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1.
JMIR Form Res ; 5(11): e29958, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Failure to find and attract clinical trial participants remains a persistent barrier to clinical research. Researchers increasingly complement recruitment methods with social media-based methods. We hypothesized that user-generated data from cancer survivors and their family members and friends on the social network Twitter could be used to identify, engage, and recruit cancer survivors for cancer trials. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study aims to examine the feasibility of using user-reported health data from cancer survivors and family members and friends on Twitter in Los Angeles (LA) County to enhance clinical trial recruitment. We focus on 6 cancer conditions (breast cancer, colon cancer, kidney cancer, lymphoma, lung cancer, and prostate cancer). METHODS: The social media intervention involved monitoring cancer-specific posts about the 6 cancer conditions by Twitter users in LA County to identify cancer survivors and their family members and friends and contacting eligible Twitter users with information about open cancer trials at the University of Southern California (USC) Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center. We reviewed both retrospective and prospective data published by Twitter users in LA County between July 28, 2017, and November 29, 2018. The study enrolled 124 open clinical trials at USC Norris. We used descriptive statistics to report the proportion of Twitter users who were identified, engaged, and enrolled. RESULTS: We analyzed 107,424 Twitter posts in English by 25,032 unique Twitter users in LA County for the 6 cancer conditions. We identified and contacted 1.73% (434/25,032) of eligible Twitter users (127/434, 29.3% cancer survivors; 305/434, 70.3% family members and friends; and 2/434, 0.5% Twitter users were excluded). Of them, 51.4% (223/434) were female and approximately one-third were male. About one-fifth were people of color, whereas most of them were White. Approximately one-fifth (85/434, 19.6%) engaged with the outreach messages (cancer survivors: 33/85, 38% and family members and friends: 52/85, 61%). Of those who engaged with the messages, one-fourth were male, the majority were female, and approximately one-fifth were people of color, whereas the majority were White. Approximately 12% (10/85) of the contacted users requested more information and 40% (4/10) set up a prescreening. Two eligible candidates were transferred to USC Norris for further screening, but neither was enrolled. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the potential of identifying and engaging cancer survivors and their family members and friends on Twitter. Optimization of downstream recruitment efforts such as screening for digital populations on social media may be required. Future research could test the feasibility of the approach for other diseases, locations, languages, social media platforms, and types of research involvement (eg, survey research). Computer science methods could help to scale up the analysis of larger data sets to support more rigorous testing of the intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03408561; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03408561.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(22): 2190-2204, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165540

RESUMO

Central obesity is a leading health concern with a great burden carried by ethnic minority populations, especially Hispanics/Latinos. Genetic factors contribute to the obesity burden overall and to inter-population differences. We aimed to identify the loci associated with central adiposity measured as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HIP) adjusted for body mass index (adjBMI) by using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL); determine if differences in associations differ by background group within HCHS/SOL and determine whether previously reported associations generalize to HCHS/SOL. Our analyses included 7472 women and 5200 men of mainland (Mexican, Central and South American) and Caribbean (Puerto Rican, Cuban and Dominican) background residing in the USA. We performed genome-wide association analyses stratified and combined across sexes using linear mixed-model regression. We identified 16 variants for waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI), 22 for waist circumference adjusted for body mass index (WCadjBMI) and 28 for hip circumference adjusted for body mass index (HIPadjBMI), which reached suggestive significance (P < 1 × 10-6). Many loci exhibited differences in strength of associations by ethnic background and sex. We brought a total of 66 variants forward for validation in cohorts (N = 34 161) with participants of Hispanic/Latino, African and European descent. We confirmed four novel loci (P < 0.05 and consistent direction of effect, and P < 5 × 10-8 after meta-analysis), including two for WHRadjBMI (rs13301996, rs79478137); one for WCadjBMI (rs3168072) and one for HIPadjBMI (rs28692724). Also, we generalized previously reported associations to HCHS/SOL, (8 for WHRadjBMI, 10 for WCadjBMI and 12 for HIPadjBMI). Our study highlights the importance of large-scale genomic studies in ancestrally diverse Hispanic/Latino populations for identifying and characterizing central obesity susceptibility that may be ancestry-specific.