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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485028

RESUMO

Gallstones Disease (GSD) is one of the most common digestive diseases requiring hospitalization and surgical procedures in the world. GSD has a high prevalence in populations with European or Amerindian ancestry (10-20%) and the influence of genetic factors is broadly acknowledged. However, known genetic variants do not entirely explain the disease heritability suggesting that additional genetic variants remain to be identified. Here, we examined the association of copy number variants (CNVs) with GSD in a sample of 4778 individuals (1929 GSD cases and 2849 controls) including two European cohorts from Germany (n = 3702) and one admixed Latin American cohort from Chile (n = 1076). We detected 2936 large and rare CNVs events (size > 100 kb, frequency < 1%). Case-control burden analysis and generalized linear regression models revealed significant association of CNVs with GSD in men, with the strongest effect observed with CNVs overlapping lipid metabolism genes (p-value = 6.54 × 10-4; OR = 2.76; CI 95% = 1.53-4.89). Our results indicate a clear link between CNVs and GSD in men and provides additional evidence that the genetic components of risk for GSD are complex, can be sex specific and include CNVs affecting genes involved in lipid metabolism.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2132, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765821

RESUMO

Whole human genome sequencing initiatives help us understand population history and the basis of genetic diseases. Current data mostly focuses on Old World populations, and the information of the genomic structure of Native Americans, especially those from the Southern Cone is scant. Here we present annotation and variant discovery from high-quality complete genome sequences of a cohort of 11 Mapuche-Huilliche individuals (HUI) from Southern Chile. We found approximately 3.1 × 106 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) per individual and identified 403,383 (6.9%) of novel SNVs events. Analyses of large-scale genomic events detected 680 copy number variants (CNVs) and 4,514 structural variants (SVs), including 398 and 1,910 novel events, respectively. Global ancestry composition of HUI genomes revealed that the cohort represents a sample from a marginally admixed population from the Southern Cone, whose main genetic component derives from Native American ancestors. Additionally, we found that HUI genomes contain variants in genes associated with 5 of the 6 leading causes of noncommunicable diseases in Chile, which may have an impact on the risk of prevalent diseases in Chilean and Amerindian populations. Our data represents a useful resource that can contribute to population-based studies and for the design of early diagnostics or prevention tools for Native and admixed Latin American populations.

3.
Gut ; 68(5): 854-865, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diverticular disease is a common complex disorder characterised by mucosal outpouchings of the colonic wall that manifests through complications such as diverticulitis, perforation and bleeding. We report the to date largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic risk factors for diverticular disease. DESIGN: Discovery GWAS analysis was performed on UK Biobank imputed genotypes using 31 964 cases and 419 135 controls of European descent. Associations were replicated in a European sample of 3893 cases and 2829 diverticula-free controls and evaluated for risk contribution to diverticulitis and uncomplicated diverticulosis. Transcripts at top 20 replicating loci were analysed by real-time quatitative PCR in preparations of the mucosal, submucosal and muscular layer of colon. The localisation of expressed protein at selected loci was investigated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We discovered 48 risk loci, of which 12 are novel, with genome-wide significance and consistent OR in the replication sample. Nominal replication (p<0.05) was observed for 27 loci, and additional 8 in meta-analysis with a population-based cohort. The most significant novel risk variant rs9960286 is located near CTAGE1 with a p value of 2.3×10-10 and 0.002 (ORallelic=1.14 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.24)) in the replication analysis. Four loci showed stronger effects for diverticulitis, PHGR1 (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.56), FAM155A-2 (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.42), CALCB (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.33) and S100A10 (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.33). CONCLUSION: In silico analyses point to diverticulosis primarily as a disorder of intestinal neuromuscular function and of impaired connective fibre support, while an additional diverticulitis risk might be conferred by epithelial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Doenças do Colo/genética , Tecido Conjuntivo/fisiologia , Doenças Diverticulares/genética , Epitélio/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Colo/patologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Doenças Diverticulares/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 772, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692554

