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2.
Life Sci Alliance ; 7(8)2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830771

RESUMO

Dengue fever, a neglected tropical arboviral disease, has emerged as a global health concern in the past decade. Necessitating a nuanced comprehension of the intricate dynamics of host-virus interactions influencing disease severity, we analysed transcriptomic patterns using bulk RNA-seq from 112 age- and gender-matched NS1 antigen-confirmed hospital-admitted dengue patients with varying severity. Severe cases exhibited reduced platelet count, increased lymphocytosis, and neutropenia, indicating a dysregulated immune response. Using bulk RNA-seq, our analysis revealed a minimal overlap between the differentially expressed gene and transcript isoform, with a distinct expression pattern across the disease severity. Severe patients showed enrichment in retained intron and nonsense-mediated decay transcript biotypes, suggesting altered splicing efficiency. Furthermore, an up-regulated programmed cell death, a haemolytic response, and an impaired interferon and antiviral response at the transcript level were observed. We also identified the potential involvement of the RBM39 gene among others in the innate immune response during dengue viral pathogenesis, warranting further investigation. These findings provide valuable insights into potential therapeutic targets, underscoring the importance of exploring transcriptomic landscapes between different disease sub-phenotypes in infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue Grave , Humanos , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Adulto , Dengue Grave/genética , Dengue Grave/imunologia , Dengue Grave/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transcriptoma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Dengue/genética , Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Adulto Jovem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia
3.
iScience ; 27(6): 109846, 2024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770134

RESUMO

Both host and viral RNA editing plays a crucial role in host's response to infection, yet our understanding of host RNA editing remains limited. In this study of in-house generated RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data of 211 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with PreVOC, Delta, and Omicron variants, we observed a significant differential editing frequency and patterns in long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), with Delta group displaying lower RNA editing compared to PreVOC/Omicron patients. Notably, multiple transcripts of UGDH-AS1 and NEAT1 exhibited high editing frequencies. Expression of ADAR1/APOBEC3A/APOBEC3G and differential abundance of repeats were possible modulators of differential editing across patient groups. We observed a shift in crucial infection-related pathways wherein the pathways were downregulated in Delta compared to PreVOC and Omicron. Our genomics-based evidence suggests that lncRNA editing influences stability, miRNA binding, and expression of both lncRNA and target genes. Overall, the study highlights the role of lncRNAs and how editing within host lncRNAs modulates the disease severity.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1307859, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38107870

RESUMO

Introduction: Dengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus that has emerged as a global health threat, characterized by either asymptomatic or mild self-limiting febrile illness, but a subset of DENV outbreaks have been associated with severe disease. Studies have looked into the host immune response and dengue viral load during infection. However, it remains unknown how the active microbial isolates modulate the dengue viral infection. In this study, we demonstrate the significance of in-depth analysis of microbiota composition in the serum samples of dengue-infected patients. Materials and methods: RNA was extracted from the serum samples collected from 24 dengue positive patients. The human mapped reads generated through RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) were removed, while the unmapped (non-human) reads were employed for microbial taxonomic classification using Kraken2 and Bracken2. Further, we assessed the initial blood parameters analyzing the complete blood count (CBC) profile of the patients. Results: Findings revealed differential abundance of commensals and pathogenic microbes in the early febrile period of hospitalized dengue patients, segregated into, High Viral Reads (HVR) and Low Viral Reads (LVR). The Campylobacter genus was abundant in the HVR whereas Lactobacillus dominated the LVR patients. At species level, the microbiota of HVR exhibited higher abundance of unique potential opportunistic microbes, compared to the commensal microbes' enrichment in the LVR patients'. We hypothesize that the DENV might alter the microbiota composition as observed by the increase in preponderance of opportunistic pathogens and an absence of commensals in the HVR. The presence of commensals in the LVR might explain, i) overall lower dengue viral reads compared to the HVR, and ii) shift in lymphocytes (high) and neutrophils (low) counts; resulting in a comparatively milder clinical manifestation in this group. Our findings may help in understanding the co-infection aspect that will be important to develop dengue therapeutics and vaccines. Discussion: This study highlights the potential of the unexplored roles of the TAMs in modulating the dengue disease severity using the metatranscriptomic sequencing. This study serves to enhance our understanding of the distinctive microbial and hematologic signatures in the early infection stage that differentiate patients with high viral reads patients from those with low dengue viral reads.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37996385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood component transfusions are a common and often necessary medical practice during the epidemics of dengue. Transfusions are required for patients when they developed severe dengue fever or thrombocytopenia of 10×109/L or less. This study therefore investigated the risk factors, performance and effectiveness of eight different machine-learning algorithms to predict blood component transfusion requirements in confirmed dengue cases admitted to hospital. The objective was to study the risk factors that can help to predict blood component transfusion needs. METHODS: Eight predictive models were developed based on retrospective data from a private group of hospitals in India. A python package SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanations) was used to explain the output of the "XGBoost" model. RESULTS: Sixteen vital variables were finally selected as having the most significant effects on blood component transfusion prediction. The XGBoost model presented significantly better predictive performance (area under the curve: 0.793; 95 % confidence interval: 0.699-0.795) than the other models. CONCLUSION: Predictive modelling techniques can be utilized to streamline blood component preparation procedures and can help in the triage of high-risk patients and readiness of caregivers to provide blood component transfusions when required. This study demonstrates the potential of multilayer algorithms to reasonably predict any blood component transfusion needs which may help healthcare providers make more informed decisions regarding patient care.