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 44(9): 1961-1969, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ß-cell hyperresponsiveness and insulin resistance in youth versus adults in the Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) Study are related to increased glucagon release. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 66 youth and 350 adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes (drug naive), we performed hyperglycemic clamps and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). From clamps we quantified insulin sensitivity (M/I), plasma fasting glucagon and C-peptide, steady-state glucagon and C-peptide at glucose of 11.1 mmol/L, and arginine-stimulated glucagon (acute glucagon response [AGR]) and C-peptide (ACPRmax) responses at glucose >25 mmol/L. RESULTS: Mean ± SD fasting glucagon (7.63 ± 3.47 vs. 8.55 ± 4.47 pmol/L; P = 0.063) and steady-state glucagon (2.24 ± 1.46 vs. 2.49 ± 1.96 pmol/L, P = 0.234) were not different in youth and adults, respectively, while AGR was lower in youth (14.1 ± 5.2 vs. 16.8 ± 8.8 pmol/L, P = 0.001). Significant age-group differences in insulin sensitivity, fasting C-peptide, steady-state C-peptide, and ACPRmax were not related to glucagon. Fasting glucose and glucagon were positively correlated in adults (r = 0.133, P = 0.012) and negatively correlated in youth (r = -0.143, P = 0.251). In both age-groups, higher fasting glucagon was associated with higher fasting C-peptide (youth r = 0.209, P = 0.091; adults r = 0.335, P < 0.001) and lower insulin sensitivity (youth r = -0.228, P = 0.066; adults r = -0.324, P < 0.001). With comparable fasting glucagon, youth had greater C-peptide and lower insulin sensitivity. OGTT suppression of glucagon was greater in youth. CONCLUSIONS: Youth with IGT or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes (drug naive) have hyperresponsive ß-cells and lower insulin sensitivity, but their glucagon concentrations are not increased compared with those in adults. Thus, α-cell dysfunction does not appear to explain the difference in ß-cell function and insulin sensitivity in youth versus adults.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina
4.
Diabetes Care ; 44(9): 1938-1947, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of glycemic worsening among youth and adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes in the Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 91 youth (10-19 years) were randomized 1:1 to 12 months of metformin (MET) or 3 months of glargine, followed by 9 months of metformin (G-MET), and 267 adults were randomized to MET, G-MET, liraglutide plus MET (LIRA+MET), or placebo for 12 months. All participants underwent a baseline hyperglycemic clamp and a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline, month 6, month 12, and off treatment at month 15 and month 21. Cox models identified baseline predictors of glycemic worsening (HbA1c increase ≥0.5% from baseline). RESULTS: Glycemic worsening occurred in 17.8% of youth versus 7.5% of adults at month 12 (P = 0.008) and in 36% of youth versus 20% of adults at month 21 (P = 0.002). In youth, glycemic worsening did not differ by treatment. In adults, month 12 glycemic worsening was less on LIRA+MET versus placebo (hazard ratio 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.96, P = 0.044). In both age-groups, lower baseline clamp-derived ß-cell responses predicted month 12 and month 21 glycemic worsening (P < 0.01). Lower baseline OGTT-derived ß-cell responses predicted month 21 worsening (P < 0.05). In youth, higher baseline HbA1c and 2-h glucose predicted month 12 and month 21 glycemic worsening, and higher fasting glucose predicted month 21 worsening (P < 0.05). In adults, lower clamp- and OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity predicted month 12 and month 21 worsening (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Glycemic worsening was more common among youth than adults with IGT or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes, predicted by lower baseline ß-cell responses in both groups, hyperglycemia in youth, and insulin resistance in adults.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Intolerância à Glucose , Resistência à Insulina , Adolescente , Glicemia , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Intolerância à Glucose/diagnóstico , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina , Secreção de Insulina , Adulto Jovem
5.