RESUMO

Latin Americans and Chilean Amerindians have the highest prevalence of gallstone disease (GSD) and gallbladder cancer (GBC) in the world. A handful of loci have been associated with GSD in populations of predominantly European ancestry, however, they only explain a small portion of the genetic component of the disease. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for GSD in 1,095 admixed Chilean Latinos with Mapuche Native American ancestry. Disease status was assessed by cholecystectomy or abdominal ultrasonography. Top-10 candidate variants surpassing the suggestive cutoff of P < 1 × 10-5 in the discovery cohort were genotyped in an independent replication sample composed of 1,643 individuals. Variants with positive replication were further examined in two European GSD populations and a Chilean GBC cohort. We consistently replicated the association of ABCG8 gene with GSD (rs11887534, P = 3.24 × 10-8, OR = 1.74) and identified TRAF3 (rs12882491, P = 1.11 × 10-7, OR = 1.40) as a novel candidate gene for the disease in admixed Chilean Latinos. ABCG8 and TRAF3 variants also conferred risk to GBC. Gene expression analyses indicated that TRAF3 was significantly decreased in gallbladder (P = 0.015) and duodenal mucosa (P = 0.001) of GSD individuals compared to healthy controls, where according to GTEx data in the small intestine, the presence of the risk allele contributes to the observed effect. We conclude that ABCG8 and TRAF3 genes are associated with GSD and GBC in admixed Latinos and that decreased TRAF3 levels could enhance gallbladder inflammation as is observed in GSD and GSD-associated GBC.

5.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510241

RESUMO

To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 × 10-8, bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to ~100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Krüppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.

6.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 796, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30081852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) have long been associated with tumor progression. Recent findings indicate that members of the closely related ADAMTS (ADAMs with thrombospondin motifs) family are also critically involved in carcinogenesis. Gene silencing through DNA methylation at CpG loci around e.g. transcription start or enhancer sites is a major mechanism in cancer development. Here, we aimed at identifying genes of the ADAM and ADAMTS family showing altered DNA methylation in the development or colorectal cancer (CRC) and other epithelial tumors. METHODS: We investigated potential changes of DNA methylation affecting ADAM and ADAMTS genes in 117 CRC, 40 lung cancer (LC) and 15 oral squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) samples. Tumor tissue was analyzed in comparison to adjacent non-malignant tissue of the same patients. The methylation status of 1145 CpGs in 51 ADAM and ADAMTS genes was measured with the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Array. ADAMTS16 protein expression was analyzed in CRC samples by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In CRC, we identified 72 CpGs in 18 genes which were significantly affected by hyper- or hypomethylation in the tumor tissue compared to the adjacent non-malignant tissue. While notable/frequent alterations in methylation patterns within ADAM genes were not observed, conspicuous changes were found in ADAMTS16 and ADAMTS2. To figure out whether these differences would be CRC specific, additional LC and SCC tissue samples were analyzed. Overall, 78 differentially methylated CpGs were found in LC and 29 in SCC. Strikingly, 8 CpGs located in the ADAMTS16 gene were commonly differentially methylated in all three cancer entities. Six CpGs in the promoter region were hypermethylated, whereas 2 CpGs in the gene body were hypomethylated indicative of gene silencing. In line with these findings, ADAMTS16 protein was strongly expressed in globlet cells and colonocytes in control tissue but not in CRC samples. Functional in vitro studies using the colorectal carcinoma cell line HT29 revealed that ADAMTS16 expression restrained tumor cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: We identified ADAMTS16 as novel gene with cancer-specific promoter hypermethylation in CRC, LC and SCC patients implicating ADAMTS16 as potential biomarker for these tumors. Moreover, our results provide evidence that ADAMTS16 may have tumor suppressor properties.

