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1.
Oncologist ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with RAS wild-type (WT) nonresectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) may receive either bevacizumab or an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) combined with first-line, 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Without the RAS status information, the oncologist can either start chemotherapy with bevacizumab or wait for the introduction of the anti-EGFR. Our objective was to compare both strategies in a routine practice setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective, propensity score-weighted study included patients with a RAS WT nonresectable mCRC, treated between 2013 and 2016 by a 5-FU-based chemotherapy, with either delayed anti-EGFR or immediate anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Primary criterion was overall survival (OS). Secondary criteria were progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS: A total of 262 patients (129 in the anti-VEGF group and 133 in the anti-EGFR group) were included. Patients receiving an anti-VEGF were more often men (68% vs. 56%), with more metastatic sites (>2 sites: 15% vs. 9%). The median delay to obtain the RAS status was 19 days (interquartile range: 13-26). Median OS was not significantly different in the two groups (29 vs. 30.5 months, p = .299), even after weighting on the propensity score (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-1.08, p = .2024). The delayed introduction of anti-EGFR was associated with better median PFS (13.8 vs. 11.0 months, p = .0244), even after weighting on the propensity score (HR = 0.74, 95% CI, 0.61-0.90, p = .0024). ORR was significantly higher in the anti-EGFR group (66.7% vs. 45.6%, p = .0007). CONCLUSION: Delayed introduction of anti-EGFR had no deleterious effect on OS, PFS, and ORR, compared with doublet chemotherapy with anti-VEGF. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: For RAS/RAF wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer, patients may receive 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy plus either bevacizumab or an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In daily practice, the time to obtain the RAS status might be long enough to consider two options: to start the chemotherapy with bevacizumab, or to start without a targeted therapy and to add the anti-EGFR at reception of the RAS status. This study found no deleterious effect of the delayed introduction of an anti-EGFR on survival, compared with the introduction of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor from cycle 1. It is possible to wait one or two cycles to introduce the anti-EGFR while waiting for RAS status.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 145(7): 1852-1859, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714617

RESUMO

Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare tumour, but its incidence is increasing. Standard chemoradiotherapy fails to cure 20% of patients and no targeted therapy is currently approved for recurrent ASCC. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is frequently altered in this poorly characterised carcinoma. IGF2 was identified here as a key factor in ASCC oncogenesis, as IGF2 was shown to play a crucial role in the PI3K pathway with frequent (~60%) and mutually exclusive genomic alterations in IGF2, IGF1R, PTEN and PIK3CA genes. We also demonstrated that IGF2 expression is mainly due to cancer-associated fibroblasts and that IGF2 secreted by cancer-associated fibroblasts from ASCC samples promotes proliferation of a human ASCC cell line via IGF2 paracrine signalling. Altogether, these results highlight the key role of the IGF2/PI3K axis, and the major role of cancer-associated fibroblasts in tumour growth via IGF2 secretion, suggesting a major role of IGF2/IGF1R inhibitors in ASCC therapies.

4.
Bull Cancer ; 106(2): 162-172, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551794

RESUMO

Inherited mono-allelic mutation in one of the 4 major MMR genes results in Lynch syndrome which predisposes, in adulthood, mainly to colorectal and endometrial tumors characterized by microsatellite instability (MSI phenotype). Individuals with bi-allelic mutations of one of these genes developed early and multiple malignancies, most often in childhood. This recessively inherited condition is named CMMRD for Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency. The spectrum of tumors is distinct from Lynch syndrome. Malignant brain tumors are at least as frequent as gastrointestinal tumors and in more than a third of cases haematological malignancies were also reported. Patients also displayed clinical features similar of neurofibromatosis type 1, especially café au lait spots. The most commonly involved genes are PMS2 and MSH6 while bi-allelic MLH1 and MSH2 mutations are rare. The digestive tumors of these patients show MSI whereas the brain tumors can be "microsatellite stable". Because of variable clinical presentation and phenotypical overlaps with other cancer syndromes, CMMRD syndrome is frequently unrecognized by clinicians and its incidence is almost certainly underestimated. A better knowledge of clinical criteria and diagnosis methods should improve the identification of these patients at least at the time when they develop their first tumor or even before. This will allow adjusting treatment modalities and offering surveillance strategies of other tumor risks, not only for patients themselves but also for their relatives.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/terapia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Humanos , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Mutação/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Linhagem
5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504426

