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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 718902, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603029

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the interactions between fingolimod, a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) agonist, and melanocortin receptors 1 and 5 (MCR1, MCR5). In particular, we investigated the effects of fingolimod, a drug approved to treat relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, on retinal angiogenesis in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy (DR). We showed, by a molecular modeling approach, that fingolimod can bind with good-predicted affinity to MC1R and MC5R. Thereafter, we investigated the fingolimod actions on retinal MC1Rs/MC5Rs in C57BL/6J mice. Diabetes was induced in C57BL/6J mice through streptozotocin injection. Diabetic and control C57BL/6J mice received fingolimod, by oral route, for 12 weeks and a monthly intravitreally injection of MC1R antagonist (AGRP), MC5R antagonist (PG20N), and the selective S1PR1 antagonist (Ex 26). Diabetic animals treated with fingolimod showed a decrease of retinal vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2), compared to diabetic control group. Fingolimod co-treatment with MC1R and MC5R selective antagonists significantly (p < 0.05) increased retinal VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and VEGFA levels compared to mice treated with fingolimod alone. Diabetic animals treated with fingolimod plus Ex 26 (S1PR1 selective blocker) had VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and VEGFA levels between diabetic mice group and the group of diabetic mice treated with fingolimod alone. This vascular protective effect of fingolimod, through activation of MC1R and MC5R, was evidenced also by fluorescein angiography in mice. Finally, molecular dynamic simulations showed a strong similarity between fingolimod and the MC1R agonist BMS-470539. In conclusion, the anti-angiogenic activity exerted by fingolimod in DR seems to be mediated not only through S1P1R, but also by melanocortin receptors.

2.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(10): 905, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611142

RESUMO

Age-related disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) share common features such as amyloid-ß (Aß) protein accumulation. Retinal deposition of Aß aggregates in AMD patients has suggested a potential link between AMD and AD. In the present study, we analyzed the expression pattern of a focused set of miRNAs, previously found to be involved in both AD and AMD, in the retina of a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD) at different time-points. Several miRNAs were differentially expressed in the retina of 3xTg-AD mice, compared to the retina of age-matched wild-type (WT) mice. In particular, bioinformatic analysis revealed that miR-155 had a central role in miRNA-gene network stability, regulating several pathways, including apoptotic and inflammatory signaling pathways modulated by TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TNFSF10). We showed that chronic treatment of 3xTg-AD mice with an anti-TNFSF10 monoclonal antibody was able to inhibit the retinal expression of miR-155, which inversely correlated with the expression of its molecular target SOCS-1. Moreover, the fine-tuned mechanism related to TNFSF10 immunoneutralization was tightly linked to modulation of TNFSF10 itself and its death receptor TNFRSF10B, along with cytokine production by microglia, reactive gliosis, and specific AD-related neuropathological hallmarks (i.e., Aß deposition and Tau phosphorylation) in the retina of 3xTg-AD mice. In conclusion, immunoneutralization of TNFSF10 significantly preserved the retinal tissue in 3xTg-AD mice, suggesting its potential therapeutic application in retinal degenerative disorders.

3.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 206, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by loss of function and death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), leading to irreversible vision loss. Neuroinflammation is recognized as one of the causes of glaucoma, and currently no treatment is addressing this mechanism. We aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcitriol), in a genetic model of age-related glaucomatous neurodegeneration (DBA/2J mice). METHODS: DBA/2J mice were randomized to 1,25(OH)2D3 or vehicle treatment groups. Pattern electroretinogram, flash electroretinogram, and intraocular pressure were recorded weekly. Immunostaining for RBPMS, Iba-1, and GFAP was carried out on retinal flat mounts to assess retinal ganglion cell density and quantify microglial and astrocyte activation, respectively. Molecular biology analyses were carried out to evaluate retinal expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, pNFκB-p65, and neuroprotective factors. Investigators that analysed the data were blind to experimental groups, which were unveiled after graph design and statistical analysis, that were carried out with GraphPad Prism. Several statistical tests and approaches were used: the generalized estimated equations (GEE) analysis, t-test, and one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: DBA/2J mice treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 for 5 weeks showed improved PERG and FERG amplitudes and reduced RGCs death, compared to vehicle-treated age-matched controls. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment decreased microglial and astrocyte activation, as well as expression of inflammatory cytokines and pNF-κB-p65 (p < 0.05). Moreover, 1,25(OH)2D3-treated DBA/2J mice displayed increased mRNA levels of neuroprotective factors (p < 0.05), such as BDNF. CONCLUSIONS: 1,25(OH)2D3 protected RGCs preserving retinal function, reducing inflammatory cytokines, and increasing expression of neuroprotective factors. Therefore, 1,25(OH)2D3 could attenuate the retinal damage in glaucomatous patients and warrants further clinical evaluation for the treatment of optic neuropathies.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 707909, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489701

