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2.
Nature ; 603(7902): 610-615, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35322253

RESUMO

The Fermi surface plays an important role in controlling the electronic, transport and thermodynamic properties of materials. As the Fermi surface consists of closed contours in the momentum space for well-defined energy bands, disconnected sections known as Fermi arcs can be signatures of unusual electronic states, such as a pseudogap1. Another way to obtain Fermi arcs is to break either the time-reversal symmetry2 or the inversion symmetry3 of a three-dimensional Dirac semimetal, which results in formation of pairs of Weyl nodes that have opposite chirality4, and their projections are connected by Fermi arcs at the bulk boundary3,5-12. Here, we present experimental evidence that pairs of hole- and electron-like Fermi arcs emerge below the Neel temperature (TN) in the antiferromagnetic state of cubic NdBi due to a new magnetic splitting effect. The observed magnetic splitting is unusual, as it creates bands of opposing curvature, which change with temperature and follow the antiferromagnetic order parameter. This is different from previous theoretically considered13,14 and experimentally reported cases15,16 of magnetic splitting, such as traditional Zeeman and Rashba, in which the curvature of the bands is preserved. Therefore, our findings demonstrate a type of magnetic band splitting in the presence of a long-range antiferromagnetic order that is not readily explained by existing theoretical ideas.

3.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(14)2022 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038695

RESUMO

Closed-topology magnetic domains are usually observed in thin films and in an applied magnetic field. Here we report the observation of rectangular cross-section tubular ferromagnetic domains in thick single crystals of CeAgSb2in zero applied field. Relatively low exchange energy, small net magnetic moment, and anisotropic in-plane crystal electric fields lower the domain wall energy and allow for the formation of the closed-topology patterns. The tubular domain structure irreversibly transforms into a dendritic pattern upon cycling the magnetic field. This transition between closed and open topologies results in a 'topological magnetic hysteresis'- the actual hysteresis in magnetization, not due to the imperfections and pinning, but due to the difference in the pattern morphology. Similar physics was suggested before in pure type-I superconductors and is believed to be a generic feature of other nonlinear single (present case), or two-phase (type-I superconductor) systems where the effects similar to demagnetization (shape-dependent macroscopic variation of properties) lead to pattern formation.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 60(24): 19345-19355, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889600

RESUMO

Canfieldite, Ag8SnS6, is a semiconducting mineral notable for its high ionic conductivity, photosensitivity, and low thermal conductivity. We report the solution growth of large single crystals of Ag8SnS6 of mass up to 1 g from a ternary Ag-Sn-S melt. On cooling from high temperature, Ag8SnS6 undergoes a known cubic (F4̅3m) to orthorhombic (Pna21) phase transition at ≈460 K. By studying the magnetization and thermal expansion between 5-300 K, we discover a second structural transition at ≈120 K. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals the low-temperature phase adopts a different orthorhombic structure with space group Pmn21 (a = 7.662 9(5) Å, b = 7.539 6(5) Å, c = 10.630 0(5) Å, Z = 2 at 90 K) that is isostructural to the room-temperature forms of the related Se-based compounds Ag8SnSe6 and Ag8GeSe6. The 120 K transition is first-order and has a large thermal hysteresis. On the basis of the magnetization and thermal expansion data, the room-temperature polymorph can be kinetically arrested into a metastable state by rapidly cooling to temperatures below 40 K. We last compare the room- and low-temperature forms of Ag8SnS6 with its argyrodite analogues, Ag8TQ6 (T = Si, Ge, Sn; Q = S, Se), and identify a trend relating the preferred structures to the unit cell volume, suggesting smaller phase volume favors the Pna21 arrangement. We support this picture by showing that the transition to the Pmn21 phase is avoided in Ge alloyed Ag8Sn1-xGexS6 samples as well as in pure Ag8GeS6.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771438