6.
iScience ; 26(12): 108336, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38025778

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic saw emergence of multiple SAR-CoV-2 variants. Exacerbated risk of severe outcome and hospital admissions led us to comprehend differential host-immune kinetics associated with SARS-CoV-2 variants. Longitudinal investigation was conducted through different time periods of Pre-VOC and VOCs (Delta & Omicron) mapping host transcriptome features. Robust antiviral type-1 interferon response marked Omicron infection, which was largely missing during Pre-VOC and Delta waves. SARS-CoV-2-host protein-protein interactions and docking complexes highlighted N protein to interact with HNRNPA1 in Pre-VOC, demonstrating its functional role for enhanced viral replication. Omicron revealed enhanced binding efficiency of LARP1 to N protein, probably potentiating antiviral effects of LARP1. Differential expression of zinc finger protein genes, especially in Omicron, mechanistically support induction of strong IFN (Interferon) response, thereby strengthening early viral clearance. Study highlights eventual adaptation of host to immune activation patterns that interrupt virus evolution with enhanced immune-evasion mutations and counteraction mechanisms, delimiting the next phase of COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
iScience ; 26(10): 107779, 2023 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37701571

RESUMO

Emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 VOCs jeopardize global vaccine and herd immunity safeguards. VOCs interactions with host microbiota might affect clinical course and outcome. This longitudinal investigation involving Pre-VOC and VOCs (Delta & Omicron) holo-transcriptome based nasopharyngeal microbiome at taxonomic levels followed by metabolic pathway analysis and integrative host-microbiome interaction. VOCs showed enrichment of Proteobacteria with dominance of Pseudomonas. Interestingly, Proteobacteria with superiority of Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, were highlights of Delta VOC rather than Omicron. Common species comprising the core microbiome across all variants, reiterated the significance of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Delta, and its association with metabolic pathways enhancing inflammation in patients. Microbe-host gene correlation network revealed Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa modulating immune pathways, which might augment clinical severity in Delta. Importantly, opportunistic species of Acinetobacter, Enterococcus, Prevotella, and Streptococcus were abundant in Delta-mortality. The study establishes a functional association between elevated nasal pathobionts and dysregulated host response, particularly for Delta.