RESUMO

To investigate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at different phases of diabetic retinopathy (DR), we assessed the retinal protein expression of VEGF-A164 (corresponding to the VEGF165 isoform present in humans, which is the predominant member implicated in vascular hyperpermeability and proliferation), HIF-1α and PKCß/HuR pathway in Ins2 Akita (diabetic) mice at different ages. We used C57BL6J mice (WT) at different ages as control. Retina status, in terms of tissue morphology and neovascularization, was monitored in vivo at different time points by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography (FA), respectively. The results showed that VEGF-A164 protein expression increased along time to become significantly elevated (p < 0.05) at 9 and 46 weeks of age compared to WT mice. The HIF-1α protein level was significantly (p < 0.05) increased at 9 weeks of age, while PKCßII and HuR protein levels were increased at 46 weeks of age compared to WT mice. The thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer as measured by OCT was decreased in Ins2 Akita mice at 9 and 46 weeks of age, while no difference in the retinal vasculature were observed by FA. The present findings show that the retina of the diabetic Ins2 Akita mice, as expected for mice, does not develop proliferative retinopathy even after 46 weeks. However, diabetic Ins2 Akita mice recapitulate the same evolution of patients with DR in terms of both retinal neurodegeneration and pro-angiogenic shift, this latter indicated by the progressive protein expression of the pro-angiogenic isoform VEGF-A164, which can be sustained by the PKCßII/HuR pathway acting at post-transcriptional level. In agreement with this last concept, this rise in VEGF-A164 protein is not paralleled by an increment of the corresponding transcript. Nevertheless, the observed increase in HIF-1α at 9 weeks indicates that this transcription factor may favor, in the early phase of the disease, the transcription of other isoforms, possibly neuroprotective, in the attempt to counteract the neurodegenerative effects of VEGF-A164. The time-dependent VEGF-A164 expression in the retina of diabetic Ins2 Akita mice suggests that pharmacological intervention in DR might be chosen, among other reasons, on the basis of the specific stages of the pathology in order to pursue the best clinical outcome.

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 705405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366858

RESUMO

To investigate the neuroprotective effect of brimonidine after retinal ischemia damage on mouse eye. Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) death, irreversible peripheral and central visual field loss, and high intraocular pressure. Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury model was used in C57BL/6J mice to mimic conditions of glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Mouse eyes were treated topically with brimonidine and pattern electroretinogram were used to assess the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) function. A wide range of inflammatory markers, as well as anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic molecules, were investigated to figure out the potential protective effects of brimonidine in mouse retina. In particular, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its death receptor DR-5, TNF-α, GFAP, Iba-1, NOS, IL-1ß and IL-10 were assessed in mouse retina that underwent to I/R insult with or without brimonidine treatment. Brimonidine provided remarkable RGCs protection in our paradigm. PERG amplitude values were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in brimonidine-treated eyes in comparison to I/R retinas. Retinal BDNF mRNA levels in the I/R group dropped significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the control group (normal mice); brimonidine treatment counteracted the downregulation of retinal BDNF mRNA in I/R eyes. Retinal inflammatory markers increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the I/R group and brimonidine treatment was able to revert that. The anti-inflammatory IL-10 decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after retinal I/R insult and increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the group treated with brimonidine. In conclusion, brimonidine was effective in preventing loss of function of RGCs and in regulating inflammatory biomarkers elicited by retinal I/R injury.