Diabetes Care ; 44(9): 1948-1960, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare effects of medications and laparoscopic gastric band surgery (LB) on α-cell function in dysglycemic youth and adults in the Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) Study protocols. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Glucagon was measured in three randomized, parallel, clinical studies: 1) 91 youth studied at baseline, after 12 months on metformin alone (MET) or glargine followed by metformin (G/M), and 3 months after treatment withdrawal; 2) 267 adults studied at the same time points and treated with MET, G/M, or liraglutide plus metformin (L+M) or given placebo (PLAC); and 3) 88 adults studied at baseline and after 12 and 24 months of LB or MET. Fasting glucagon, glucagon suppression by glucose, and acute glucagon response (AGR) to arginine were assessed during hyperglycemic clamps. Glucagon suppression was also measured during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). RESULTS: No change in fasting glucagon, steady-state glucagon, or AGR was seen at 12 months following treatment with MET or G/M (in youth and adults) or PLAC (in adults). In contrast, L+M reduced these measures at 12 months (all P ≤ 0.005), which was maintained 3 months after treatment withdrawal (all P < 0.01). LB in adults also reduced fasting glucagon, steady-state glucagon, and AGR at 12 and 24 months (P < 0.05 for all, except AGR at 12 months [P = 0.098]). Similarly, glucagon suppression during OGTTs was greater with L+M and LB. Linear models demonstrated that treatment effects on glucagon with L+M and LB were largely associated with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Glucagon concentrations were reduced by L+M and LB in adults with dysglycemia, an effect principally attributable to weight loss in both interventions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 640251, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981301

RESUMO

The presence of islet autoantibodies and islet reactive T cells (T+) in adults with established type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been shown to identify those patients with more severe ß-cell dysfunction. However, at what stage in the progression toward clinical T2D does islet autoimmunity emerge as an important component influencing ß-cell dysfunction? In this ancillary study to the Restoring Insulin SEcretion (RISE) Study, we investigated the prevalence of and association with ß-cell dysfunction of T+ and autoantibodies to the 65 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase antigen (GADA) in obese pre-diabetes adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and recently diagnosed treatment naïve (Ndx) T2D. We further investigated the effect of 12 months of RISE interventions (metformin or liraglutide plus metformin, or with 3 months of insulin glargine followed by 9 months of metformin or placebo) on islet autoimmune reactivity. We observed GADA(+) in 1.6% of NdxT2D and 4.6% of IGT at baseline, and in 1.6% of NdxT2D and 5.3% of IGT at 12 months, but no significant associations between GADA(+) and ß-cell function. T(+) was observed in 50% of NdxT2D and 60.4% of IGT at baseline, and in 68.4% of NdxT2D and 83.9% of IGT at 12 months. T(+) NdxT2D were observed to have significantly higher fasting glucose (p = 0.004), and 2 h glucose (p = 0.0032), but significantly lower steady state C-peptide (sscpep, p = 0.007) compared to T(-) NdxT2D. T(+) IGT participants demonstrated lower but not significant (p = 0.025) acute (first phase) C-peptide response to glucose (ACPRg) compared to T(-) IGT. With metformin treatment, T(+) participants were observed to have a significantly lower Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, p = 0.002) and fasting C-peptide (p = 0.002) compared to T(-), whereas T(+) treated with liraglutide + metformin had significantly lower sscpep (p = 0.010) compared to T(-) participants. In the placebo group, T(+) participants demonstrated significantly lower ACPRg (p = 0.001) compared to T(-) participants. In summary, T(+) were found in a large percentage of obese pre-diabetes adults with IGT and in recently diagnosed T2D. Moreover, T(+) were significantly correlated with treatment effects and ß-cell dysfunction. Our results demonstrate that T(+) are an important component in T2D.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Intolerância à Glucose , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico
7.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(7): 1155-1163, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between changes in liver fat and changes in insulin sensitivity and ß-cell function 2 years after gastric banding surgery. METHODS: Data included 23 adults with the surgery who had prediabetes or type 2 diabetes for less than 1 year and BMI 30 to 40 kg/m2 at baseline. Body adiposity measures including liver fat content (LFC), insulin sensitivity (M/I), and ß-cell responses (acute, steady-state, and arginine-stimulated maximum C-peptide) were assessed at baseline and 2 years after surgery. Regression models were used to assess associations adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Two years after surgery, all measures of body adiposity, LFC, fasting and 2-hour glucose, and hemoglobin A1c significantly decreased; M/I significantly increased; and ß-cell responses adjusted for M/I did not change significantly. Among adiposity measures, reduction in LFC had the strongest association with M/I increase (r = -0.61, P = 0.003). Among ß-cell measures, change in LFC was associated with change in acute C-peptide response to arginine at maximal glycemic potentiation adjusted for M/I (r = 0.66, P = 0.007). Significant reductions in glycemic measures and increase in M/I were observed in individuals with LFC loss >2.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in LFC after gastric banding surgery appears to be an important factor associated with long-term improvements in insulin sensitivity and glycemic profiles in adults with obesity and prediabetes or early type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gastroplastia , Resistência à Insulina , Estado Pré-Diabético , Glicemia , Humanos , Insulina , Fígado
8.