8.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0135123, 2023 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37604131

RESUMO

Like single-stranded RNA viruses, SARS-CoV-2 hijacks the host transcriptional machinery for its own replication. Numerous traditional differential gene expression-based investigations have examined the diverse clinical symptoms caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The virus, on the other hand, also affects the host splicing machinery, causing host transcriptional dysregulation, which can lead to diverse clinical outcomes. Hence, in this study, we performed host transcriptome sequencing of 125 hospital-admitted COVID-19 patients to understand the transcriptomic differences between the severity sub-phenotypes of mild, moderate, severe, and mortality. We performed transcript-level differential expression analysis, investigated differential isoform usage, looked at the splicing patterns within the differentially expressed transcripts (DET), and elucidated the possible genome regulatory features. Our DTE analysis showed evidence of diminished transcript length and diversity as well as altered promoter site usage in the differentially expressed protein-coding transcripts in the COVID-19 mortality patients. We also investigated the potential mechanisms driving the alternate splicing and discovered a compelling differential enrichment of repeats in the promoter region and a specific enrichment of SINE (Alu) near the splicing sites of differentially expressed transcripts. These findings suggested a repeat-mediated plausible regulation of alternative splicing as a potential modulator of COVID-19 disease severity. In this work, we emphasize the role of scarcely elucidated functional role of alternative splicing in influencing COVID-19 disease severity sub-phenotypes, clinical outcomes, and its putative mechanism. IMPORTANCE The wide range of clinical symptoms reported during the COVID-19 pandemic inherently highlights the numerous factors that influence the progression and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. While several studies have investigated the host response and discovered immunological dysregulation during severe infection, most of them have the common theme of focusing only up to the gene level. Viruses, especially RNA viruses, are renowned for hijacking the host splicing machinery for their own proliferation, which inadvertently puts pressure on the host transcriptome, exposing another side of the host response to the pathogen challenge. Therefore, in this study, we examine host response at the transcript-level to discover a transcriptional difference that culminates in differential gene-level expression. Importantly, this study highlights diminished transcript diversity and possible regulation of transcription by differentially abundant repeat elements near the promoter region and splicing sites in COVID-19 mortality patients, which together with differentially expressed isoforms hold the potential to elaborate disease severity and outcome.

9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 14170, 2023 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37644081

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV), known to cause viral infection, belongs to the family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes (DENV1-4) that spreads by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. India has been suffering from dengue outbreaks annually with widespread epidemics by prevalence of all the four DENV serotypes. The diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations in dengue infection, mild to severe forms, makes the need of timely diagnosis and prompt treatment an essence. The identification of a dengue host response signature in serum can increase the understanding of dengue pathogenesis since most dengue NS1 Ag tests have been developed and evaluated in serum samples. Here, to understand the same, we undertook a dual RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) based approach from the serum samples of dengue-infected patients. The results thus yield the early transcriptional signatures that discriminated the high viral reads patients from patients who had low dengue viral reads. We identified a significant upregulation of two sets of genes, key antiviral (IFIT3, RSAD2, SAT1) and vascular dysfunction (TNFS10, CXCL8) related genes in the high viral reads group. Deeper delving of this gene profile revealed a unique two-way response, where the antiviral genes can mediate the disease course to mild, contrarily the increased expression of the other gene set might act as pointers of severe disease course. Further, we explored the hematologic parameters from the complete blood count (CBC), which suggests that lymphocytes (low) and neutrophils (high) might serve as an early predictor of prognosis in dengue infection. Collectively, our findings give insights into the foundation for further investigation of the early host response using the RNA isolated from dengue patients' serum samples and opens the door for careful monitoring of the early clinical and transcriptome profiles for management of the dengue patients.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Animais , Humanos , Transcriptoma , Gravidade do Paciente , Aedes/genética , Antivirais , Dengue/genética
10.
Br J Nurs ; 32(14): S4-S12, 2023 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37495417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two major avoidable reasons for adverse events in hospital are medication errors and intravenous therapy-induced infections or complications. Training for clinical staff and compliance to patient safety principles could address these. METHODS: Joint Commission International (JCI) consultants created a standardised, 6-month training programme for clinical staff in hospitals. Twenty-one tertiary care hospitals from across south-east Asia took part. JCI trained the clinical consultants, who trained hospital safety champions, who trained nursing staff. Compliance and knowledge were assessed, and monthly audits were conducted. RESULTS: There was an overall increase of 29% in compliance with parameters around medication preparation and vascular access device management. CONCLUSION: The programme improved safe practice around preparing medications management and managing vascular access devices. The approach could be employed as a continuous quality improvement initiative for the prevention of medication errors and infusion-associated complications.