6.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361825

RESUMO

Lipid-based nanocarriers (LNs) have made it possible to prolong corneal residence time and improve the ocular bioavailability of ophthalmic drugs. In order to investigate how the LNs interact with the ocular mucosa and reach the posterior eye segment, we have formulated lipid nanocarriers that were designed to bear a traceable fluorescent probe in the present work. The chosen fluorescent probe was obtained by a conjugation reaction between fluoresceinamine and the solid lipid excipient stearic acid, forming a chemically synthesized adduct (ODAF, N-(3',6'-dihydroxy-3-oxospiro [isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-[9H] xanthen]-5-yl)-octadecanamide). The novel formulation (LN-ODAF) has been formulated and characterized in terms of its technological parameters (polydispersity index, mean particle size and zeta potential), while an in vivo study was carried out to assess the ability of LN-ODAF to diffuse through different ocular compartments. LN-ODAF were in nanometric range (112.7 nm ± 0.4), showing a good homogeneity and long-term stability. A TEM (transmission electron microscopy) study corroborated these results of characterization. In vivo results pointed out that after ocular instillation, LN ODAF were concentrated in the cornea (two hours), while at a longer time (from the second hour to the eighth hour), the fluorescent signals extended gradually towards the back of the eye. From the results obtained, LN-ODAF demonstrated a potential use of lipid-based nanoparticles as efficient carriers of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) involved in the management of retinal diseases.


Assuntos
Córnea/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Segmento Posterior do Olho/metabolismo , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Animais , Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Segmento Posterior do Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos , Compostos de Espiro/química
7.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067436

RESUMO

Glucose induces corneal epithelial dysfunctions characterized by delayed wound repair. Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mediates cell protection mechanisms even through the Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) up-regulation. Here, we synthesized new HO-1 inducers by modifying dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and used docking studies to select VP13/126 as a promising compound with the best binding energy to Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (keap1), which is the the regulator of Nrf2 nuclear translocation. We verified if VP13/126 protects SIRC cells from hyperglycemia compared to DMF. SIRC were cultured in normal (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM, HG) in presence of DMF (1-25 µM) or VP13/126 (0.1-5 µM) with or without ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 (15 µM). VP13/126 was more effective than DMF in the prevention of HG-induced reduction of cell viability and proliferation. Reduction of wound closure induced by HG was similarly counteracted by 1 µM VP13/126 and 10 µM DMF. VP13/126 strongly increased phospho/total ERK1/2 and restored HO-1 protein in HG-treated SIRC; these effects are completely counteracted by PD98059. Moreover, high-content screening analysis showed a higher rate of Nrf2 nuclear translocation induced by VP13/126 than DMF in HG-stimulated SIRC. These data indicate that VP13/126 exerts remarkable pro-survival properties in HG-stimulated SIRC, promoting the Nrf2/HO-1 axis.

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 635101, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935724

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of vitrectomy combined with intravitreal dexamethasone implant vs. vitrectomy without the implant in patients with epiretinal membrane (ERM) by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: Studies that compared ERM vitrectomy with and without intraoperative dexamethasone implant with a follow-up ≥3 months were included. The primary outcome was mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) change between eyes undergoing ERM vitrectomy combined with dexamethasone implant (DEX group) and eyes undergoing ERM vitrectomy alone (control group) at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included mean BCVA change at 6 months and mean optical coherence tomography central macular thickness (CMT) change at both 3-months and 6-months follow-up. Mean differences (MDs) with their 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated. Meta-analyses were based either on random effect model or fixed effect model according to heterogeneity. Results: Four studies were included. At 3 months, ERM vitrectomy combined with dexamethasone implant yielded a greater visual gain compared to vitrectomy alone (MD = 9.7; 95%CI = 2.6-16.8; p = 0.01). However, significant heterogeneity was found. A sensitivity analysis excluding the only retrospective non-randomized study confirmed a greater visual gain in the DEX group (MD = 7.1; 95%CI = 2.7-11.6; p < 0.01), with no heterogeneity. At 6 months, a non-significant but borderline difference in visual gain was shown between in the two groups (MD = 5.1; 95%CI = -0.3-10.5; p = 0.06), with no heterogeneity. Three-month analysis of CMT revealed a greater reduction in the DEX group (MD = -80.2; 95%CI =-149.1-11.2; p = 0.02), but with significant heterogeneity. A sensitivity analysis excluding the only retrospective non-randomized study allowed to reduce heterogeneity, but no difference in 3-months CMT change was found between the two groups (MD = -50.0; 95%CI = -106.2-6.2; p = 0.08). At 6 months, no difference in CMT change was shown between the two groups (MD = -48.5; 95%CI = -120.5-23.5; p = 0.19), with significant heterogeneity. Conclusions: Intraoperative dexamethasone implant in eyes undergoing vitrectomy for ERM provided a better visual outcome at 3 months compared to ERM vitrectomy without the implant, with limited evidence of better anatomic outcome as well. Further studies are needed to ascertain whether dexamethasone implant would ensure a significant long-term visual benefit as a result of a faster reduction of macular thickening.