Sleep ; 44(10)2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929533

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Poor sleep quality affects nearly one-third of breast cancer survivors and is associated with insulin resistance. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the effects of a 16-week exercise intervention on patient-reported sleep quality among breast cancer survivors and assess whether changes in patient-reported sleep quality were associated with cardiometabolic biomarkers. We explored Hispanic ethnicity as a moderator of the effects of exercise on patient-reported sleep quality. METHODS: Breast cancer survivors who were overweight or obese were randomized to exercise (n = 50) or usual care (n = 50). The 16-week intervention included aerobic and resistance exercise. Patient-reported sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Within- and between-group differences were assessed using general linear models repeated-measures analyses of variance and mixed-model repeated-measure analysis, respectively. Associations between changes in PSQI and cardiometabolic biomarkers were computed using Pearson correlations. Linear mixed-models were used to evaluate effect modification by ethnicity. RESULTS: Participants were 52 ± 10.4 years old, and over half were of Hispanic ethnicity. As compared to usual care, PSQI global scores improved significantly in the exercise group (mean between-group difference -2.2; 95% CI -3.2 to -0.6). Change in PSQI was inversely associated with changes in all cardiometabolic biomarkers (p < 0.01) among the exercise group. Ethnicity was found to moderate the effects of exercise training on global sleep quality (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: An aerobic and resistance exercise intervention effectively improved patient-reported sleep quality in breast cancer survivors. Hispanic ethnicity as a moderator showed greater improvement in patient-reported sleep indicating Hispanic versus non-Hispanic breast cancer survivors may derive larger sleep benefits. CLINICAL TRAIL INFORMATION: NCT01140282.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Treinamento de Força , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Sono
9.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 320(4): E797-E807, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645253

RESUMO

Application of glucose clamp methodologies in multicenter studies brings challenges for standardization. The Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) Consortium implemented a hyperglycemic clamp protocol across seven centers using a combination of technical and management approaches to achieve standardization. Two-stage hyperglycemic clamps with glucose targets of 200 mg/dL and >450 mg/dL were performed utilizing a centralized spreadsheet-based algorithm that guided dextrose infusion rates using bedside plasma glucose measurements. Clamp operators received initial and repeated training with ongoing feedback based on surveillance of clamp performance. The precision and accuracy of the achieved stage-specific glucose targets were evaluated, including differences by study center. We also evaluated robustness of the method to baseline physiologic differences and on-study treatment effects. The RISE approach produced high overall precision (3%-9% variance in achieved plasma glucose from target at various times across the procedure) and accuracy (SD < 10% overall). Statistically significant but numerically small differences in achieved target glucose concentrations were observed across study centers, within the magnitude of the observed technical variability. Variation of the achieved target glucose over time in placebo-treated individuals was low (<3% variation), and the method was robust to differences in baseline physiology (youth vs. adult, IGT vs. diabetes status) and differences in physiology induced by study treatments. The RISE approach to standardization of the hyperglycemic clamp methodology across multiple study centers produced technically excellent standardization of achieved glucose concentrations. This approach provides a reliable method for implementing glucose clamp methodology across multiple study centers.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) study centers undertook hyperglycemic clamps using a simplified methodology and a decision guidance algorithm implemented in an easy-to-use spreadsheet. This approach, combined with active management including ongoing central data surveillance and routine feedback to study centers, produced technically excellent standardization of achieved glucose concentrations on repeat studies within and across study centers.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Técnica Clamp de Glucose/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Glucose/farmacologia , Técnica Clamp de Glucose/métodos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/normas , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Cancer Surviv ; 15(1): 127-139, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise can profoundly affect physical fitness and quality of life in breast cancer survivors; however, few studies have focused on minorities. This secondary analysis examines Hispanic ethnicity as a moderator of the effects of a 16-week aerobic and resistance exercise intervention on physical fitness and quality of life in breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Eligible breast cancer survivors (n = 100) were randomized to exercise (n = 50) or usual