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in 90% of squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal (SCCA). We investigated the clinical validity of HPV circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) detection in patients enrolled in the Epitopes-HPV02 trial which demonstrated the efficacy of docetaxel, cisplatin and 5FU as first-line chemotherapy (CT) in advanced SCCA. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: According to the protocol, serum samples were collected before CT and on completion of CT. HPV16 ctDNA was quantified by ddPCR and correlated with prospectively registered patient characteristics and outcomes. A landmark was set at the time of CT completion for post-CT progression-free survival (PFS) analyses. RESULTS: Among 57 patients with HPV16-related advanced SCCA, HPV ctDNA was detected in 91.1% (95% CI 81.1 to 96.2) of baseline samples. Baseline HPV ctDNA levels were not associated with any patient characteristics; baseline ctDNA level below the cut-off obtained by AUC (area under the curve) was associated with a longer PFS (HR=2.1, p=0.04). Among the 36 patients who completed 5 months of CT, residual HPV ctDNA was detected after CT in 38.9% of patients. Residual HPV ctDNA detected at CT completion was associated with shorter post-CT PFS (median PFS 3.4 months vs not reached; HR=5.5, p<0.001) and a reduction of one-year overall survival rate (OR=7.0, p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study in advanced SCCA demonstrated a significant prognostic impact of HPV ctDNA level before first-line CT and HPV ctDNA negativity after CT completion. With a limited cost and short turnaround, this assay is a promising tool to optimize the therapeutic management of SCCA.

7.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(8): 1094-1106, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma has been increasing markedly in the past few decades. Currently, there is no validated treatment for advanced-stage anal squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, we aimed to validate the clinical activity and safety of docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil (DCF) chemotherapy in patients with metastatic or unresectable locally recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: We did a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study. We recruited patients from 25 academic hospitals, cancer research centres, and community hospitals in France who were aged 18 years or older with histologically confirmed anal squamous cell carcinoma, with metastatic disease or with unresectable local recurrence; an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1; and with at least one evaluable lesion according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (version 1.1). Chemotherapy-naive patients received either six cycles of standard DCF (75 mg/m2 docetaxel and 75 mg/m2 cisplatin on day 1 and 750 mg/m2 per day of fluorouracil for 5 days, every 3 weeks) or eight cycles of modified DCF (40 mg/m2 docetaxel and 40 mg/m2 cisplatin on day 1 and 1200 mg/m2 per day of fluorouracil for 2 days, every 2 weeks), which were administered intravenously. The choice between the standard versus modified regimens was recommended based on, but not limited to, age (≤75 years vs >75 years) and ECOG performance status (0 vs 1). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival at 12 months from the first DCF cycle; for the primary endpoint to be met, at least 11 (17%) of 66 enrolled patients had to be alive without disease progression at 12 months. Efficacy and safety analyses were done in a modified intention-to-treat population, defined as all patients who were evaluable for progression at 12 months who received at least one cycle of DCF. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02402842, and the final results are presented here. FINDINGS: Between Sept 17, 2014, and Dec 7, 2016, we enrolled 69 patients. Of these patients, three did not receive DCF. Of the 66 patients who received treatment, 36 received the standard DCF regimen and 30 received modified DCF. The primary endpoint was met: 31 (47%) of 66 patients were alive and progression free at 12 months. 22 (61%) of 36 patients who received the standard DCF regimen and 18 (60%) of 30 patients who received the modified DCF regimen had disease progression at data cutoff. 46 (70%) of 66 patients had at least one grade 3-4 adverse event (30 [83%] of 36 in the standard DCF regimen and 16 [53%] of 30 in the modified DCF regimen). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (15 [23%]; eight [22%] for standard DCF vs seven [23%] for modified DCF), diarrhoea (12 [18%]; nine [25%] vs three [10%]), asthenia (ten [15%]; eight [22%] vs two [7%]), anaemia (ten [15%]; six [17%] vs four [13%]), lymphopenia (eight [12%]; three [8%] vs five [17%]), mucositis (seven [11%]; seven [19%] vs none), and vomiting (seven [11%]; five [14%] vs two [7%]). No grade 4 non-haematological adverse events and febrile neutropenia were observed with modified DCF, whereas three (8%) grade 4 non-haematological adverse events and five (14%) cases of febrile neutropenia were reported with standard DCF. 97 serious adverse events were reported (69 in patients who received the standard DCF regimen [61 drug-related] and 28 in those given the modified DCF regimen [14 drug-related]). No treatment-related deaths were recorded. INTERPRETATION: Compared with standard DCF, modified DCF provided long-lasting response with good tolerability in patients with metastatic or unresectable locally recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma with ECOG performance status of 0-1 in the first-line setting, and therefore could be considered as a new standard of care for these patients. Regarding the elevated risk of high-grade and serious adverse events and febrile neutropenia, standard DCF cannot be recommended in this situation. FUNDING: Besançon University Hospital and Ligue contre le cancer Grand-Est.