9.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 684680, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025440

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the high glucose damage on human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, the role of p38 MAPK signaling pathway and how dimethyl fumarate can regulate that. We carried out in vitro studies on ARPE-19 cells exposed to physiological and high glucose (HG) conditions, to evaluate the effects of DMF on cell viability, apoptosis, and expression of inflammatory and angiogenic biomarkers such as COX-2, iNOS, IL-1ß, and VEGF. Our data have demonstrated that DMF treatment attenuated HG-induced apoptosis, as confirmed by reduction of BAX/Bcl-2 ratio. Furthermore, in RPE cells exposed to HG we observed a significant increase of iNOS, COX-2, and IL-1ß expression, that was reverted by DMF treatment. Moreover, DMF reduced the VEGF levels elicited by HG, inhibiting p38 MAPK signaling pathway. The present study demonstrated that DMF provides a remarkable protection against high glucose-induced damage in RPE cells through p38 MAPK inhibition and the subsequent down-regulation of VEGF levels, suggesting that DMF is a small molecule that represents a good candidate for diabetic retinopathy treatment and warrants further in vivo and clinical evaluation.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 656774, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995079

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of repeated intravitreal bevacizumab injections on blood-aqueous barrier permeability in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Patients and Methods: Forty-eight consecutive patients with neovascular AMD received 3 intravitreal bevacizumab injections (1 mg) every 30-40 days. Subjects were followed for a period of 4 months and were examined at baseline, 1 day and 1 month after each injection. A control group comprised of 19 neovascular AMD patients waiting to begin anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. Anterior chamber (AC) inflammation was evaluated with biomicroscopy and laser flare photometry. Results: None of the subjects treated with bevacizumab had detectable ocular inflammation during follow-up. An analysis for variance (ANOVA) of the mixed-effects model has shown neither an effect between treatment and control group (p = 0.921), nor over the time course of the follow-up (p = 0.773). Before treatment, median AC inflammation was 6.7 photons/ms (range: 3.5-18.2 photons/ms). One month after the first, second, and third injections, median laser flare was 6.4, 6.8, and 6.6 photons/ms, respectively, none of which were significantly different from baseline (all p > 0.05). Blood-aqueous barrier permeability did not change between injections and was not different from the control group. Conclusion: Inflammation induced by intravitreal bevacizumab was not detected by examination or flare photometry. This suggests that monthly bevacizumab dosing seems to be safe. The absence of AC inflammation could also reflect the known anti-inflammatory properties of anti-VEGF agents.

11.
Biomedicines ; 9(5)2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926064

RESUMO

Carnosine (ß-alanyl-L-histidine) is a naturally occurring endogenous peptide widely distributed in excitable tissues such as the brain. This dipeptide has well-known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aggregation activities, and it may be useful for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this disease, peripheral infiltrating macrophages play a substantial role in the clearance of amyloid beta (Aß) peptides from the brain. Correspondingly, in patients suffering from AD, defects in the capacity of peripheral macrophages to engulf Aß have been reported. The effects of carnosine on macrophages and oxidative stress associated with AD are consequently of substantial interest for drug discovery in this field. In the present work, a model of stress induced by Aß1-42 oligomers was investigated using a combination of methods including trypan blue exclusion, microchip electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence, flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. These assays were used to assess the ability of carnosine to protect macrophage cells, modulate oxidative stress, and profile the expression of genes related to inflammation and pro- and antioxidant systems. We found that pre-treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with carnosine counteracted cell death and apoptosis induced by Aß1-42 oligomers by decreasing oxidative stress as measured by levels of intracellular nitric oxide (NO)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) and production of peroxynitrite. This protective activity of carnosine was not mediated by modulation of the canonical inflammatory pathway but instead can be explained by the well-known antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities of carnosine, enhanced macrophage phagocytic activity, and the rescue of fractalkine receptor CX3CR1. These new findings obtained with macrophages challenged with Aß1-42 oligomers, along with the well-known multimodal mechanism of action of carnosine in vitro and in vivo, substantiate the therapeutic potential of this dipeptide in the context of AD pathology.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922399