Assuntos
Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem Hospitalar , Segurança do Paciente , Humanos , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Hospitais , Melhoria de Qualidade
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0429222, 2023 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37022180

RESUMO

Globally, COVID-19 vaccines have emerged as a boon, especially during the severe pandemic phases to control the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, saving millions of lives. However, mixed responses to vaccination with breakthrough challenges provided a rationale to explore the immune responses generated postvaccination, which plausibly alter the subsequent course of infection. In this regard, we comprehensively profiled the nasopharyngeal transcriptomic signature of double-dose-vaccinated individuals with breakthrough infections in comparison to unvaccinated infected persons. The vaccinated individuals demonstrated a gross downregulation of ribosomal proteins along with immune response genes and transcription/translational machinery that methodically modulated the entire innate immune landscape toward immune tolerance, a feature of innate immune memory. This coordinated response was orchestrated through 17 transcription factors captured as differentially expressed in the vaccination breakthroughs, including epigenetic modulators of CHD1 and LMNB1 and several immune response effectors, with ELF1 emerging as one of the important transcriptional regulators of the antiviral innate immune response. Deconvolution algorithm using bulk gene expression data revealed decreased T-cell populations with higher expression of memory B cells in the vaccination breakthroughs. Thus, vaccination might synergize the innate immune response with humoral and T-cell correlates of protection to more rapidly clear SARS-CoV-2 infections and reduce symptoms within a shorter span of time. An important feature invariably noted after secondary vaccination is downregulation of ribosomal proteins, which might plausibly be an important factor arising from epigenetic reprogramming leading to innate immune tolerance. IMPORTANCE The development of multiple vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection is an unprecedented milestone achieved globally. Immunization of the mass population is a rigorous process for getting the pandemic under control, yet continuous challenges are being faced, one of them being breakthrough infections. This is the first study wherein the vaccination breakthrough cases of COVD-19 relative to unvaccinated infected individuals have been explored. In the context of vaccination, how do innate and adaptive immune responses correspond to SARS-CoV-2 infection? How do these responses culminate in a milder observable phenotype with shorter hospital stay in vaccination breakthrough cases compared with the unvaccinated? We identified a subdued transcriptional landscape in vaccination breakthroughs with decreased expression of a large set of immune and ribosomal proteins genes. We propose a module of innate immune memory, i.e., immune tolerance, which plausibly helps to explain the observed mild phenotype and fast recovery in vaccination breakthroughs.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Imunidade Inata , Infecções Irruptivas
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(2): e1011160, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36800345

RESUMO

The development of COVID 19 vaccines as an effort to mitigate the outbreak, has saved millions of lives globally. However, vaccination breakthroughs have continuously challenged the vaccines' effectiveness and provided incentives to explore facets holding potential to alter vaccination-induced immunity and protection from subsequent infection, especially VOCs (Variants Of Concern). We explored the functional dynamics of nasopharyngeal transcriptionally active microbes (TAMs) between vaccination breakthroughs and unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Microbial taxonomic communities were differentially altered with skewed enrichment of bacterial class/genera of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria with grossly reduced phylum Bacteroidetes in vaccination breakthrough individuals. The Bacillus genus was abundant in Firmicutes in vaccination breakthrough whereas Prevotella among Bacteroides dominated the unvaccinated. Also, Pseudomonas and Salmonella of Gammaproteobacteria were overrepresented in vaccination breakthrough, whilst unvaccinated showed presence of several genera, Achromobacter, Bordetella, Burkholderia, Neisseria, Hemophilus, Salmonella and Pseudomonas, belonging to Proteobacteria. At species level, the microbiota of vaccination breakthrough exhibited relatively higher abundance of unique commensals, in comparison to potential opportunistic microbes enrichment in unvaccinated patients' microbiota. Functional metabolic pathways like amino acid biosynthesis, sulphate assimilation, fatty acid and beta oxidation, associated with generation of SCFAs (short chain fatty acids), were enriched in vaccination breakthroughs. Majorly, metabolic pathways of LCFAs biosynthesis (long chain fatty acids; oleate, dodecenoate, palmitoleate, gondoate) were found associated with the unvaccinated. Our research highlights that vaccination decreases the microbial diversity in terms of depleting opportunistic pathogens and increasing the preponderance of commensals with respect to unvaccinated patients. Metabolic pathway analysis substantiates the shift in diversity to functionally modulate immune response generation, which may be related to mild clinical manifestations and faster recovery times during vaccination breakthroughs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gammaproteobacteria , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Vacinação , Bacteroidetes , Ácidos Graxos
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1035111, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466827