8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(22): 5767-5771, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054279

RESUMO

Purpose: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the current standard of care for patients diagnosed with locally advanced anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC), but some patients develop local and/or distant relapse during follow-up. This study was designed to monitor human papillomavirus (HPV) circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) levels during CRT in patients with ASCC.Experimental Design: We analyzed samples from patients with HPV16- or HPV18-positive locally advanced ASCC. Blood samples were collected before and after CRT. HPV16 or HPV18 ctDNA detection was performed by droplet digital-PCR.Results: HPV ctDNA was detected before CRT in 29 of 33 patients with stages II-III ASCC [sensitivity: 88%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 72-95]; ctDNA positivity rate was associated with tumor stage (64% and 100% in stages II and III, respectively; P = 0.008). Among ctDNA-positive patients at baseline, ctDNA levels were higher in N+ than in N- tumors (median 85 copies/mL, range = 8-9,333 vs. 32 copies/mL, range = 3-1,350; P = 0.03). ctDNA detection at baseline had no significant prognostic impact. After CRT, three of 18 (17%) patients displayed residual detectable HPV ctDNA; ctDNA detection after CRT was strongly associated with shorter disease-free survival (P < 0.0001).Conclusions: This is the first proof-of-concept study assessing the prognostic value of ctDNA after CRT in locally advanced ASCC. In most patients, HPV ctDNA can be detected before CRT and becomes undetectable during CRT. In this study, we show that residual ctDNA levels after CRT are associated with very poor outcome. Clin Cancer Res; 24(22); 5767-71. ©2018 AACR.

9.
Dig Liver Dis ; 50(8): 768-779, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886081

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This document is a summary of the French Intergroup guidelines regarding the management of gastric cancer published in October 2016, available on the website of the French Society of Gastroenterology (SNFGE) (www.tncd.org), updated in October 2017. METHODS: This collaborative work was realized under the auspices of several French medical societies involved in management of gastric cancer. Recommendations are graded in three categories (A-C), according to the amount of evidence found in the literature until July 2017. RESULTS: There are several known risk factors for gastric cancer, including Helicobacter pylori and genetic predispositions, both requiring a specific screening for patients and their relatives. The diagnosis and staging evaluation are essentially based on gastroscopy plus biopsies and computed tomography scan. The endoscopic ultrasonography can be used for superficial tumors in case of discussion for endoscopic resection (T1N0). For local disease (N+ and/or T > T1), the strategic therapy is based on surgery associated with perioperative chemotherapy. In the absence of preoperative treatment (for any raison), the postoperative chemoradiotherapy (or chemotherapy) should be discussed for patients with stage II or III tumor. For metastatic disease, the treatment is based on "palliative" chemotherapy consisting in a doublet or triplet regimens depending of age, performance status and HER2 tumor status. For patients with limited metastatic disease, surgical resection could be discussed in multidisciplinary meeting in case of stable disease after chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: These guidelines in gastric cancer are done to help decision for daily clinical practice. These recommendations are permanently being reviewed. Each individual case must be discussed within a multidisciplinary team.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Endossonografia , França , Gastroscopia , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Sociedades Médicas
10.
Cancer Med ; 2018 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804324