care (n = 50). The exercise intervention consisted of supervised moderate-vigorous aerobic and resistance exercise thrice weekly for 16 weeks. Physical fitness and quality of life were measured at baseline, post-intervention, and 28-week follow-up (exercise only). Linear mixed-models adjusted for baseline value of the outcome, age, disease stage, adjuvant treatment, and recent physical activity were used to evaluate effect modification by ethnicity. RESULTS: The study sample included 57% Hispanic and 43% non-Hispanic breast cancer survivors. Hispanic breast cancer survivors were younger, less fit, and diagnosed with more advanced cancers compared with non-Hispanic breast cancer survivors (p < 0.001). Ethnicity was found to moderate the effects of exercise training on all physical fitness and quality-of-life measures including VO2max (8.4 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3.2 to 13.4), physical well-being (12.3; 95% CI 4.2 to 18.4), and emotional well-being (11.4; 95% CI 5.9 to 15.5). In all cases, Hispanics experienced larger benefits than non-Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic breast cancer survivors have poorer cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, and quality-of-life and therefore may derive larger benefits from exercise than non-Hispanic breast cancer survivors. Clinical exercise interventions may attenuate existing health disparities among minority breast cancer survivors. IMPLICATION OF CANCER SURVIVORS: Here we report psychosocial and fitness-related disparities among Hispanic breast cancer survivors when compared with their non-Hispanic counterparts. Our exercise intervention highlights the importance of exercise for minority cancer survivors and the need for distinct, culturally tailored exercise intervention approaches to reduce psychosocial and fitness-related disparities among this understudied population of cancer survivors.

11.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 21(8): 1437-1446, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The RISE Pediatric Medication Study compared strategies for preserving ß-cell function, including a 9-month follow-up after treatment withdrawal to test treatment effect durability. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate OGTT measures of glucose and ß-cell response through 12 months of intervention and 9 months of medication washout. PARTICIPANTS: Youth (n = 91) aged 10 to 19 years with BMI ≥85th percentile and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: A multicenter randomized clinical trial comparing insulin glargine for 3 months followed by metformin for 9 months (G→Met) or metformin alone (Met) for 12 months. We report within-group changes from baseline to end of medication intervention (M12), baseline to 9 months post-medication withdrawal (M21), and end of medication (M12) to M21. OGTT C-peptide index [CPI] paired with 1/fasting insulin evaluated ß-cell response. RESULTS: At M12, both treatments were associated with stable fasting glucose (G→Met baseline 6.0 ± 0.1 vs M12 5.9 ± 0.2 mmol/L, P = .62; Met baseline 6.1 ± 0.2 vs M12 6.0 ± 0.2 mmol/L, P = .73) and 2-hour glucose (G→Met baseline 10.2 ± 0.4 vs M12 9.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L, P = .03; Met baseline 10.2 ± 0.4 vs M12 10.6 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P = .88). Following medication withdrawal, fasting glucose worsened (G→Met M21 8.6 ± 1.8, P = .004; Met M21 7.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L, P = .003), as did 2-hour glucose (G→Met M21 13.2 ± 1.4, P = .002; Met M21 13.1 ± 1.2 mmol/L, P = .006), associated with declines in ß-cell response. CONCLUSIONS: G→Met and Met were associated with stable glucose measures during 12 months of treatment in youth with IGT or recently diagnosed T2D. Glucose and ß-cell response worsened post-medication withdrawal, suggesting treatment must be long-term or alternative treatments pursued.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Intolerância à Glucose/complicações , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Jejum , Feminino , Seguimentos , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/tratamento farmacológico , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 21(8): 1421-1429, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Glycemic control deteriorates more rapidly in youth vs adults. We compared model-derived measures of ß-cell function between youth and adults with either impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes to determine if a ß-cell defect differentiates these age groups. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) Study. Youth (54 Y-IGT, 33 Y-D) and adults (250 A-IGT, 104 A-D) underwent 3-hour oral glucose tolerance tests for modeling of insulin secretion rates (ISRs), glucose sensitivity, and rate sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity was quantified as the glucose infusion rate/insulin (M/I) from a hyperglycemic clamp. RESULTS: Youth had lower insulin sensitivity despite similar body mass index. Analyses were adjusted for insulin sensitivity. Youth had higher basal ISRs (Y-IGT 200 ± 161 vs A-IGT 152 ± 74, P < .001; Y-D 245 ± 2.5 vs A-D 168 ± 115 pmol/min/m2 , P = .007) and total ISRs (Y-IGT 124 ± 86 vs A-IGT 98 ± 39, P < .001; Y-D 116 ± 110 vs A-D 97 ± 62 nmol/m2 , P = .002). Within IGT, glucose sensitivity (Y-IGT 140 ± 153 vs A-IGT 112 ± 70 pmol/min/m2 /mM, P = .004) and rate sensitivity (median[interquartile range]:Y-IGT 2271[1611, 3222] vs A-IGT 1164[685, 1565] pmol/m2 /mM, P < .001) were higher in youth, but not different by age group within diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Model-derived measures of ß-cell function provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in youth with higher ISRs and ß-cell secretion more responsive to glucose in youth relative to adults even after adjusting for differences in insulin sensitivity. It is unknown whether these findings in youth reflect ß-cells that are healthier or whether this is a defect that contributes to more rapid loss of function.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Intolerância à Glucose/fisiopatologia , Secreção de Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(4)2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714576