RESUMO

Introduction: The emergence of multiple variants of concerns (VOCs) with higher number of Spike mutations have led to enhanced immune escape by the SARS-CoV-2. With the increasing number of vaccination breakthrough (VBT) infections, it is important to understand the possible reason/s of the breakthrough infections. Methods: We performed transcriptome sequencing of 57 VBT and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients, followed by differential expression and co-expression analysis of the lncRNAs and the mRNAs. The regulatory mechanism was highlighted by analysis towards repeat element distribution within the co-expressed lncRNAs, followed by repeats driven homologous interaction between the lncRNAs and the promoter regions of genes from the same topologically associated domains (TAD). Results: We identified 727 differentially expressed lncRNAs (153 upregulated and 574 downregulated) and 338 mRNAs (34 up- and 334 downregulated) in the VBT patients. This includes LUCAT1, MALAT1, ROR1-AS1, UGDH-AS1 and LINC00273 mediated modulation of immune response, whereas MALAT1, NEAT1 and GAS5 regulated inflammatory response in the VBT. LncRNA-mRNA co-expression analysis highlighted 34 lncRNAs interacting with 267 mRNAs. We also observed a higher abundance of Alu, LINE1 and LTRs within the interacting lncRNAs of the VBT patients. These interacting lncRNAs have higher interaction with the promoter region of the genes from the same TAD, compared to the non-interacting lncRNAs with the enrichment of Alu and LINE1 in the gene promoter. Discussion: Significant downregulation and GSEA of the TAD gene suggest Alu and LINE1 driven homologous interaction between the lncRNAs and the TAD genes as a possible mechanism of lncRNA-mediated suppression of innate immune/inflammatory responses and activation of adaptive immune response. The lncRNA-mediated suppression of innate immune/inflammatory responses and activation of adaptive immune response might explain the SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections with milder symptoms in the VBT. Besides, the study also highlights repeat element mediated regulation of genes in 3D as another possible way of lncRNA-mediated immune-regulation modulating vaccination breakthroughs milder disease phenotype and shorter hospital stay.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , RNA Longo não Codificante , Humanos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Baixo , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas contra COVID-19/genética , Vacinação , RNA Mensageiro , Imunidade Inata/genética , Inflamação/genética
14.
J Minim Access Surg ; 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124474

RESUMO

Background: Several risk calculating tools have been introduced into clinical practice to provide patients and clinicians with objective, individualised estimates of procedure-related unfavourable outcomes. The currently available risk calculators (RCs) have been developed by well-endowed health systems in Europe and the USA. Applicability of these RCs in low-middle income country (LMIC) settings with wide disparities in patient population, surgical practice and healthcare infrastructure has not been adequately examined. Patients and Methods: Through this single tertiary care, LMIC-centre, retrospective cohort study, we investigated the accuracy of the two most widely validated RCs - American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) RC and ColoRectal Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (CR-POSSUM) - for the prediction of mortality in patients undergoing elective and emergency colorectal surgery (CRS) from March 2013 to March 2020. Online RCs were used to predict mortality and other outcomes. Accuracy was assessed by Brier score and C statistic. Results: Of 105 patients, 69 (65.71%) underwent elective and 36 (34.28%) underwent emergency CRS. The 30-day overall mortality was 12 - elective 1 (1.4%) and emergency 11 (30.5%). ACS-NSQIP RC performed better for the prediction of overall (C statistic 0.939, Brier score 0.065) and emergency (C statistic 0.840, Brier score 0.152) mortality. However, for elective CRS mortality, Brier scores were similar for both models (0.014), whereas C statistic (0.934 vs. 0.890) value was better for ACS-NSQIP. Conclusions: Both ACS-NSQIP and CR-POSSUM were accurate for the prediction of CRS mortality. However, compared to CR-POSSUM, ACS-NSQIP performed better. The overall performance of both models is indicative of their wider applicability in LMIC centres also.