RESUMO

A major challenge in cancer therapy is to achieve high cell targeting specificity for the highest therapeutic efficacy. Two major approaches have been shown to be quite effective, namely, (1) bio-marker mediated cell targeting, and (2) electrical charge driven cell binding. The former utilizes the tumor-specific moieties on nano carrier surfaces for active targeting, while the latter relies on nanoparticles binding onto the cancer cell surfaces due to differences in electrical charge. Cancer cells are known for their hallmark metabolic pattern: high rates of glycolysis that lead to negatively charged cell surfaces. In this study, the nanoparticles of Fe3O4@Cu2-xS were rendered positively charged by conjugating their surfaces with different functional groups for strong electrostatic binding onto the negatively-charged cancer cells. In addition to the positively charged surfaces, the Fe3O4@Cu2-xS nanoparticles were also modified with folic acid (FA) for biomarker-based cell targeting. The dual-targeting approach synergistically utilizes the effectiveness of both charge- and biomarker-based cell binding for enhanced cell targeting. Further, these superparamagnetic Fe3O4@Cu2-xS nanoparticles exhibit much stronger IR absorptions compared to Fe3O4, therefore much more effective in photothermal therapy.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(11): 4213-4223, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719436

RESUMO

The pursuit of two-dimensional (2D) borides, MBenes, has proven to be challenging, not the least because of the lack of a suitable precursor prone to the deintercalation. Here, we studied room-temperature topochemical deintercalation of lithium from the layered polymorphs of the LiNiB compound with a considerable amount of Li stored in between [NiB] layers (33 at. % Li). Deintercalation of Li leads to novel metastable borides (Li∼0.5NiB) with unique crystal structures. Partial removal of Li is accomplished by exposing the parent phases to air, water, or dilute HCl under ambient conditions. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and solid-state 7Li and 11B NMR spectroscopy, combined with X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and DFT calculations, were utilized to elucidate the novel structures of Li∼0.5NiB and the mechanism of Li-deintercalation. We have shown that the deintercalation of Li proceeds via a "zip-lock" mechanism, leading to the condensation of single [NiB] layers into double or triple layers bound via covalent bonds, resulting in structural fragments with Li[NiB]2 and Li[NiB]3 compositions. The crystal structure of Li∼0.5NiB is best described as an intergrowth of the ordered single [NiB], double [NiB]2, or triple [NiB]3 layers alternating with single Li layers; this explains its structural complexity. The formation of double or triple [NiB] layers induces a change in the magnetic behavior from temperature-independent paramagnets in the parent LiNiB compounds to the spin-glassiness in the deintercalated Li∼0.5NiB counterparts. LiNiB compounds showcase the potential to access a plethora of unique materials, including 2D MBenes (NiB).

7.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(9): 095103, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003820

RESUMO

We report measurements of the temperature- and pressure-dependent resistance, R(T, p), of a manganin manometer in a 4He-gas pressure setup from room temperature down to the solidification temperature of 4He (Tsolid ∼ 50 K at 0.8 GPa) for pressures, p, between 0 GPa and ∼0.8 GPa. The same manganin wire manometer was also measured in a piston-cylinder cell (PCC) from 300 K down to 1.8 K and for pressures between 0 GPa and ∼2 GPa. From these data, we infer the temperature and pressure dependence of the pressure coefficient of manganin, α(T, p), defined by the equation Rp = (1 + αp)R0, where R0 and Rp are the resistances of manganin at ambient pressure and finite pressure, respectively. Our results indicate that upon cooling, α first decreases, then goes through a broad minimum at ∼120 K, and increases again toward lower temperatures. In addition, we find that α is almost pressure-independent at T ≳ 60 K up to p ∼ 2 GPa, but shows a pronounced p dependence at T ≲ 60 K. Using this manganin manometer, we demonstrate that p overall decreases with decreasing temperature in the PCC for the full pressure range and that the size of the pressure difference between room temperature and low temperatures (T = 1.8 K), Δp, decreases with increasing pressure. We also compare the pressure values inferred from the manganin manometer with the low-temperature pressure, determined from the superconducting transition temperature of elemental lead (Pb). As a result of these data and analysis, we propose a practical algorithm to infer the evolution of pressure with temperature in a PCC.

8.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(2): 023904, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113408

RESUMO

Uniaxial stress, as well as hydrostatic pressure are often used to tune material properties in condensed matter physics. Here, we present a setup that allows for the study of the combined effects of quasi-uniaxial stress and hydrostatic pressure. Following earlier designs for measurements under finite stress at ambient pressures [e.g., Chu et al., Science 337, 710 (2012)], the present setup utilizes a piezoelectric actuator to change stress in situ inside the piston-cylinder pressure cell. We show that the actuator can be operated over the full temperature (from 30 K up to 260 K) and pressure range (up to ≈2 GPa), resulting in a clear and measurable quasi-uniaxial strain. To demonstrate functionality, measurements of the elastoresistance (i.e., the change of resistance of a sample as a response to quasi-uniaxial strain) under finite hydrostatic pressure on the iron-based compound BaFe2As2 are presented as a proof-of-principle example and discussed in the framework of electronic nematicity. Overall, this work introduces the combination of in situ tunable quasi-uniaxial stress and large (up to ≈2 GPa) hydrostatic pressure as a powerful combination in the study of novel electronic phases. In addition, it also points toward further technical advancements which can be made in the future.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(51): 25524-25529, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792191