RESUMO

Eye drop formulations allowing topical treatment of retinal pathologies have long been sought as alternatives to intravitreal administration. This study aimed to assess whether a novel nanostructured microemulsions system (NaMESys) could be usefully employed to deliver sorafenib to the retina following topical instillation. NaMESys carrying 0.3% sorafenib (NaMESys-SOR) proved to be cytocompatible in vitro on rabbit corneal cells, and well-tolerated following b.i.d. ocular administration to rabbits during a 3-month study. In rats subject to retinal ischemia-reperfusion, NaMESys-SOR significantly inhibited retinal expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα, 20.7%) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNos, 87.3%) mRNAs in comparison to controls. Similarly, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, NaMESys-SOR inhibited retinal expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), TNFα, insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and 2 (VEGFR2) mRNAs by three-fold on average compared to controls. Furthermore, a reduction in TNFα, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 protein expression was observed by western blot. Moreover, in mice subject to laser-induced choroidal neovascularization, NaMESys-SOR significantly inhibited neovascular lesions by 54%. In conclusion, NaMESys-SOR was shown to be a well-tolerated ophthalmic formulation able to deliver effective amounts of sorafenib to the retina, reducing proinflammatory and pro-angiogenic mediators in reliable models of proliferative retinopathies. These findings warrant further investigations on the full therapeutic potential of NaMESys-SOR eye drops, aiming to address unmet needs in the pharmacotherapy of retinal neovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Doenças Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Administração Oftálmica , Animais , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Emulsões , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanoestruturas/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Coelhos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919241

RESUMO

Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of chronic neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a relatively selective, progressive damage to the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons, which leads to axon loss and visual field alterations. To date, many studies have shown the role of various elements, mainly metals, in maintaining the balance of prooxidative and antioxidative processes, regulation of fluid and ion flow through cell membranes of the ocular tissues. Based on the earlier and current research results, their relationship with the development and progression of glaucoma seems obvious and is increasingly appreciated. In this review, we aimed to summarize the current evidence on the role of trace elements in the pathogenesis and prevention of glaucomatous diseases. Special attention is also paid to the genetic background associated with glaucoma-related abnormalities of physiological processes that regulate or involve the ions of elements considered as trace elements necessary for the functioning of the cells.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Glaucoma/induzido quimicamente , Glaucoma/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Oligoelementos/farmacologia
14.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799860

RESUMO

Dopamine receptors (DRs) are generally considered as mediators of vasomotor functions. However, when used in pharmacological studies, dopamine and/or DR agonists may not discriminate among different DR subtypes and may even stimulate alpha1 and beta-adrenoceptors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that D2R and/or D3R may specifically induce vasoconstriction in isolated mouse aorta. Aorta, isolated from wild-type (WT) and D3R-/- mice, was mounted in a wire myograph and challenged with cumulative concentrations of phenylephrine (PE), acetylcholine (ACh), and the D3R agonist 7-hydrxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT), with or without the D2R antagonist L741,626 and the D3R antagonist SB-277011-A. The vasoconstriction to PE and the vasodilatation to ACh were not different in WT and D3R-/-; in contrast, the contractile responses to 7-OH-DPAT were significantly weaker in D3R-/-, though not abolished. L741,626 did not change the contractile response induced by 7-OH-DPAT in WT or in D3R-/-, whereas SB-277011-A significantly reduced it in WT but did not in D3R-/-. D3R mRNA (assessed by qPCR) was about 5-fold more abundant than D2R mRNA in aorta from WT and undetectable in aorta from D3R-/-. Following transduction with lentivirus (72-h incubation) delivering synthetic microRNAs to specifically inactivate D2R (LV-miR-D2) or D3R (LV-miR-D3), the contractile response to 7-OH-DPAT was unaffected by LV-miR-D2, while it was significantly reduced by LV-miR-D3. These data indicate that, at least in mouse aorta, D3R stimulation induces vasoconstriction, while D2R stimulation does not. This is consistent with the higher expression level of D3R. The residual vasoconstriction elicited by high concentration D3R agonist in D3R-/- and/or in the presence of D3R antagonist is likely to be unrelated to DRs.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiologia , Receptores de Dopamina D3/metabolismo , Vasoconstrição/genética , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Indóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D3/agonistas , Receptores de Dopamina D3/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Dopamina D3/genética , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/farmacologia , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 186: 114473, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607073