16.
Microbiol Res ; 262: 127099, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs at different time points through COVID-19 pandemic raised concern for increased transmissibility, infectivity and vaccination breakthroughs. METHODS: 1567 international travellers plus community transmission COVID-19 cases were analysed for mutational profile of VOCS, that led to notable waves in India, namely Alpha, Delta, and Omicron. Spike mutations in Linkage Disequilibrium were investigated for potential impact on structural and functional changes of Spike-ACE2. RESULTS: ORF1ab and spike harboured diverse mutational signatures for each lineage. B.1.617.2 and AY. * demonstrated comparable profile, yet non-clade defining mutations were majorly unique between international vs community samples. Contrarily, Omicron lineages showed substantial overlap in non-clade defining mutations, signifying early phase of transmission and evolution within Indian community. Mutations in LD for Alpha [N501Y, A570D, D1118H, S982A], Delta [P681R, L452R, EFR:156-158 G, D950N, G142D] and Omicron [P681H, D796Y, N764K, N969K, N501Y, S375F] resulted in decreased binding affinity of Spike-ACE2 for Alpha and BA.1 whereas Delta, Omicron and BA.2 demonstrated strong binding. CONCLUSION: Genomic surveillance tracked spread of VOCs in international travellers' vs community transmission. Behavioural transmission patterns of variants, based on selective advantage incurred by spike mutations, led us to predict sudden takeover of Delta over Alpha and BA.2 over BA.1 in India.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Mutação , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
18.
IJID Reg ; 3: 44-53, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720143

RESUMO

Objective: To gain better insight into the extent of secondary bacterial and fungal infections in hospitalized patients in India, and to assess how these alter the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) so that control measures can be suggested. Methods: In this retrospective, multicentre study, the data of all patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), admitted to hospital between March 2020 and July 2021, were accessed from the electronic health records of a network of 10 hospitals across five states in North India. Results: Of 19,852 patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR and admitted to the study hospitals during the study period, 1940 (9.8%) patients developed secondary infections (SIs). Patients with SIs were, on average, 8 years older than patients without SIs (median age 62.6 vs 54.3 years; P<0.001). The risk of SIs was significantly (P<0.001) associated with age, severity of disease at admission, diabetes, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and ventilator use. The most common site of infection was urine (41.7%), followed by blood (30.8%) and sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage/endotracheal fluid (24.8%); the least common was pus/wound discharge (2.6%). Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) were the most common organisms (63.2%), followed by Gram-positive cocci (GPC) (19.6%) and fungi (17.3%). Most patients with SIs were on multiple antimicrobials. The most commonly used antibiotics against GNB were beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors (76.9%), carbapenems (57.7%), cephalosporins (53.9%), and antibiotics against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (47.1%). Empirical use of antibiotics against GPC was seen in 58.9% of patients with SIs, and empirical use of antifungals was observed in 56.9% of patients with SIs. The average length of hospital stay for patients with SIs was almost twice as long as that of patients without SIs (median 13 vs 7 days). Overall mortality among patients with SIs (40.3%) was more than eight times higher than that among patients without SIs (4.6%). Only 1.2% of patients with SIs with mild COVID-19 at admission died, compared with 17.5% of those with moderate COVID-19 at admission and 58.5% of those with severe COVID-19 at admission (P<0.001). The mortality rate was highest in patients with bloodstream infections (49.8%), followed by those with hospital-acquired pneumonia (47.9%), urinary tract infections (29.4%), and skin and soft tissue infections (29.4%). The mortality rate in patients with diabetes with SIs was 45.2%, compared with 34.3% in those without diabetes (P<0.001). Conclusions: SIs complicate the course of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. These patients tend to have a much longer hospital stay, a higher requirement for oxygen and ICU care, and a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those without SIs. The groups most vulnerable to SIs are patients with more severe COVID-19, elderly patients and patients with diabetes. Judicious empirical use of combination antimicrobials in these groups of vulnerable patients can save lives. It is desirable to have region- or country-specific guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics and antifungals to prevent their overuse.