RESUMO

Strain describes the deformation of a material as a result of applied stress. It has been widely employed to probe transport properties of materials, ranging from semiconductors to correlated materials. In order to understand, and eventually control, transport behavior under strain, it is important to quantify the effects of strain on the electronic bandstructure, carrier density, and mobility. Here, we demonstrate that much information can be obtained by exploring magnetoelastoresistance (MER), which refers to magnetic field-driven changes of the elastoresistance. We use this powerful approach to study the combined effect of strain and magnetic fields on the semimetallic transition metal dichalcogenide [Formula: see text] We discover that WTe2 shows a large and temperature-nonmonotonic elastoresistance, driven by uniaxial stress, that can be tuned by magnetic field. Using first-principle and analytical low-energy model calculations, we provide a semiquantitative understanding of our experimental observations. We show that in [Formula: see text], the strain-induced change of the carrier density dominates the observed elastoresistance. In addition, the change of the mobilities can be directly accessed by using MER. Our analysis also reveals the importance of a heavy-hole band near the Fermi level on the elastoresistance at intermediate temperatures. Systematic understanding of strain effects in single crystals of correlated materials is important for future applications, such as strain tuning of bulk phases and fabrication of devices controlled by strain.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(16): 167002, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702365

RESUMO

The iron-based superconductor FeSe offers a unique possibility to study the interplay of superconductivity with purely nematic as well magnetic-nematic order by pressure (p) tuning. By measuring specific heat under p up to 2.36 GPa, we study the multiple phases in FeSe using a thermodynamic probe. We conclude that superconductivity is bulk across the entire p range and competes with magnetism. In addition, whenever magnetism is present, fluctuations exist over a wide temperature range above both the bulk superconducting and the magnetic transitions. Whereas the magnetic fluctuations are likely temporal, the superconducting fluctuations may be either temporal or spatial. These observations highlight similarities between FeSe and underdoped cuprate superconductors.

11.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(2): 023911, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831698

RESUMO

We report on the resistance behavior of bare-chip Cernox thermometers under pressures up to 2 GPa, generated in a piston-cylinder pressure cell. Our results clearly show that Cernox thermometers, frequently used in low-temperature experiments due to their high sensitivity, remain highly sensitive even under applied pressure. We show that these thermometers are therefore ideally suited for measurements of heat capacity under pressure utilizing an ac oscillation technique up to at least 150 K. Our Cernox-based system is very accurate in determining changes in the specific heat as a function of pressure as demonstrated by measurements of the heat capacity on three different test cases: (i) the superconducting transition in elemental Pb (Tc = 7.2 K), (ii) the antiferromagnetic transition in the rare-earth compound GdNiGe3 (TN = 26 K), and (iii) the structural/magnetic transition in the iron-pnictide BaFe2As2 (Ts,N = 130 K). The chosen examples demonstrate the versatility of our technique for measuring the specific heat under the pressure of various condensed-matter systems with very different transition temperatures as well as amounts of removed entropy.

12.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 31(3): 035701, 2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539798

RESUMO

We present an experimental study of the superconducting properties of NiBi3 as a function of pressure by means of resistivity and magnetization measurements and combine our results with density functional theory calculations of the band structure under pressure. We find a moderate suppression of the critical temperature [Formula: see text] from [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] K to [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] K by pressures up to 2 GPa. By taking into account the change of the band structure as a function of pressure, we argue that the decrease in [Formula: see text] is consistent with conventional, electron-phonon-mediated BCS-type superconductivity.