7.
Gut ; 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Homozygous alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency increases the risk for developing cirrhosis, whereas the relevance of heterozygous carriage remains unclear. Hence, we evaluated the impact of the two most relevant AAT variants ('Pi*Z' and 'Pi*S'), present in up to 10% of Caucasians, on subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or alcohol misuse. DESIGN: We analysed multicentric case-control cohorts consisting of 1184 people with biopsy-proven NAFLD and of 2462 people with chronic alcohol misuse, both cohorts comprising cases with cirrhosis and controls without cirrhosis. Genotyping for the Pi*Z and Pi*S variants was performed. RESULTS: The Pi*Z variant presented in 13.8% of patients with cirrhotic NAFLD but only in 2.4% of counterparts without liver fibrosis (p<0.0001). Accordingly, the Pi*Z variant increased the risk of NAFLD subjects to develop cirrhosis (adjusted OR=7.3 (95% CI 2.2 to 24.8)). Likewise, the Pi*Z variant presented in 6.2% of alcohol misusers with cirrhosis but only in 2.2% of alcohol misusers without significant liver injury (p<0.0001). Correspondingly, alcohol misusers carrying the Pi*Z variant were prone to develop cirrhosis (adjusted OR=5.8 (95% CI 2.9 to 11.7)). In contrast, the Pi*S variant was not associated with NAFLD-related cirrhosis and only borderline with alcohol-related cirrhosis (adjusted OR=1.47 (95% CI 0.99 to 2.19)). CONCLUSION: The Pi*Z variant is the hitherto strongest single nucleotide polymorphism-based risk factor for cirrhosis in NAFLD and alcohol misuse, whereas the Pi*S variant confers only a weak risk in alcohol misusers. As 2%-4% of Caucasians are Pi*Z carriers, this finding should be considered in genetic counselling of affected individuals.

8.
Transplantation ; 102(10): e424-e430, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29994984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LTx) is a potentially curative treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhosis. However, patients, where HCC is already a systemic disease, LTx may be individually harmful and has a negative impact on donor organ usage. Thus, there is a need for improved selection criteria beyond nodule morphology to select patients with a favorable outcome for LTx in multifocal HCC. Evolutionary distance measured from genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism data between tumor nodules and the cirrhotic liver may be a prognostic marker of survival after LTx for multifocal HCC. METHODS: In a retrospective multicenter study, clinical data and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of the liver and 2 tumor nodules were obtained from explants of 30 patients in the discovery and 180 patients in the replication cohort. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens followed by genome wide single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. RESULTS: Genotype quality criteria allowed for analysis of 8 patients in the discovery and 17 patients in the replication set. DNA concentrations of a total of 25 patients fulfilled the quality criteria and were included in the analysis. Both, in the discovery (P = 0.04) and in the replication data sets (P = 0.01), evolutionary distance was associated with the risk of recurrence of HCC after transplantation (combined P = 0.0002). In a univariate analysis, evolutionary distance (P = 7.4 × 10) and microvascular invasion (P = 1.31 × 10) were significantly associated with survival in a Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Evolutionary distance allows for the determination of a high-risk group of recurrence if preoperative liver biopsy is considered.

10.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 113(10): 1475-1483, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Variants in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3; rs738409), transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2; rs58542926), and membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 7 (MBOAT7; rs641738) are risk factors for the development of alcohol-related cirrhosis. Within this population, PNPLA3 rs738409 is also an established risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to explore possible risk associations of TM6SF2 rs58542926 and MBOAT7 rs641738 with HCC. METHODS: Risk variants in PNPLA3, TM6SF2, and MBOAT7 were genotyped in 751 cases with alcohol-related cirrhosis and HCC and in 1165 controls with alcohol-related cirrhosis without HCC. Association with the risk of developing HCC was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The development of HCC was independently associated with PNPLA3 rs738409 (ORadjusted 1.84 [95% CI 1.55-2.18], p = 1.85 × 10-12) and TM6SF2 rs58542926 (ORadjusted 1.66 [1.30-2.13], p = 5.13 × 10-05), using an additive model, and controlling the sex, age, body mass index, and type 2 diabetes mellitus; the risk associated with carriage of MBOAT7 rs641738 (ORadjusted 1.04 [0.88-1.24], p = 0.61) was not significant. The population-attributable fractions were 43.5% for PNPLA3 rs738409, 11.5% for TM6SF2 rs58542926, and 49.9% for the carriage of both the variants combined. CONCLUSIONS: Carriage of TM6SF2 rs58542926 is an additional risk factor for the development of HCC in people with alcohol-related cirrhosis. Carriage of both PNPLA3 rs738409 and TM6SF2 rs58542926 accounts for half of the attributable risk for HCC in this population. Genotyping will allow for more precise HCC risk-stratification of patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis, and genotype-guided screening algorithms would optimize patient care.