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 450 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVE: To facilitate use of these SNPs in future genetic risk score (GRS)-based analyses, we aimed to classify the SNPs based on physiology. We also sought to validate GRS associations with insulin-related traits in deeply phenotyped Mexican Americans. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 457 T2D SNPs from the literature were assigned physiologic function based on association studies and cluster analyses. All SNPs (All-GRS), beta-cell (BC-GRS), insulin resistance (IR-GRS), lipodystrophy (Lipo-GRS), and body mass index plus lipids (B + L-GRS) were evaluated for association with diabetes and indices of insulin secretion (from oral glucose tolerance test), insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance (from euglycemic clamp), and adiposity and lipid markers in 1587 Mexican Americans. RESULTS: Of the 457 SNPs, 52 were classified as BC, 30 as IR, 12 as Lipo, 12 as B + L, whereas physiologic function of 351 was undefined. All-GRS was strongly associated with T2D. Among nondiabetic Mexican Americans, BC-GRS was associated with reduced insulinogenic index, IR-GRS was associated with reduced insulin sensitivity, and Lipo-GRS was associated with reduced adiposity. B + L-GRS was associated with increased insulin clearance. The latter did not replicate in an independent cohort wherein insulin clearance was assessed by a different method. CONCLUSIONS: Supporting their utility, BC-GRS, IR-GRS, and Lipo-GRS, based on SNPs discovered largely in Europeans, exhibited expected associations in Mexican Americans. The novel association of B + L-GRS with insulin clearance suggests that impaired ability to reduce insulin clearance in compensation for IR may play a role in the pathogenesis of T2D. Whether this applies to other ethnic groups remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Secreção de Insulina/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Phys Ther ; 99(10): 1334-1345, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse upper limb musculoskeletal effects occur after surgical procedures and radiotherapy for breast cancer and can interfere with activities of daily living. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a 16-week exercise intervention on shoulder function in women who are overweight or obese and have breast cancer. DESIGN: This study was a randomized controlled trial. SETTING: The study was performed at the Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy at the University of Southern California. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred women with breast cancer were randomly allocated to exercise or usual-care groups. The mean (SD) age of the women was 53.5 (10.4) years, 55% were Hispanic white, and their mean (SD) body mass index was 33.5 (5.5) kg/m2. INTERVENTION: The 16-week exercise intervention consisted of supervised, progressive, moderate to vigorous aerobic and resistance exercise 3 times per week. MEASUREMENTS: Shoulder active range of motion, isometric muscular strength, and patient-reported outcome measures (including Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand and the Penn Shoulder Scale) were assessed at baseline, after the intervention, and at the 3-month follow-up (exercise group only). Differences in mean changes for outcomes were evaluated using mixed-model repeated-measures analysis. RESULTS: Compared with the usual-care group, the exercise group experienced significant increases in shoulder active range of motion (the mean between-group differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were as follows: shoulder flexion = 36.6° [95% CI = 55.2-20.7°], external rotation at 0° = 23.4° [95% CI = 31.1-12.5°], and external rotation at 90° = 34.3° [95% CI = 45.9-26.2°]), improved upper extremity isometric strength, and improved Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand and Penn Shoulder Scale scores. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include a lack of masking of assessors after the intervention, an attention control group, and statistical robustness (shoulder function was a secondary end point). CONCLUSIONS: A 16-week exercise intervention effectively improved shoulder function following breast cancer treatment in women who were overweight or obese, who were ethnically diverse, and who had breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/reabilitação , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia por Exercício/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/reabilitação , Treinamento de Força/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Cotidianas , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Articulação do Ombro
15.