13.
Int J Pharm ; 548(1): 297-304, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981895

RESUMO

Poor aqueous solubility, chemical instability, and indiscriminate cytotoxicity have limited clinical development of camptothecin (CPT) as potent anticancer therapeutic. This research aimed at fabricating thermoresponsive nanocomposites that enhance solubility and stability of CPT in aqueous milieu and enable stimulus-induced drug release using magnetic hyperthermia. 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and l-α-dipalmitoylphosphatidyl glycerol (DPPG) (1:1, mol/mol) were immobilized on the surface of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (SPIONs) via high affinity avidin-biotin interactions. Heating behavior was assessed using the MFG-1000 magnetic field generator. Encapsulation efficiency and drug release were quantified by fluorescence spectroscopy. Anticancer efficacy of medicated nanoparticles was measured in vitro using Jurkat cells. The results revealed that drug incorporation did not significantly alter particle size, zeta potential, magnetization, and heating properties of lipid-coated SPIONs. Drug loading efficiency was 93.2 ±â€¯5.1%. Drug release from medicated nanoparticles was significantly faster at temperatures above the lipid transition temperature, reaching 37.8 ±â€¯2.6% of incorporated payload after 12 min under therapeutically relevant hyperthermia (i.e., 42 °C). Medicated SPIONs induced greater cytotoxicity than CPT in solution suggesting synergistic activity of magnetically-induced hyperthermia and drug-induced apoptosis. These results underline the opportunity for thermoresponsive phospholipid-coated SPIONs to enable clinical development of highly lipophilic and chemically unstable drugs such as CPT for stimulus-induced cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/administração & dosagem , 1,2-Dipalmitoilfosfatidilcolina/administração & dosagem , 1,2-Dipalmitoilfosfatidilcolina/análogos & derivados , 1,2-Dipalmitoilfosfatidilcolina/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Neoplasias/terapia , Fosfatidilgliceróis/administração & dosagem , Fosfatidilgliceróis/química
14.
Inorg Chem ; 56(23): 14584-14595, 2017 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160701

RESUMO

Previously synthesized only as powders, single crystals of the RE2Ru3Ge5 (RE = La, Ce, Nd, Gd, Tb) series of compounds have now been obtained from molten In. These materials crystallize with the U2Co3Si5-type structure in orthorhombic space group Ibam with lattice parameters a ≈ 10.00-9.77 Å (La-Tb), b ≈ 12.51-12.35 Å, and c ≈ 5.92-5.72 Å. The structure is a three-dimensional framework consisting of RuGe5 and RuGe6 units, as well as Ge-Ge zigzag chains. This structure type and those of the other five (Sc2Fe3Si5, Lu2Co3Si5, Y2Rh3Sn5, Yb2Ir3Ge5, and Yb2Pt3Sn5) to compose the RE2T3X5 phase space are discussed in depth. For the three compounds with RE = Nd, Gd, Tb, multiple magnetic transitions and metamagnetic behavior are observed. Electronic band structure calculations performed on La2Ru3Ge5 indicate that these materials have a negative band gap and are semimetallic in nature.

15.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1083, 2017 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29057914

RESUMO

Shape memory materials have the ability to recover their original shape after a significant amount of deformation when they are subjected to certain stimuli, for instance, heat or magnetic fields. However, their performance is often limited by the energetics and geometry of the martensitic-austenitic phase transformation. Here, we report a unique shape memory behavior in CaFe2As2, which exhibits superelasticity with over 13% recoverable strain, over 3 GPa yield strength, repeatable stress-strain response even at the micrometer scale, and cryogenic linear shape memory effects near 50 K. These properties are acheived through a reversible uni-axial phase transformation mechanism, the tetragonal/orthorhombic-to-collapsed-tetragonal phase transformation. Our results offer the possibility of developing cryogenic linear actuation technologies with a high precision and high actuation power per unit volume for deep space exploration, and more broadly, suggest a mechanistic path to a class of shape memory materials, ThCr2Si2-structured intermetallic compounds.

16.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 546, 2017 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28916829

RESUMO

Experimental and theoretical investigations on itinerant ferromagnetic systems under pressure have shown that ferromagnetic quantum criticality is avoided either by a change of the transition order, becoming of the first order at a tricritical point, or by the appearance of modulated magnetic phases. In the first case, the application of a magnetic field reveals a wing-structure phase diagram as seen in itinerant ferromagnets such as ZrZn2 and UGe2. In the second case, no tricritical wings have been observed so far. Here, we report on the discovery of wing-structure as well as the appearance of modulated magnetic phases in the temperature-pressure-magnetic field phase diagram of LaCrGe3. Our investigation of LaCrGe3 reveals a double-wing structure indicating strong similarities with ZrZn2 and UGe2. But, unlike these simpler systems, LaCrGe3 also shows modulated magnetic phases similar to CeRuPO. This finding provides an example of an additional possibility for the phase diagram of metallic quantum ferromagnets.The study of phase transitions in quantum ferromagnets has shown that the approach to a continuous quantum ferromagnetic transition is typically interrupted by either a tricritical point or a new magnetic phase. Here the authors show that LaCrGe3 exhibits both these features in its phase diagram.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(11): 4130-4143, 2017 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28206753