11.
Oncotarget ; 8(58): 98623-98634, 2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228715

RESUMO

Most genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were analyzed using single marker tests in combination with stringent correction procedures for multiple testing. Thus, a substantial proportion of associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remained undetected and may account for missing heritability in complex traits. Model selection procedures present a powerful alternative to identify associated SNPs in high-dimensional settings. In this GWAS including 1060 colorectal cancer cases, 689 cases of advanced colorectal adenomas and 4367 controls we pursued a dual approach to investigate genome-wide associations with disease risk applying both, single marker analysis and model selection based on the modified Bayesian information criterion, mBIC2, implemented in the software package MOSGWA. For different case-control comparisons, we report models including between 1-14 candidate SNPs. A genome-wide significant association of rs17659990 (P=5.43×10-9, DOCK3, chromosome 3p21.2) with colorectal cancer risk was observed. Furthermore, 56 SNPs known to influence susceptibility to colorectal cancer and advanced adenoma were tested in a hypothesis-driven approach and several of them were found to be relevant in our Austrian cohort. After correction for multiple testing (α=8.9×10-4), the most significant associations were observed for SNPs rs10505477 (P=6.08×10-4) and rs6983267 (P=7.35×10-4) of CASC8, rs3802842 (P=8.98×10-5, COLCA1,2), and rs12953717 (P=4.64×10-4, SMAD7). All previously unreported SNPs demand replication in additional samples. Reanalysis of existing GWAS datasets using model selection as tool to detect SNPs associated with a complex trait may present a promising resource to identify further genetic risk variants not only for colorectal cancer.

12.
Genes (Basel) ; 8(7)2017 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714907

RESUMO

The present study investigated the genetic contribution to alcohol dependence (AD) using genome-wide association data from three German samples. These comprised patients with: (i) AD; (ii) chronic alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP); and (iii) alcohol-related liver cirrhosis (ALC). Single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses were conducted. A significant association was detected for the ADH1B locus in a gene-based approach (puncorrected = 1.2 × 10-6; pcorrected = 0.020). This was driven by the AD subsample. No association with ADH1B was found in the combined ACP + ALC sample. On first inspection, this seems surprising, since ADH1B is a robustly replicated risk gene for AD and may therefore be expected to be associated also with subgroups of AD patients. The negative finding in the ACP + ALC sample, however, may reflect genetic stratification as well as random fluctuation of allele frequencies in the cases and controls, demonstrating the importance of large samples in which the phenotype is well assessed.

13.
Gastroenterology ; 151(2): 351-363.e28, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27094239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 280 cases identified the hepatic cholesterol transporter ABCG8 as a locus associated with risk for gallstone disease, but findings have not been reported from any other GWAS of this phenotype. We performed a large-scale, meta-analysis of GWASs of individuals of European ancestry with available prior genotype data, to identify additional genetic risk factors for gallstone disease. METHODS: We obtained per-allele odds ratio (OR) and standard error estimates using age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression models within each of the 10 discovery studies (8720 cases and 55,152 controls). We performed an inverse variance weighted, fixed-effects meta-analysis of study-specific estimates to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that were associated independently with gallstone disease. Associations were replicated in 6489 cases and 62,797 controls. RESULTS: We observed independent associations for 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the ABCG8 locus: rs11887534 (OR, 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-1.86; P = 2.44 × 10(-60)) and rs4245791 (OR, 1.27; P = 1.90 × 10(-34)). We also identified and/or replicated associations for rs9843304 in TM4SF4 (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16; P = 6.09 × 10(-11)), rs2547231 in SULT2A1 (encodes a sulfoconjugation enzyme that acts on hydroxysteroids and cholesterol-derived sterol bile acids) (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.12-1.21; P = 2.24 × 10(-10)), rs1260326 in glucokinase regulatory protein (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.07-1.17; P = 2.55 × 10(-10)), and rs6471717 near CYP7A1 (encodes an enzyme that catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to primary bile acids) (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.08-1.15; P = 8.84 × 10(-9)). Among individuals of African American and Hispanic American ancestry, rs11887534 and rs4245791 were associated positively with gallstone disease risk, whereas the association for the rs1260326 variant was inverse. CONCLUSIONS: In this large-scale GWAS of gallstone disease, we identified 4 loci in genes that have putative functions in cholesterol metabolism and transport, and sulfonylation of bile acids or hydroxysteroids.