RESUMO

In this study we analyzed the expression of circulating miRNAs, in the serum of diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients. Five miRNAs (hsa-miR-195-5p, hsa-miR-20a-5p, hsa-miR-20b-5p, hsa-miR-27b-3p and hsa-miR-451a) were validated as biomarkers for stratification of DR stages, from the early non-proliferative (NPDR) to the late proliferative (PDR) phase. Furthermore, circulating levels of these miRNAs correlated with retinal hyper-reflective spots (HRS), assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The number of HRS increased with worsening of DR stages. On the contrary, no significant vascular density differences between NPDR and PDR patients were detected by angio-OCT (OCTA). A post-hoc bioinformatics analysis associated these five miRNAs to target genes belonging to the "Tumor Necrosis Factor alfa signaling" pathway, and several molecules were predicted to modify miRNAs expression. In conclusion, correlation between specific circulating miRNAs and intraretinal hyper-reflective spots was demonstrated, confirming that these miRNAs were validated as prognostic biomarkers, and also as potential pharmacological targets, warranting further clinical evaluation to explore novel therapeutics for diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/sangue , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , MicroRNAs/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinopatia Diabética/genética , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
16.
Neurobiol Stress ; 14: 100286, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392367

RESUMO

Translational animal models for studying post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are valuable for elucidating the poorly understood neurobiology of this neuropsychiatric disorder. These models should encompass crucial features, including persistence of PTSD-like phenotypes triggered after exposure to a single traumatic event, trauma susceptibility/resilience and predictive validity. Here we propose a novel arousal-based individual screening (AIS) model that recapitulates all these features. The AIS model was designed by coupling the traumatization (24 h restraint) of C57BL/6 J mice with a novel individual screening. This screening consists of z-normalization of post-trauma changes in startle reactivity, which is a measure of arousal depending on neural circuits conserved across mammals. Through the AIS model, we identified susceptible mice showing long-lasting hyperarousal (up to 56 days post-trauma), and resilient mice showing normal arousal. Susceptible mice further showed persistent PTSD-like phenotypes including exaggerated fear reactivity and avoidance of trauma-related cue (up to 75 days post-trauma), increased avoidance-like behavior and social/cognitive impairment. Conversely, resilient mice adopted active coping strategies, behaving like control mice. We further uncovered novel transcriptional signatures driven by PTSD-related genes as well as dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which corroborated the segregation in susceptible/resilient subpopulations obtained through the AIS model and correlated with trauma susceptibility/resilience. Impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity was also observed in susceptible mice. Finally, chronic treatment with paroxetine ameliorated the PTSD-like phenotypes of susceptible mice. These findings indicate that the AIS model might be a new translational animal model for the study of crucial features of PTSD. It might shed light on the unclear PTSD neurobiology and identify new pharmacological targets for this difficult-to-treat disorder.

17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2253: 245-254, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315227

RESUMO

Allosteric drugs are ligands that when bound to an allosteric site modify the conformational state of the pharmacological target, leading then to a modification of functional response upon binding of the endogenous ligand. Pharmacological targets are defined as biological entities, to which a ligand/drug binds and leads to a functional effect. Pharmacological targets can be proteins or nucleic acids. Computational approaches such as molecular dynamics (MD) sped up discovery and identification of allosteric binding sites and allosteric ligands. Classical all-atom and hybrid classical/quantum MD simulations can be generalized as simulation techniques aimed at analysis of atoms and molecular motion. Main limitations of MD simulations are related to high computational costs, that in turn limit the conformational sampling of biological systems. Indeed, other techniques have been developed to overcome limitations of MD, such as enhanced sampling MD simulations. In this chapter, classical MD and enhanced sampling MD simulations will be described, along with their application to drug discovery, with a focus on allosteric drugs.


