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1.
Inj Prev ; 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medication poisoning is a common form of self-harm injury, and increases in injuries due to self-harm, including suicide attempts, have been reported over the last two decades. METHODS: Cross-sectional (2016-2019) data from 60 emergency departments (EDs) participating in an active, nationally representative public health surveillance system were analysed and US national estimates of ED visits for medication-related self-harm injuries were calculated. RESULTS: Based on 18 074 surveillance cases, there were an estimated 269 198 (95% CI 222 059 to 316 337) ED visits for medication-related self-harm injuries annually in 2016-2019 compared with 1 404 090 visits annually from therapeutic use of medications. Population rates of medication-related self-harm ED visits were highest among persons aged 11-19 years (58.5 (95% CI 45.0 to 72.0) per 10 000) and lowest among those aged ≥65 years (6.6 (95% CI 4.4 to 8.8) per 10 000). Among persons aged 11-19 years, the ED visit rate for females was four times that for males (95.4 (95% CI 74.2 to 116.7) vs 23.0 (95% CI 16.4 to 29.6) per 10 000). Medical or psychiatric admission was required for three-quarters (75.1%; 95% CI 70.0% to 80.2%) of visits. Concurrent use of alcohol or illicit substances was documented in 40.2% (95% CI 36.8% to 43.7%) of visits, and multiple medication products were implicated in 38.6% (95% CI 36.8% to 40.4%). The most frequently implicated medication categories varied by patient age. CONCLUSIONS: Medication-related self-harm injuries are an important contributor to the overall burden of ED visits and hospitalisations for medication-related harm, with the highest rates among adolescent and young adult females. These findings support continued prevention efforts targeting patients at risk of self-harm.

2.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 239-243, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35125027