RESUMO

A new polymorph of the RE2Ru3Ge5 (RE = Pr, Sm, Dy) compounds has been grown as single crystals via an indium flux. These compounds crystallize in tetragonal space group P4/mnc with the Sc2Fe3Si5-type structure, having lattice parameters a = 11.020(2) Šand c = 5.853(1) Šfor RE = Pr, a = 10.982(2) Šand c = 5.777(1) Šfor RE = Sm, and a = 10.927(2) Šand c = 5.697(1) Šfor RE = Dy. These materials exhibit a structural transition at low temperature, which is attributed to an apparent charge density wave (CDW). Both the high-temperature average crystal structure and the low-temperature incommensurately modulated crystal structure (for Sm2Ru3Ge5 as a representative) have been solved. The charge density wave order is manifested by periodic distortions of the one-dimensional zigzag Ge chains. From X-ray diffraction, charge transport (electrical resistivity, Hall effect, magnetoresistance), magnetic measurements, and heat capacity, the ordering temperatures (TCDW) observed in the Pr and Sm analogues are ∼200 and ∼175 K, respectively. The charge transport measurement results indicate an electronic state transition happening simultaneously with the CDW transition. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and electronic band structure results are also reported.


Assuntos
Germânio/química , Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos/química , Teoria Quântica , Rutênio/química , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos
18.
Sci Adv ; 2(9): e1600835, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27626073

RESUMO

Low-temperature refrigeration is of crucial importance in fundamental research of condensed matter physics, because the investigations of fascinating quantum phenomena, such as superconductivity, superfluidity, and quantum criticality, often require refrigeration down to very low temperatures. Currently, cryogenic refrigerators with (3)He gas are widely used for cooling below 1 K. However, usage of the gas has been increasingly difficult because of the current worldwide shortage. Therefore, it is important to consider alternative methods of refrigeration. We show that a new type of refrigerant, the super-heavy electron metal YbCo2Zn20, can be used for adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration, which does not require (3)He gas. This method has a number of advantages, including much better metallic thermal conductivity compared to the conventional insulating refrigerants. We also demonstrate that the cooling performance is optimized in Yb1-x Sc x Co2Zn20 by partial Sc substitution, with x ~ 0.19. The substitution induces chemical pressure that drives the materials to a zero-field quantum critical point. This leads to an additional enhancement of the magnetocaloric effect in low fields and low temperatures, enabling final temperatures well below 100 mK. This performance has, up to now, been restricted to insulators. For nearly a century, the same principle of using local magnetic moments has been applied for adiabatic demagnetization cooling. This study opens new possibilities of using itinerant magnetic moments for cryogen-free refrigeration.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Magnetismo , Metais/química , Refrigeração/métodos , Temperatura Baixa , Condutividade Elétrica , Transporte de Elétrons , Transição de Fase , Teoria Quântica , Refrigeração/instrumentação
19.
Rep Prog Phys ; 79(8): 084506, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27377181

RESUMO

A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(3): 037207, 2016 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27472137

RESUMO

The temperature-pressure phase diagram of the ferromagnet LaCrGe_{3} is determined for the first time from a combination of magnetization, muon-spin-rotation, and electrical resistivity measurements. The ferromagnetic phase is suppressed near 2.1 GPa, but quantum criticality is avoided by the appearance of a magnetic phase, likely modulated, AFM_{Q}. Our density functional theory total energy calculations suggest a near degeneracy of antiferromagnetic states with small magnetic wave vectors Q allowing for the potential of an ordering wave vector evolving from Q=0 to finite Q, as expected from the most recent theories on ferromagnetic quantum criticality. Our findings show that LaCrGe_{3} is a very simple example to study this scenario of avoided ferromagnetic quantum criticality and will inspire further study on this material and other itinerant ferromagnets.

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