Diabetes Care ; 42(8): 1473-1480, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exposure in utero to maternal obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is linked to a high risk for obesity in offspring. Animal studies suggest that these exposures disrupt the development of the hypothalamus, a brain region that regulates body weight, predisposing offspring to develop obesity. This study tested the hypothesis in humans that in utero exposure to maternal obesity and/or GDM is associated with alterations in the hypothalamic response to glucose and the altered hypothalamic response would predict greater increases in child adiposity 1 year later. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were 91 children aged 7-11 years with and without in utero exposure to GDM. Maternal prepregnancy BMI and GDM exposures were determined from electronic medical records. Arterial spin labeling MRI was used to determine the child's hypothalamic blood flow response to oral glucose. Anthropometric measures were acquired in all children at their initial visit and again 1 year later in a subset of 44 children. RESULTS: Children exposed to GDM diagnosed at ≤26 weeks' gestation had increased hypothalamic blood flow (a marker of hypothalamic activation) in response to glucose when compared with unexposed children, and results remained after adjustments for child age, sex, BMI, and maternal prepregnancy BMI. Maternal prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with the child's hypothalamic response to glucose. Greater hypothalamic response to glucose predicted greater increases in child's BMI 1 year later. CONCLUSIONS: Increased glucose-linked hypothalamic activation during childhood represents a possible mechanism by which exposure to maternal metabolic disorders during fetal development increases future risk for obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Hipotálamo/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Materna/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Ganho de Peso , Adiposidade , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Glucose/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/embriologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
17.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(5): 710-714, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920602

RESUMO

Importance: The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) is a valid method for predicting the 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Higher FRS is reported in patients with early-stage breast cancer who are overweight than in healthy, age-matched women, but whether exercise reduces FRS in this patient population is unclear. Objective: To examine the effects of a 16-week aerobic and resistance exercise intervention on the FRS in women with early-stage breast cancer and with overweight condition or obesity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center, prospective randomized clinical trial included 100 women with stage I to III breast cancer who were sedentary, with overweight condition or obesity (body mass index of ≥25.0 or body fat of ≥30%), and completed cancer treatment within 6 months prior to enrollment. Participants were randomized to either the usual care or exercise group. Differences in mean changes for outcomes were evaluated using mixed-model repeated-measures analyses. Data were collected from August 1, 2012, through July 1, 2017. Data analysis, which followed the intention-to-treat approach, was performed from May 24 to October 2, 2018. Interventions: The exercise group underwent supervised aerobic and resistance exercise sessions thrice weekly for 16 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The FRS was calculated for each participant using preset points for each of the 6 FRS categories: age, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes presence, and smoking status. Results: In total, 100 women were randomized to either the exercise group (n = 50) or usual care group (n = 50). Of these women, 55 (55%) were of Hispanic white race/ethnicity and the mean (SD) age was 53.5 (10.4) years. The mean (SD) total FRS scores postintervention were 2.0 (1.5) in the exercise group and 13.0 (3.0) in the usual care group. The postintervention FRS was significantly reduced in the exercise group compared with the usual care group (mean, -9.5; 95% CI, -13.0 to -6.0), which corresponds to an 11% (95% CI, -15.0 to -5.0) decrease on the FRS-predicted 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Conclusions and Relevance: A 16-week supervised aerobic and resistance exercise intervention appeared to reduce the FRS-predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease in women with early-stage breast cancer with overweight condition or obesity. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01140282.