RESUMO

Monitoring COVID-19 vaccination coverage among nursing home residents and staff is important to ensure high coverage rates and guide patient-safety policies. With the termination of the federal Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program, another source of facility-based vaccination data is needed. We compared numbers of COVID-19 vaccinations administered to nursing home residents and staff reported by pharmacies participating in the temporary federal Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program with the numbers of COVID-19 vaccinations reported by nursing homes participating in new COVID-19 vaccination modules of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Pearson correlation coefficients comparing the number vaccinated between the 2 approaches were 0.89, 0.96, and 0.97 for residents and 0.74, 0.90, and 0.90 for staff, in the weeks ending January 3, 10, and 17, 2021, respectively. Based on subsequent NHSN reporting, vaccination coverage with ≥1 vaccine dose reached 73.7% for residents and 47.6% for staff the week ending January 31 and increased incrementally through July 2021. Continued monitoring of COVID-19 vaccination coverage is important as new nursing home residents are admitted, new staff are hired, and additional doses of vaccine are recommended.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Assistência de Longa Duração , Casas de Saúde , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. , Humanos , Notificação de Abuso , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
3.
Med Care ; 60(3): 219-226, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Administrative claims are commonly relied upon to identify hypoglycemia. We assessed validity of 14 International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code assignments to identify medication-related hypoglycemia leading to acute care encounters. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A multisite, retrospective medical record review study was conducted in a sample of Medicare beneficiaries prescribed outpatient diabetes medications and who received hospital care between January 1, 2016 and September 30, 2017. Diagnosis codes were validated with structured medical record review using prespecified criteria (clinical presentation, blood glucose values, and treatments for hypoglycemia). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV) were calculated and adjusted using sampling weights to correct for partial verification bias. RESULTS: Among 990 encounters (496 cases, 494 controls), hypoglycemia codes demonstrated moderate PPV (69.2%; 95% confidence interval: 65.0-73.0) and moderate sensitivity (83.9%; 95% confidence interval: 70.0-95.5). Codes performed better at identifying hypoglycemic events among emergency department/observation encounters compared with hospitalizations (PPV 92.9%, sensitivity 100.0% vs. PPV 53.7%, sensitivity 71.0%). Accuracy varied by diagnosis position, especially for hospitalizations, with PPV of 95.6% versus 46.5% with hypoglycemia in primary versus secondary positions. Use of adverse event/poisoning codes did not improve accuracy; reliance on these codes alone would have missed 97% of true hypoglycemic events. CONCLUSIONS: Accuracy of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes in administrative claims to identify medication-related hypoglycemia varied substantially by encounter type and diagnosis position. Consideration should be given to the trade-off between PPV and sensitivity when selecting codes, encounter types, and diagnosis positions to identify hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 74-82, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trends in prescribing for nursing home (NH) residents, which may have been influenced by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, have not been characterized. METHODS: Long-term care pharmacy data from 1944 US NHs were used to evaluate trends in prescribing of antibiotics and drugs that were investigated for COVID-19 treatment, including hydroxychloroquine, famotidine, and dexamethasone. To account for seasonal variability in antibiotic prescribing and decreased NH occupancy during the pandemic, monthly prevalence of residents with a prescription dispensed per 1000 residents serviced was calculated from January to October and compared as relative percent change from 2019 to 2020. RESULTS: In April 2020, prescribing was significantly higher in NHs for drugs investigated for COVID-19 treatment than 2019; including hydroxychloroquine (+563%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.87, 7.48) and azithromycin (+150%, 95% CI: 2.37, 2.63). Ceftriaxone prescribing also increased (+43%, 95% CI: 1.34, 1.54). Prescribing of dexamethasone was 36% lower in April (95% CI: .55, .73) and 303% higher in July (95% CI: 3.66, 4.45). Although azithromycin and ceftriaxone prescribing increased, total antibiotic prescribing among residents was lower from May (-5%, 95% CI: .94, .97) through October (-4%, 95% CI: .94, .97) in 2020 compared to 2019. CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic, large numbers of residents were prescribed drugs investigated for COVID-19 treatment, and an increase in prescribing of antibiotics commonly used for respiratory infections was observed. Prescribing of these drugs may increase the risk of adverse events, without providing clear benefits. Surveillance of NH prescribing practices is critical to evaluate concordance with guideline-recommended therapy and improve resident safety.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 31(2): 225-234, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Characterization of emergency department (ED) visits for acute harms related to use of over-the-counter cough and cold medications (CCMs) by patient demographics, intent of CCM use, concurrent substance use, and clinical manifestations can help guide prevention of medication harms. METHODS: Public health surveillance data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Cooperative Adverse Drug Event Surveillance project were used to estimate numbers and population rates of ED visits from 2017 to 2019. RESULTS: Based on 1396 surveillance cases, there were an estimated 26 735 (95% CI, 21 679-31 791) US ED visits for CCM-related harms annually, accounting for 1.3% (95% CI, 1.2-1.5%) of all ED visits for medication adverse events. Three fifths (61.4%, 95% CI, 55.6-67.2%) of these visits were attributed to non-therapeutic CCM use (nonmedical use, self-harm, unsupervised pediatric exposures). Most visits by children aged <4 years (74.0%, 95% CI, 59.7-88.3%) were for unsupervised CCM exposures. Proportion hospitalized was higher for visits for self-harm (76.5%, 95% CI, 68.9-84.2%) than for visits for nonmedical use (30.3%, 95% CI, 21.1-39.6%) and therapeutic use (8.8%, 95% CI, 5.9-11.8%). Overall, estimated population rates of ED visits for CCM-related harms were higher for patients aged 12-34 years (16.5 per 100 000, 95% CI, 13.0-20.0) compared with patients aged <12 years (5.1 per 100 000, 95% CI, 3.6-6.5) and ≥ 35 years (4.3 per 100 000, 95% CI, 3.4-5.1). Concurrent use of other medications, illicit drugs, or alcohol was frequent in ED visits for nonmedical use (61.3%) and self-harm (75.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Continued national surveillance of CCM-related harms can assess progress toward safer use.


Assuntos
Tosse , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
JAMA ; 326(13): 1299-1309, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609453