19.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0231121, 2022 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579429

RESUMO

The modulators of severe COVID-19 have emerged as the most intriguing features of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. This is especially true as we are encountering variants of concern (VOC) with increased transmissibility and vaccination breakthroughs. Microbial co-infections are being investigated as one of the crucial factors for exacerbation of disease severity and complications of COVID-19. A key question remains whether early transcriptionally active microbial signature/s in COVID-19 patients can provide a window for future disease severity susceptibility and outcome? Using complementary metagenomics sequencing approaches, respiratory virus oligo panel (RVOP) and Holo-seq, our study highlights the possible functional role of nasopharyngeal early resident transcriptionally active microbes in modulating disease severity, within recovered patients with sub-phenotypes (mild, moderate, severe) and mortality. The integrative analysis combines patients' clinical parameters, SARS-CoV-2 phylogenetic analysis, microbial differential composition, and their functional role. The clinical sub-phenotypes analysis led to the identification of transcriptionally active bacterial species associated with disease severity. We found significant transcript abundance of Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Bacillus cereus in the mortality, Leptotrichia buccalis in the severe, Veillonella parvula in the moderate, and Actinomyces meyeri and Halomonas sp. in the mild COVID-19 patients. Additionally, the metabolic pathways, distinguishing the microbial functional signatures between the clinical sub-phenotypes, were also identified. We report a plausible mechanism wherein the increased transcriptionally active bacterial isolates might contribute to enhanced inflammatory response and co-infections that could modulate the disease severity in these groups. Current study provides an opportunity for potentially using these bacterial species for screening and identifying COVID-19 patient sub-groups with severe disease outcome and priority medical care. IMPORTANCE COVID-19 is invariably a disease of diverse clinical manifestation, with multiple facets involved in modulating the progression and outcome. In this regard, we investigated the role of transcriptionally active microbial co-infections as possible modulators of disease pathology in hospital admitted SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Specifically, can there be early nasopharyngeal microbial signatures indicative of prospective disease severity? Based on disease severity symptoms, the patients were segregated into clinical sub-phenotypes: mild, moderate, severe (recovered), and mortality. We identified significant presence of transcriptionally active isolates, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Bacillus cereus in the mortality patients. Importantly, the bacterial species might contribute toward enhancing the inflammatory responses as well as reported to be resistant to common antibiotic therapy, which together hold potential to alter the disease severity and outcome.


Assuntos
Achromobacter denitrificans , COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Microbiota , Achromobacter denitrificans/genética , Bacillus cereus , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1726, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365648

RESUMO

Immunization is expected to confer protection against infection and severe disease for vaccines while reducing risks to unimmunized populations by inhibiting transmission. Here, based on serial serological studies of an observational cohort of healthcare workers, we show that during a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome -Coronavirus 2 Delta-variant outbreak in Delhi, 25.3% (95% Confidence Interval 16.9-35.2) of previously uninfected, ChAdOx1-nCoV19 double vaccinated, healthcare workers were infected within less than two months, based on serology. Induction of anti-spike response was similar between groups with breakthrough infection (541 U/ml, Inter Quartile Range 374) and without (342 U/ml, Inter Quartile Range 497), as was the induction of neutralization activity to wildtype. This was not vaccine failure since vaccine effectiveness estimate based on infection rates in an unvaccinated cohort were about 70% and most infections were asymptomatic. We find that while ChAdOx1-nCoV19 vaccination remains effective in preventing severe infections, it is unlikely to be completely able to block transmission and provide herd immunity.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Imunização , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
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