Assuntos
Membro 8 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Cálculos Biliares/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colesterol/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
Sci Rep ; 5: 16286, 2015 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26553438

RESUMO

Whilst common genetic variation in many non-coding genomic regulatory regions are known to impart risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), much of the heritability of CRC remains unexplained. To examine the role of recurrent coding sequence variation in CRC aetiology, we genotyped 12,638 CRCs cases and 29,045 controls from six European populations. Single-variant analysis identified a coding variant (rs3184504) in SH2B3 (12q24) associated with CRC risk (OR = 1.08, P = 3.9 × 10(-7)), and novel damaging coding variants in 3 genes previously tagged by GWAS efforts; rs16888728 (8q24) in UTP23 (OR = 1.15, P = 1.4 × 10(-7)); rs6580742 and rs12303082 (12q13) in FAM186A (OR = 1.11, P = 1.2 × 10(-7) and OR = 1.09, P = 7.4 × 10(-8)); rs1129406 (12q13) in ATF1 (OR = 1.11, P = 8.3 × 10(-9)), all reaching exome-wide significance levels. Gene based tests identified associations between CRC and PCDHGA genes (P < 2.90 × 10(-6)). We found an excess of rare, damaging variants in base-excision (P = 2.4 × 10(-4)) and DNA mismatch repair genes (P = 6.1 × 10(-4)) consistent with a recessive mode of inheritance. This study comprehensively explores the contribution of coding sequence variation to CRC risk, identifying associations with coding variation in 4 genes and PCDHG gene cluster and several candidate recessive alleles. However, these findings suggest that recurrent, low-frequency coding variants account for a minority of the unexplained heritability of CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Variação Genética , Fator 1 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Alelos , Caderinas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas/genética
16.
Nat Genet ; 47(12): 1443-8, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26482880

RESUMO

Alcohol misuse is the leading cause of cirrhosis and the second most common indication for liver transplantation in the Western world. We performed a genome-wide association study for alcohol-related cirrhosis in individuals of European descent (712 cases and 1,426 controls) with subsequent validation in two independent European cohorts (1,148 cases and 922 controls). We identified variants in the MBOAT7 (P = 1.03 × 10(-9)) and TM6SF2 (P = 7.89 × 10(-10)) genes as new risk loci and confirmed rs738409 in PNPLA3 as an important risk locus for alcohol-related cirrhosis (P = 1.54 × 10(-48)) at a genome-wide level of significance. These three loci have a role in lipid processing, suggesting that lipid turnover is important in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Lipase/genética , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 100(5): E783-8, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25695890

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Glucagon cell adenomatosis (GCA) was recently recognized as a multifocal hyperplastic and neoplastic disease of the glucagon cells unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and von-Hippel-Lindau disease. OBJECTIVE: The study focused on the molecular analysis of the glucagon receptor (GCGR) gene in GCA and a description of the clinicopathological features of GCA with and without GCGR mutations. DESIGN: Pancreatic tissues from patients showing multiple glucagon cell tumors were morphologically characterized and macro- or microdissected. All exons of the GCGR gene were analyzed for mutations by Sanger and next-generation sequencing. Genotyping for all detected GCGR variants was performed in 2560 healthy individuals. PATIENTS: Six patients with GCA, and the parents of one patient were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were the correlations between the patients' GCGR mutation status and the respective clinicopathological data. RESULTS: GCGR germline mutations were found in three of six patients. Patient 1 harbored a homozygous stop mutation. This patient's parents showed an identical but heterozygous GCGR mutation. Patient 2 had two different heterozygous point mutations leading each to premature stop codons. Patient 3 exhibited two homozygous missense mutations. No GCGR mutations were identified in the three other patients and in a large cohort of healthy subjects. The patients harboring GCGR mutations exhibited a greater number of tumors and larger tumors than patients with wild-type GCGR. One of the patients with wild-type GCGR showed lymph node micrometastases. CONCLUSIONS: GCA with GCGR germline mutations seems to follow an autosomal-recessive trait. By interrupting the GCGR signaling pathways GCGR mutations probably cause GCA via glucagon cell hyperplasia. GCA also occurs in patients without GCGR mutations, but seems to be associated with fewer and smaller tumors.