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Assessing the scope of acute medication harms to patients should include both therapeutic and nontherapeutic medication use. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of emergency department (ED) visits for acute harms from both therapeutic and nontherapeutic medication use in the US. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Active, nationally representative, public health surveillance based on patient visits to 60 EDs in the US participating in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Cooperative Adverse Drug Event Surveillance Project from 2017 through 2019. EXPOSURES: Medications implicated in ED visits, with visits attributed to medication harms (adverse events) based on the clinicians' diagnoses and supporting data documented in the medical record. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Nationally weighted estimates of ED visits and subsequent hospitalizations for medication harms. RESULTS: Based on 96 925 cases (mean patient age, 49 years; 55% female), there were an estimated 6.1 (95% CI, 4.8-7.5) ED visits for medication harms per 1000 population annually and 38.6% (95% CI, 35.2%-41.9%) resulted in hospitalization. Population rates of ED visits for medication harms were higher for patients aged 65 years or older than for those younger than 65 years (12.1 vs 5.0 [95% CI, 7.4-16.8 vs 4.1-5.8] per 1000 population). Overall, an estimated 69.1% (95% CI, 63.6%-74.7%) of ED visits for medication harms involved therapeutic medication use, but among patients younger than 45 years, an estimated 52.5% (95% CI, 48.1%-56.8%) of visits for medication harms involved nontherapeutic use. The proportions of ED visits for medication harms involving therapeutic use were lowest for barbiturates (6.3%), benzodiazepines (11.1%), nonopioid analgesics (15.7%), and antihistamines (21.8%). By age group, the most frequent medication types and intents of use associated with ED visits for medication harms were therapeutic use of anticoagulants (4.5 [95% CI, 2.3-6.7] per 1000 population) and diabetes agents (1.8 [95% CI, 1.3-2.3] per 1000 population) for patients aged 65 years and older; therapeutic use of diabetes agents (0.8 [95% CI, 0.5-1.0] per 1000 population) for patients aged 45 to 64 years; nontherapeutic use of benzodiazepines (1.0 [95% CI, 0.7-1.3] per 1000 population) for patients aged 25 to 44 years; and unsupervised medication exposures (2.2 [95% CI, 1.8-2.7] per 1000 population) and therapeutic use of antibiotics (1.4 [95% CI, 1.0-1.8] per 1000 population) for children younger than 5 years. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: According to data from 60 nationally representative US emergency departments, visits attributed to medication harms in 2017-2019 were frequent, with variation in products and intent of use by age.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Barbitúricos/efeitos adversos , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(30): 1036-1039, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324478

RESUMO

Residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) and health care personnel (HCP) working in these facilities are at high risk for COVID-19-associated mortality. As of March 2021, deaths among LTCF residents and HCP have accounted for almost one third (approximately 182,000) of COVID-19-associated deaths in the United States (1). Accordingly, LTCF residents and HCP were prioritized for early receipt of COVID-19 vaccination and were targeted for on-site vaccination through the federal Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program (2). In December 2020, CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) launched COVID-19 vaccination modules, which allow U.S. LTCFs to voluntarily submit weekly facility-level COVID-19 vaccination data.* CDC analyzed data submitted during March 1-April 4, 2021, to describe COVID-19 vaccination coverage among a convenience sample of HCP working in LTCFs, by job category, and compare HCP vaccination coverage rates with social vulnerability metrics of the surrounding community using zip code tabulation area (zip code area) estimates. Through April 4, 2021, a total of 300 LTCFs nationwide, representing approximately 1.8% of LTCFs enrolled in NHSN, reported that 22,825 (56.8%) of 40,212 HCP completed COVID-19 vaccination.† Vaccination coverage was highest among physicians and advanced practice providers (75.1%) and lowest among nurses (56.7%) and aides (45.6%). Among aides (including certified nursing assistants, nurse aides, medication aides, and medication assistants), coverage was lower in facilities located in zip code areas with higher social vulnerability (social and structural factors associated with adverse health outcomes), corresponding to vaccination disparities present in the wider community (3). Additional efforts are needed to improve LTCF immunization policies and practices, build confidence in COVID-19 vaccines, and promote COVID-19 vaccination. CDC and partners have prepared education and training resources to help educate HCP and promote COVID-19 vaccination coverage among LTCF staff members.§.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Residenciais , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 30(5): 573-581, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625786

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We used data from two public health surveillance systems for national estimates and detailed descriptions of insulin mix-up errors resulting in emergency department (ED) visits and other serious adverse events to help inform prevention efforts. METHODS: ED visits involving patients seeking care for insulin medication errors collected by the NEISS-CADES project in 2012-2017 and voluntary reports of serious insulin medication errors submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2016-2017 were analyzed. National estimates of insulin product prescriptions dispensed from retail pharmacies were obtained from IQVIA National Prescription Audit. RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2017, based on 514 NEISS-CADES cases, there were an estimated 5636 (95% CI, 4143-7128) ED visits annually for insulin mix-up errors; overall, over three-quarters (77.5%; 95% CI, 71.6%-83.3%) involved taking rapid-acting instead of long-acting insulin. Between 2012 and 2017, the proportion of mix-up errors among all estimated ED visits for all insulin errors decreased by 60%; concurrently, the proportion of pens among all insulin package types dispensed increased by 50%. Among 58 voluntary reports submitted to FAERS, over one-half (56.9%) of cases involved taking rapid- instead of long-acting insulin. Among 27 cases with documented contributing factors, approximately one-half involved patients having difficulty differentiating products. CONCLUSIONS: Among all ED visits for insulin errors collected by NEISS-CADES in 2012-2017, the proportion involving mix-up errors has declined. Continued reductions may require additional prevention strategies, including improving insulin distinctiveness, particularly for rapid- vs long-acting insulins. Ongoing national surveillance is important for identifying the impact of interventions.