RESUMO

Genomic alterations of anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) remain poorly understood due to the rarity of this tumor. Array comparative genomic hybridization and targeted gene sequencing were performed in 49 cases of ASCC. The most frequently altered regions (with a frequency greater than 25%) were 10 deleted regions (2q35, 2q36.3, 3p21.2, 4p16.3, 4p31.21, 7q36.1, 8p23.3, 10q23.2, 11q22.3, and 13q14.11) and 8 gained regions (1p36.33, 1q21.1, 3q26.32, 5p15.33, 8q24.3, 9q34.3, 16p13.3, and 19p13.3). The most frequent minimal regions of deletion (55%) encompassed the 11q22.3 region containing ATM, while the most frequent minimal regions of gain (57%) encompassed the 3q26.32 region containing PIK3CA. Recurrent homozygous deletions were observed for 5 loci (ie, TGFR2 in 4 cases), and recurrent focal amplifications were observed for 8 loci (ie, DDR2 and CCND1 in 3 cases, respectively). Several of the focal amplified genes are targets for specific therapies. Integrated analysis showed that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway was the pathway most extensively affected, particularly in recurrences compared to treatment-naive tumors (64% vs 30%; P = .017). In patients with ASCC recurrences, poor overall survival (OS) was significantly correlated with a large number of altered regions (P = .024). These findings provide insight into the somatic genomic alterations in ASCC and highlight the key role of the druggable PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 417, 2018 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the prognostic value of CYFRA 21-1 in a series of patients with anal canal squamous cell carcinoma treated by radiation-based therapy. METHODS: All patients with anal cancer referred between September 2005 and July 2013 were considered. Patients with diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinoma and in whom pre- and post-treatment serum CYFRA 21-1 levels were available were included. Serum CYFRA 21-1 levels at initial workup and after therapy were collected. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate prognostic variables for prediction of outcomes. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients were included. Median follow-up was 60 months (range: 8-128). Pre-treatment serum CYFRA 21-1 levels were significantly correlated with tumour stage (p < 0.001). Normal post-treatment serum CYFRA 21-1 level was significantly correlated with tumour complete response (p = 0.004). Elevated post-treatment serum CYFRA 21-1 level was significantly associated with poorer progression-free survival (p = 0.02) and overall survival (p = 0.003). T stage and post-treatment serum CYFRA 21-1 were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (p = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Serum CYFRA 21-1 appears to be a useful marker for the monitoring of anal squamous cell carcinoma patients. Elevated post-treatment value appears to be correlated with treatment failure.

