soluble protein. The role of ITGB1 in RABV infection depends on interaction with fibronectin in cells and mice. We found that Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide and antibody to ITGB1 significantly blocked RABV infection in cells in vitro and street RABV infection in mice via intramuscular inoculation but not the intracerebral route. ITGB1 also interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which is the proposed receptor for peripheral RABV infection. Our findings suggest that ITGB1 is a key cellular factor for RABV peripheral entry and is a potential therapeutic target for postexposure treatment against rabies.IMPORTANCE Rabies is a severe zoonotic disease caused by rabies virus (RABV). However, the nature of RABV entry remains unclear, which has hindered the development of therapy for rabies. It is suggested that modulations of RABV glycoprotein and multiple host factors are responsible for RABV invasion. Here, we showed that integrin ß1 (ITGB1) directly interacts with RABV glycoprotein, and both proteins are internalized together into host cells. Differential expression of ITGB1 in mature muscle and cerebral cortex of mice led to A-4 (ITGB1-specific antibody), and RGD peptide (competitive inhibitor for interaction between ITGB1 and fibronectin) blocked street RABV infection via intramuscular but not intracerebral inoculation in mice, suggesting that ITGB1 plays a role in RABV peripheral entry. Our study revealed this distinct cellular factor in RABV infection, which may be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Integrina beta1/metabolismo , Vírus da Raiva/metabolismo , Raiva/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Animais , Endossomos/genética , Endossomos/metabolismo , Endossomos/virologia , Fibronectinas/genética , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Integrina beta1/genética , Camundongos , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Raiva/tratamento farmacológico , Raiva/genética , Raiva/patologia , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/genética
19.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100096, 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460948

RESUMO

Rabies virus (RABV) matrix protein (M) plays crucial roles in viral transcription, replication, assembly, and budding; however, its function during the early stage of virus replication remains unknown. Here, we mapped the protein interactome between RABV M and human host factors using a proteomic approach, finding a link to the V-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit A (ATP6V1A), which is located in the endosomes where RABV first enters. By downregulating or upregulating ATP6V1A expression in HEK293T cells, we found that ATP6V1A facilitated RABV replication. We further found that ATP6V1A was involved in the dissociation of incoming viral M proteins during viral uncoating. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that M interacted with the full length or middle domain of ATP6V1A, which was dependent on the lysine residue at position 256 and the glutamic acid residue at position 279. RABV growth and uncoating in ATP6V1A-depleted cells was restored by trans-complementation with the full length or interaction domain of ATP6V1A. Moreover, stably overexpressed ATP6V1A enhanced RABV growth in Vero cells, which are used for the production of rabies vaccine. Our findings identify a new partner for RABV M proteins and establish a new role of ATP6V1A by promoting virion uncoating during RABV replication.

20.
Virol J ; 16(1): 151, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bluetongue virus (BTV), an emerging insect vector mediated pathogen affecting both wild ruminants and livestock, has a genome consisting of 10 linear double-stranded RNA genome segments. BTV has a severe economic impact on agriculture in many parts of the world. Current reverse genetics (RG) strategy to rescue BTV mainly rely on in vitro synthesis of RNA transcripts from cloned complimentary DNA (cDNA) corresponding to viral genome segments with the aid of helper plasmids. RNA synthesis is a laborious job which is further complicated with a need for expensive reagents and a meticulous operational procedure. Additionally, the target genes must be cloned into a specific vector to prepare templates for RNA transcription. RESULT: In this study, we have developed a PCR based BTV RG system with easy two-step transfection. Viable viruses were recovered following a first transfection with the seven helper plasmids and a second transfection with the 10 PCR products on the BSR cells. Further, recovered viruses were characterized with indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) and gene sequencing. And the proliferation properties of these viruses were also compared with wild type BTV. Interestingly, we have identified that viruses containing the segment 2 of the genome from reassortant BTV, grew slightly slower than the others. CONCLUSION: In this study, a convenient PCR based RG platform for BTV is established, and this strategy could be an effective alternative to the original available BTV rescue methods. Furthermore, this RG strategy is likely applicable for other Orbiviruses.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Genética Reversa/métodos , Virologia/métodos , Animais , Vírus Bluetongue/genética , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Viabilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos , Transfecção
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