Assuntos
Insulina , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Erros de Medicação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e652-e660, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of our study was to describe trends in US outpatient antibiotic prescriptions from January through May 2020 and compare with trends in previous years (2017-2019). METHODS: We used data from the IQVIA Total Patient Tracker to estimate the monthly number of patients dispensed antibiotic prescriptions from retail pharmacies from January 2017 through May 2020. We averaged estimates from 2017 through 2019 and defined expected seasonal change as the average percent change from January to May 2017-2019. We calculated percentage point and volume changes in the number of patients dispensed antibiotics from January to May 2020 exceeding expected seasonal changes. We also calculated average percent change in number of patients dispensed antibiotics per month in 2017-2019 versus 2020. Data were analyzed overall and by agent, class, patient age, state, and prescriber specialty. RESULTS: From January to May 2020, the number of patients dispensed antibiotic prescriptions decreased from 20.3 to 9.9 million, exceeding seasonally expected decreases by 33 percentage points and 6.6 million patients. The largest changes in 2017-2019 versus 2020 were observed in April (-39%) and May (-42%). The number of patients dispensed azithromycin increased from February to March 2020 then decreased. Overall, beyond-expected decreases were greatest among children (≤19 years) and agents used for respiratory infections, dentistry, and surgical prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: From January 2020 to May 2020, the number of outpatients with antibiotic prescriptions decreased substantially more than would be expected because of seasonal trends alone, possibly related to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and associated mitigation measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pandemias , Padrões de Prática Médica , Prescrições , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(11): ofaa528, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274249

RESUMO

Using a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated hospitalization surveillance network, we found that 42.5% of hospitalized COVID-19 cases with available data from March 1-June 30, 2020, received ≥1 COVID-19 investigational treatment. Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir were used frequently; however, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin use declined over time, while use of remdesivir increased.

13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(35): 1210-1215, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881845

RESUMO

Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, primarily used to treat autoimmune diseases and to prevent and treat malaria, received national attention in early March 2020, as potential treatment and prophylaxis for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1). On March 20, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate in the Strategic National Stockpile to be used by licensed health care providers to treat patients hospitalized with COVID-19 when the providers determine the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the patient.* Following reports of cardiac and other adverse events in patients receiving hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 (2), on April 24, 2020, FDA issued a caution against its use† and on June 15, rescinded its EUA for hydroxychloroquine from the Strategic National Stockpile.§ Following the FDA's issuance of caution and EUA rescindment, on May 12 and June 16, the federal COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel issued recommendations against the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine to treat COVID-19; the panel also noted that at that time no medication could be recommended for COVID-19 pre- or postexposure prophylaxis outside the setting of a clinical trial (3). However, public discussion concerning the effectiveness of these drugs on outcomes of COVID-19 (4,5), and clinical trials of hydroxychloroquine for prophylaxis of COVID-19 continue.¶ In response to recent reports of notable increases in prescriptions for hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine (6), CDC analyzed outpatient retail pharmacy transaction data to identify potential differences in prescriptions dispensed by provider type during January-June 2020 compared with the same period in 2019. Before 2020, primary care providers and specialists who routinely prescribed hydroxychloroquine, such as rheumatologists and dermatologists, accounted for approximately 97% of new prescriptions. New prescriptions by specialists who did not typically prescribe these medications (defined as specialties accounting for ≤2% of new prescriptions before 2020) increased from 1,143 prescriptions in February 2020 to 75,569 in March 2020, an 80-fold increase from March 2019. Although dispensing trends are returning to prepandemic levels, continued adherence to current clinical guidelines for the indicated use of these medications will ensure their availability and benefit to patients for whom their use is indicated (3,4), because current data on treatment and pre- or postexposure prophylaxis for COVID-19 indicate that the potential benefits of these drugs do not appear to outweigh their risks.