12.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 28, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene is a moderate-risk breast cancer susceptibility gene; germline loss-of-function variants are found in up to 3% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families who undergo genetic testing. So far, no clear histopathological and molecular features of breast tumours occurring in ATM deleterious variant carriers have been described, but identification of an ATM-associated tumour signature may help in patient management. METHODS: To characterise hallmarks of ATM-associated tumours, we performed systematic pathology review of tumours from 21 participants from ataxia-telangiectasia families and 18 participants from HBOC families, as well as copy number profiling on a subset of 23 tumours. Morphology of ATM-associated tumours was compared with that of 599 patients with no BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations from a hospital-based series, as well as with data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Absolute copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles were obtained from the OncoScan SNP array. In addition, we performed whole-genome sequencing on four tumours from ATM loss-of-function variant carriers with available frozen material. RESULTS: We found that ATM-associated tumours belong mostly to the luminal B subtype, are tetraploid and show LOH at the ATM locus at 11q22-23. Unlike tumours in which BRCA1 or BRCA2 is inactivated, tumours arising in ATM deleterious variant carriers are not associated with increased large-scale genomic instability as measured by the large-scale state transitions signature. Losses at 13q14.11-q14.3, 17p13.2-p12, 21p11.2-p11.1 and 22q11.23 were observed. Somatic alterations at these loci may therefore represent biomarkers for ATM testing and harbour driver mutations in potentially 'druggable' genes that would allow patients to be directed towards tailored therapeutic strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Although ATM is involved in the DNA damage response, ATM-associated tumours are distinct from BRCA1-associated tumours in terms of morphological characteristics and genomic alterations, and they are also distinguishable from sporadic breast tumours, thus opening up the possibility to identify ATM variant carriers outside the ataxia-telangiectasia disorder and direct them towards effective cancer risk management and therapeutic strategies.

13.
Oncotarget ; 9(1): 464-476, 2018 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29416628

RESUMO

Anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) are rare tumours in humans. The etiological role of HPV infection is now well established but little is known about the molecular landscape and signalling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of this cancer. Here we report the results from a whole exome sequencing of a homogeneous group of 20 treatment-naive ASCC. A total of 2422 somatic single nucleotide variations (SNV) were found, with an overall moderate rate of somatic mutations per tumour (median: 105 relevant SNV per tumour) but a high mutational load in 3 tumours. The mutational signatures associated with age and APOBEC were observed in 100% and 60% of tumours respectively. The most frequently mutated genes were PIK3CA (25%) followed by FBXW7 (15%), FAT1 (15%), and TRIP12 (15%), the two last ones having never been described in ASCC. The main copy number alterations were gains of chromosome 3q (affecting PIK3CA) and losses of chromosome 11q (affecting ATM). The combined analysis of somatic mutations and copy number alterations show that recurrent alterations of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway are frequent (60%) in these tumours, as well as potentially targetable alterations of other signalling pathways that have never been described in ASCC such as chromatin remodelling (45%) and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis (35%). These results highlight the possible implication of these aberrant signalling pathways in anal carcinogenesis and suggest promising new therapeutic approaches in ASCC. The high somatic mutation burden found in some tumours, suggesting an elevated neoantigen load could also predict sensitivity of ASCC to immunotherapy.

14.
Fam Cancer ; 17(2): 281-285, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28819700

RESUMO

The invalidation of the Mismatch Repair (MMR) system is responsible for a so-called "deficient MMR" phenotype (dMMR) characterized by microsatellite instability and abnormal pattern of expression of MMR proteins in tumor tissue. This phenotype occurs in at least 20% of sporadic endometrial adenocarcinomas by epigenetic silencing of MLH1 gene. It is also observed in virtually all tumors occurring in patients with Lynch syndrome by monoallelic germline mutation in one of the MMR genes. The determination of this phenotype (dMMR vs. proficient MMR-pMMR) has therefore a pivotal place in the diagnosis algorithm for Lynch syndrome by monoallelic germline mutation in one of the MMR genes. The determination of this phenotype (dMMR vs. proficient MMR-pMMR) has therefore a pivotal place in the diagnosis algorithm for Lynch syndrome. We report the case of a woman with an early-onset endometrial adenocarcinoma who was suspected to be affected with Lynch syndrome based on tumor dMMR phenotype (MSI associated with loss of expression of MSH2 and MSH6 proteins). After complete germline and somatic evaluations, this phenotype was eventually explained by two MSH2 somatic mutations and the diagnosis of Lynch-like syndrome due to an unidentified MSH2 germline mutation was ruled out. Somatic mosaicism at low mutation rate was unlikely as no mutation was detected by DNA analysis from various tissue samples. Nevertheless, the three patient's children were tested for the two mutations and these tests were negative. Biallelic somatic mutations of one MMR gene is a mechanism of invalidation of the MMR system in sporadic cases. Clinicians have to be aware of this mechanism because of the great clinical implication for the patients and their relatives.