Assuntos
Proteínas/química , Proteínas/metabolismo , Regulação Alostérica , Sítio Alostérico , Descoberta de Drogas , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291318

RESUMO

Activation of P2X7 signaling, due to high glucose levels, leads to blood retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown, which is a hallmark of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Furthermore, several studies report that high glucose (HG) conditions and the related activation of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) lead to the over-expression of pro-inflammatory markers. In order to identify novel P2X7R antagonists, we carried out virtual screening on a focused compound dataset, including indole derivatives and natural compounds such as caffeic acid phenethyl ester derivatives, flavonoids, and diterpenoids. Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA) rescoring and structural fingerprint clustering of docking poses from virtual screening highlighted that the diterpenoid dihydrotanshinone (DHTS) clustered with the well-known P2X7R antagonist JNJ47965567. A human-based in vitro BRB model made of retinal pericytes, astrocytes, and endothelial cells was used to assess the potential protective effect of DHTS against HG and 2'(3')-O-(4-Benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine-5'-triphosphate (BzATP), a P2X7R agonist, insult. We found that HG/BzATP exposure generated BRB breakdown by enhancing barrier permeability (trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER)) and reducing the levels of ZO-1 and VE-cadherin junction proteins as well as of the Cx-43 mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, HG levels and P2X7R agonist treatment led to increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (TLR-4, IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8) and other molecular markers (P2X7R, VEGF-A, and ICAM-1), along with enhanced production of reactive oxygen species. Treatment with DHTS preserved the BRB integrity from HG/BzATP damage. The protective effects of DHTS were also compared to the validated P2X7R antagonist, JNJ47965567. In conclusion, we provided new findings pointing out the therapeutic potential of DHTS, which is an inhibitor of P2X7R, in terms of preventing and/or counteracting the BRB dysfunctions elicited by HG conditions.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematorretiniana/efeitos dos fármacos , Furanos/farmacologia , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X/farmacologia , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Trifosfato de Adenosina/toxicidade , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Barreira Hematorretiniana/citologia , Barreira Hematorretiniana/metabolismo , Permeabilidade Capilar , Linhagem Celular , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citoproteção , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Furanos/química , Humanos , Pericitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pericitos/metabolismo , Fenantrenos/química , Ligação Proteica , Agonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X/toxicidade , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/química
19.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 572168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362541

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 disease) was declared a pandemic on 11th March 2020 by the World Health Organization. This unprecedented circumstance has challenged hospitals' response capacity, requiring significant structural and organizational changes to cope with the surge in healthcare demand and to minimize in-hospital risk of transmission. As our knowledge advances, we now understand that COVID-19 is a multi-systemic disease rather than a mere respiratory tract infection, therefore requiring holistic care and expertise from various medical specialties. In fact, the clinical spectrum of presentation ranges from respiratory complaints to gastrointestinal, cardiac or neurological symptoms. In addition, COVID-19 pandemic has created a global burden of mental illness that affects the general population as well as healthcare practitioners. The aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive and multidisciplinary insight into the complexity of this disease, reviewing current scientific evidence on COVID-19 management and treatment across several medical specialties involved in the in-hospital care of these patients.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334029

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR), particularly in the late phase of disease. The aim of the present study was to validate serum TGFß1 as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of DR stages. Thirty-eight subjects were enrolled and, after diagnosis and evaluation of inclusion and exclusion criteria, were assigned to six groups: (1) healthy age-matched control, (2) diabetic without DR, (3) non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) naïve to treatment, (4) NPDR treated with intravitreal (IVT) aflibercept, (5) proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) naïve to treatment and (6) PDR treated with IVT aflibercept. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), placental growth factor (PlGF) and TGFß1 were measured by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Foveal macular thickness (FMT) in enrolled subjects was evaluated by means of structural-optical coherence tomography (S-OCT). VEGF-A serum levels decreased in NPDR and PDR patients treated with aflibercept, compared to naïve DR patients. PlGF serum levels were modulated only in aflibercept-treated NPDR patients. Particularly, TGFß1 serum levels were predictive of disease progression from NPDR to PDR. A Multivariate ANOVA analysis (M-ANOVA) was also carried out to assess the effects of fixed factors on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, TGFß1, and diabetes duration. In conclusion, our data have strengthened the hypothesis that TGFß1 would be a biomarker and pharmacological target of diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Retinopatia Diabética/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/sangue , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/sangue , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Curva ROC , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
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