Assuntos
Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Especialização/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
14.
Med Care ; 58(10): 927-933, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia related to antidiabetic drugs (ADDs) is important iatrogenic harm in hospitalized patients. Electronic identification of ADD-related hypoglycemia may be an efficient, reliable method to inform quality improvement. OBJECTIVE: Develop electronic queries of electronic health records for facility-wide and unit-specific inpatient hypoglycemia event rates and validate query findings with manual chart review. METHODS: Electronic queries were created to associate blood glucose (BG) values with ADD administration and inpatient location in 3 tertiary care hospitals with Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network (PCORnet) databases. Queries were based on National Quality Forum criteria with hypoglycemia thresholds <40 and <54 mg/dL, and validated using a stratified random sample of 321 BG events. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with manual chart review as the reference standard. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of queries for hypoglycemia events were 97.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 90.5%-99.7%] and 100.0% (95% CI, 92.6%-100.0%), respectively for BG <40 mg/dL, and 97.7% (95% CI, 93.3%-99.5%) and 100.0% (95% CI, 95.3%-100.0%), respectively for <54 mg/dL. The sensitivity and specificity of the query for identifying ADD days were 91.8% (95% CI, 89.2%-94.0%) and 99.0% (95% CI, 97.5%-99.7%). Of 48 events missed by the queries, 37 (77.1%) were due to incomplete identification of insulin administered by infusion. Facility-wide hypoglycemia rates were 0.4%-0.8% (BG <40 mg/dL) and 1.9%-3.0% (BG <54 mg/dL); rates varied by patient care unit. CONCLUSIONS: Electronic queries can accurately identify inpatient hypoglycemia. Implementation in non-PCORnet-participating facilities should be assessed, with particular attention to patient location and insulin infusions.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pacientes Internados , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Centros de Atenção Terciária/normas
18.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 29(3): 352-356, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483401

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify possible changes in U.S. emergency department (ED) visits from zolpidem-attributed adverse drug reactions (ADRs) after 2013 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Drug Safety Communications (DSCs), which notified the public about FDA's new dosing recommendations for zolpidem. Methods: We estimated the occurrence of ED visits from zolpidem-attributed ADRs using nationally representative, public health surveillance of medication harms (National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Cooperative Adverse Drug Event Surveillance project, 2010-2017). We estimated the number of zolpidem prescriptions using IQVIA National Prescription Audit, 2010-2017. We calculated rates of ED visits for zolpidem-attributed ADRs per 10 000 dispensed zolpidem prescriptions and identified time trends and potential inflection points using joinpoint regression. For comparison, we repeated these analyses for sedating antidepressants commonly used to treat disordered sleep (trazodone, doxepin, and mirtazapine). Results: The best-fit regression model for rates of ED visits for zolpidem-attributed ADRs by 6-month intervals identified a single inflection point in the second half of 2014 (P = .024) with a 6.7% biannual decrease from 2010 to 2014 ([-13.1%, 0.3%], P = .059) and a 13.9% biannual increase from the second half of 2014 through 2017 ([-1.1%, 31.3%], P = .068). No change or inflection points were identified for rates of ED visits for sedating antidepressant-attributed ADRs. Conclusions: While there was a nominal decline in the rate of ED visits for ADRs in the time period before and for 18 months after FDA's 2013 zolpidem DSCs, the decrease was not sustained, and thus questions remain concerning the long-term impact of the zolpidem DSCs on ADRs.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Zolpidem/administração & dosagem , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration , Zolpidem/uso terapêutico
20.
Am J Prev Med ; 58(4): 526-535, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089287

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Characterization of emergency department visits attributed to adverse events involving benzodiazepines can be used to guide preventive interventions. This study describes U.S. emergency department visits attributed to adverse events involving benzodiazepines by intent, patient characteristics, and clinical manifestations. METHODS: Data from the 2016-2017 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Cooperative Adverse Drug Event Surveillance project were analyzed in 2019 to calculate estimated annual numbers and rates of emergency department visits attributed to adverse events involving benzodiazepines, by intent of benzodiazepine use. RESULTS: Based on 6,148 cases, there were an estimated 212,770 (95% CI=167,163, 258,377) emergency department visits annually attributed to adverse events involving benzodiazepines. More than half were visits involving nonmedical use of benzodiazepines (119,008; 55.9%, 95% CI=50.0%, 61.9%), one third were visits involving self-harm with benzodiazepines (64,721; 30.4%, 95% CI=25.6%, 35.2%), and a smaller proportion of visits involved therapeutic use of benzodiazepines (29,041; 13.6%, 95% CI=11.4%, 15.9%). The estimated population rate of visits was highest for nonmedical use of benzodiazepines by patients aged 15-34 years (7.4 visits per 10,000 people). Among visits involving nonmedical use of benzodiazepines, 54.8% (95% CI=49.8%, 59.8%) were made by patients aged 15-34 years, 82.7% (95% CI=80.1%, 85.4%) involved concurrent use of other substances (illicit drugs, alcohol, prescription opioids, and/or other pharmaceuticals), and 24.2% (95% CI=17.7%, 30.6%) involved cardiorespiratory arrest or unresponsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support recommendations to assess for and address substance use disorder before initiating or continuing benzodiazepines and reinforce the need for validated self-harm risk assessment tools for clinicians.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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