15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(12): 1345-1353, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255180

RESUMO

RAD51 paralogs (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, and XRCC3) have recently been involved in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition: RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D in ovarian cancer, RAD51B and XRCC2 in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of deleterious variants in the five RAD51 paralogs to breast and ovarian cancers. The five RAD51 paralog genes were analyzed by next-generation sequencing technologies in germline DNA from 2649 consecutive patients diagnosed with breast and/or ovarian cancer. Twenty-one different deleterious variants were identified in the RAD51 paralogs in 30 patients: RAD51B (n = 4), RAD51C (n = 12), RAD51D (n = 7), XRCC2 (n = 2), and XRCC3 (n = 5). The overall deleterious variant rate was 1.13% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-1.55%) (30/2649), including 15 variants in breast cancer only cases (15/2063; 0.73% (95% CI: 0.34-1.11%)) and 15 variants in cases with at least one ovarian cancer (15/570; 2.63% (95% CI: 1.24-4.02%)). This study is the first evaluation of the five RAD51 paralogs in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition and it demonstrates that deleterious variants can be present in breast cancer only cases. Moreover, this is the first time that XRCC3 deleterious variants have been identified in breast and ovarian cancer cases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
16.
Carcinogenesis ; 38(10): 994-1003, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981872

RESUMO

Recent studies have linked constitutive telomere length (TL) to aging-related diseases including cancer at different sites. ATM participates in the signaling of telomere erosion, and inherited mutations in ATM have been associated with increased risk of cancer, particularly breast cancer. The goal of this study was to investigate whether carriage of an ATM mutation and TL interplay to modify cancer risk in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) families.The study population consisted of 284 heterozygous ATM mutation carriers (HetAT) and 174 non-carriers (non-HetAT) from 103 A-T families. Forty-eight HetAT and 14 non-HetAT individuals had cancer, among them 25 HetAT and 6 non-HetAT were diagnosed after blood sample collection. We measured mean TL using a quantitative PCR assay and genotyped seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) recurrently associated with TL in large population-based studies.HetAT individuals were at increased risk of cancer (OR = 2.3, 95%CI = 1.2-4.4, P = 0.01), and particularly of breast cancer for women (OR = 2.9, 95%CI = 1.2-7.1, P = 0.02), in comparison to their non-HetAT relatives. HetAT individuals had longer telomeres than non-HetAT individuals (P = 0.0008) but TL was not associated with cancer risk, and no significant interaction was observed between ATM mutation status and TL. Furthermore, rs9257445 (ZNF311) was associated with TL in HetAT subjects and rs6060627 (BCL2L1) modified cancer risk in HetAT and non-HetAT women.Our findings suggest that carriage of an ATM mutation impacts on the age-related TL shortening and that TL per se is not related to cancer risk in ATM carriers. TL measurement alone is not a good marker for predicting cancer risk in A-T families.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/complicações , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Telômero/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Encurtamento do Telômero/genética , Proteína bcl-X/genética
17.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 574, 2017 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28841909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is a rare disease, but its incidence is markedly increasing. About 15% of patients are diagnosed at metastatic stage, and more than 20% with a localized disease treated by chemoradiotherapy (CRT) will recur. In advanced SCCA, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (CF) combination is the standard option but complete response is a rare event and the prognosis remains poor with most disease progression occurring within the first 12 months. We have previously published the potential role of the addition of docetaxel (D). Among 8 consecutive patients with advanced recurrent SCCA after CRT, the DCF regimen induced a complete response in 4 patients, including 3 pathological complete responses. Then, the Epitopes-HPV02 study was designed to confirm the interest of DCF regimen in SCCA patients. METHODS: This multicentre phase II trial assesses the DCF regimen in advanced SCCA patients. Main eligibility criteria are: histologically proven SCCA, unresectable locally advanced recurrent or metastatic disease, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-performance status (ECOG-PS) <2, and being eligible for DCF. Patients receive either 6 cycles of standard DCF or 8 cycles of modified DCF depending on age (> vs. ≤ 75 years-old) and ECOG-PS (0 vs. 1). The trial was set up based on a Simon's optimal two-stage design for phase II trials, allowing an early futility interim analysis. The primary endpoint is the observed progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 12 months from the first DCF cycle. A PFS rate below 10% is considered uninteresting, while a PFS rate above 25% is expected. With a unilateral alpha error of 5% and a statistical power of 90%, 66 evaluable patients should be included. Main secondary endpoints are overall survival, PFS, response rate, safety, health-related quality of life, and the correlation of biomarkers with treatment efficacy. DISCUSSION: Since the recommended CF regimen is based in a small retrospective analysis and generates a low rate of complete responses, the Epitopes-HPV02 study will establish a new standard in case of a positive result. Associated biomarker studies will contribute to understand the underlying mechanism of resistance and the role of immunity in SCCA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02402842 , EudraCT: 2014-001789-81.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Ânus/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias do Ânus/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Docetaxel , França , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Cancer ; 141(8): 1667-1670, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28670746