Assuntos
Células Secretoras de Glucagon/patologia , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Receptores de Glucagon/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Glucagon , Células Secretoras de Glucagon/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperplasia/genética , Hiperplasia/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia
18.
PLoS One ; 9(4): e95022, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24743384

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent neoplasms and an important cause of mortality in the developed world. Mendelian syndromes account for about 5% of the total burden of CRC, being Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis the most common forms. Lynch syndrome tumors develop mainly as a consequence of defective DNA mismatch repair associated with germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. A significant proportion of variants identified by screening these genes correspond to missense or noncoding changes without a clear pathogenic consequence, and they are designated as "variants of uncertain significance", being the c.1852_1853delinsGC (p.K618A) variant in the MLH1 gene a clear example. The implication of this variant as a low-penetrance risk variant for CRC was assessed in the present study by performing a case-control study within a large cohort from the COGENT consortium-COST Action BM1206 including 18,723 individuals (8,055 colorectal cancer cases and 10,668 controls) and a case-only genotype-phenotype correlation with several clinical and pathological characteristics restricted to the Epicolon cohort. Our results showed no involvement of this variant as a low-penetrance variant for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility and no association with any clinical and pathological characteristics including family history for this neoplasm or Lynch syndrome.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Mutação INDEL , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Estudos de Coortes , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 23(14): 3883-90, 2014 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24556216

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed genetic determinants of iron metabolism, but correlation of these with clinical phenotypes is pending. Homozygosity for HFE C282Y is the predominant genetic risk factor for hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) and may cause liver cirrhosis. However, this genotype has a low penetrance. Thus, detection of yet unknown genetic markers that identify patients at risk of developing severe liver disease is necessary for better prevention. Genetic loci associated with iron metabolism (TF, TMPRSS6, PCSK7, TFR2 and Chr2p14) in recent GWAS and liver fibrosis (PNPLA3) in recent meta-analysis were analyzed for association with either liver cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis in 148 German HFE C282Y homozygotes. Replication of associations was sought in additional 499 Austrian/Swiss and 112 HFE C282Y homozygotes from Sweden. Only variant rs236918 in the PCSK7 gene (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 7) was associated with cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis (P = 1.02 × 10(-5)) in the German cohort with genotypic odds ratios of 3.56 (95% CI 1.29-9.77) for CG heterozygotes and 5.38 (95% CI 2.39-12.10) for C allele carriers. Association between rs236918 and cirrhosis was confirmed in Austrian/Swiss HFE C282Y homozygotes (P = 0.014; ORallelic = 1.82 (95% CI 1.12-2.95) but not in Swedish patients. Post hoc combined analyses of German/Swiss/Austrian patients with available liver histology (N = 244, P = 0.00014, ORallelic = 2.84) and of males only (N = 431, P = 2.17 × 10(-5), ORallelic = 2.54) were consistent with the premier finding. Association between rs236918 and cirrhosis was not confirmed in alcoholic cirrhotics, suggesting specificity of this genetic risk factor for HH. PCSK7 variant rs236918 is a risk factor for cirrhosis in HH patients homozygous for the HFE C282Y mutation.


Assuntos
Hemocromatose/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Subtilisinas/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hemocromatose/complicações , Hemocromatose/patologia , Proteína da Hemocromatose , Homozigoto , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
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