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Terapia por Exercício , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/terapia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(3): 434-443, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aging is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear whether aging-associated insulin resistance is due to increased adiposity or other age-related factors. To address this question, the impact of aging on insulin sensitivity was investigated independently of changes in body composition. METHODS: Cohorts of mice aged 4 to 8 months ("young") and 18 to 27 months ("aged") exhibiting similar body composition were characterized for glucose metabolism on chow and high-fat diets. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analyses. The relationship between aging and insulin resistance in humans was investigated in 1,250 nondiabetic Mexican Americans who underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. RESULTS: In mice with similar body composition, age had no detrimental effect on plasma glucose and insulin levels. While aging did not diminish glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps demonstrated impaired insulin sensitivity and reduced insulin clearance in aged mice on chow and high-fat diets. Consistent with results in the mouse, age remained an independent determinant of insulin resistance after adjustment for body composition in Mexican American males. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that in addition to altered body composition, adiposity-independent mechanisms also contribute to aging-associated insulin resistance in mice and humans.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 29, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604766

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects ~10% of the global population, with considerable ethnic differences in prevalence and aetiology. We assemble genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function that defines CKD, in 312,468 individuals of diverse ancestry. We identify 127 distinct association signals with homogeneous effects on eGFR across ancestries and enrichment in genomic annotations including kidney-specific histone modifications. Fine-mapping reveals 40 high-confidence variants driving eGFR associations and highlights putative causal genes with cell-type specific expression in glomerulus, and in proximal and distal nephron. Mendelian randomisation supports causal effects of eGFR on overall and cause-specific CKD, kidney stone formation, diastolic blood pressure and hypertension. These results define novel molecular mechanisms and putative causal genes for eGFR, offering insight into clinical outcomes and routes to CKD treatment development.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Cálculos Renais/genética , Rim/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Código das Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Cálculos Renais/etnologia , Cálculos Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
20.
Cancer ; 125(6): 910-920, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MSY) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and recurrence in breast cancer survivors (BCS). MSY is 1.5 times more common in Hispanic women compared with non-Hispanic women. Although exercise mitigates MSY in BCS, to the best of the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have focused on minorities. This secondary analysis examined ethnicity as a moderator of the effects of a 16-week aerobic and resistance exercise intervention on MSY, sarcopenic obesity, and serum biomarkers in BCS. METHODS: A total of 100 eligible BCS were randomized to exercise (50 BCS) or usual care (50 BCS). The exercise intervention promoted moderate to vigorous aerobic and resistance exercise 3 times a week for 16 weeks. MSY z scores, sarcopenic obesity, and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline, after the intervention, and at the 28-week follow-up (exercise group only). Linear mixed models adjusted for baseline values of the outcome, age, disease stage, adjuvant treatment, and recent physical activity were used to evaluate effect modification by ethnicity. RESULTS: The study sample was 57% Hispanic BCS (HBCS) and 43% non-Hispanic BCS (NHBCS). HBCS were younger, of greater adiposity, and had been diagnosed with more advanced cancers compared with NHBCS (P<.001). Ethnicity was found to moderate the mean differences in exercise training on triglycerides (-36.4 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [95% CI],-64.1 to -18.8 mg/dL), glucose (-8.6 mg/dL; 95% CI, -19.1 to -3.0 mg/dL), and C-reactive protein (-3.3 mg/L; 95% CI, -7.3 to -0.9 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: HBCS appear to have poorer metabolic profiles and therefore may derive relatively larger metabolic changes from exercise compared with NHBCS. Clinical exercise interventions may attenuate existing health disparities across diverse groups of BCS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/reabilitação , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Sarcopenia/reabilitação , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/reabilitação , Sarcopenia/sangue , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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