RESUMO

Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is a rare HPV-associated cancer with limited sensitivity to standard chemotherapy. In a phase 2 study, nivolumab, an anti PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, demonstrated significant efficacy as single-agent therapy in metastatic SCCA patients. Nevertheless, imaging assessment by standard RECIST criteria of the efficacy of immune therapy can be difficult in some patients due to tumor immune cell infiltration, and biomarkers of treatment efficacy are needed. We have previously developed a quantitative droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) technique to detect HPV circulating tumor DNA (HPV ctDNA), with excellent sensitivity and specificity. Here, we report, for the first time, the kinetics of HPV ctDNA during therapy in a patient with metastatic SCCA, who obtained sustained partial response to single-agent nivolumab. We observed an early and very significant decrease of HPV ctDNA during therapy from the baseline level of 3713 copies/ml plasma to 564 copies/ml plasma at 4 weeks, and 156 copies/ml at 6 weeks, followed by a plateau. This observation provides proof-of-concept that HPV ctDNA can be used as a noninvasive early dynamic biomarker to monitor the efficacy of new immunotherapy agents.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Ânus/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Viral/sangue , Papillomaviridae/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Neoplasias do Ânus/sangue , Neoplasias do Ânus/imunologia , Neoplasias do Ânus/virologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Nivolumabe , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia
19.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 27(5): 953-960, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on Lynch syndrome (LS)-related endometrial cancer (EC) features. Amsterdam criteria II, commonly used, have poor sensitivity for detection of LS, which is underdiagnosed. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and pathological features of LS-related EC among mutation-proven patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study from 1977 to 2013 in 5 hospitals. The inclusion criteria were patients who had a primary EC associated to LS proven by a germline mutation. We analyzed the clinical data and the pathology of the tumors. The patient management and the survival data were also collected. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients (15 MLH1, 20 MSH2, 13 MSH6, 1 PMS2) were included. The mean age at diagnosis was 49.7 (SD, 10.5) years. The median body mass index was 22.6 kg/m. In 81.4% of cases, EC was the first cancer of the LS spectrum to occur. Endometrioid adenocarcinoma accounted for 89.2% of the EC, the lower uterine segment was involved in 25% of cases, and a synchronous ovarian cancer was present in 21.6% of patients. The tumors were grade 3 in 19.3% of cases and FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage I in 66.6% of cases. With a median follow-up of 58 months, 3 patients with conservative management developed a recurrence, and no patient died of EC. CONCLUSIONS: The LS-associated EC is characterized by a young age at onset, a high prevalence of lower uterine segment involvement, and synchronous ovarian cancers. The prognosis of these cancers does not appear different from sporadic tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Adulto , Carcinoma Endometrioide/genética , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos
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