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1.
Leukemia ; 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468946

RESUMO

Relapse of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) may occur in the central nervous system (CNS). Most clinical trials of CAR T-cell therapy excluded patients with active CNS leukemia, partially for concerns of neurotoxicity. Here, we report an international study of fifty-five children and adolescents who received CAR T-cell therapy for relapsed BCP-ALL with CNS involvement at the time of referral. All patients received bridging therapy, 16 still having active CNS disease at the time of lymphodepletion. Twelve patients received CD28-based CAR T-cells, 9 being subsequently treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Forty-three patients received 4-1BB-based CAR T-cells. Cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity occurred in 65% and 38% of patients, respectively, more frequently following treatment with CD28-based CARs. Fifty-one of 54 evaluable patients (94%) achieved complete response following this therapy. Relapse occurred in 22 patients: 19/43 following 4-1BB-based CARs (12 CNS relapses), and 3/12 after CD28-based CARs with subsequent HSCT (no CNS relapse). Patients treated with tisagenlecleucel for an isolated CNS relapse had a high incidence of a subsequent CNS relapse (6 of 8). CAR T-cells were found to be effective in this cohort, though the risk of CNS relapse was not completely mitigated by this approach.

2.
Leukemia ; 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35422096

RESUMO

Down syndrome-associated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (DS-ALL) patients suffer risk of chemotherapy-associated toxicities and poor outcomes. We evaluated tisagenlecleucel in 16 patients with DS-ALL in two phase 2 trials (ELIANA [NCT02435849], ENSIGN [NCT02228096]) and a phase 3b, managed access protocol (B2001X [NCT03123939]). Patients were 5-22 years old, had a median of two prior lines of therapy (range, 1-4), and four (25%) had prior stem cell transplants. Fourteen of 16 patients (88%) achieved complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete blood count recovery (CRi); 12 of 14 (86%) with CR/CRi were minimal residual disease-negative. With a median follow-up of 13.2 months (range, 0.5-49.3 months), six patients (43%) relapsed after CR (three, CD19-negative; three, unknown) between 80-721 days post-infusion. Ongoing remissions in nine patients ranged from 6-48 months. Any-grade and grade 3/4 AEs occurred in 16 and 14 patients, respectively; 44% experienced grade 3/4 cytokine release syndrome and 13% experienced grade 3/4 neurological events. Grade 3/4 prolonged cytopenias occurred in 44% of patients. No grade 3/4 infections were observed. Tisagenlecleucel expansion and long-term persistence were consistent with previous reports. Comparable to ALL patients without DS, tisagenlecleucel produced high remission rates, manageable side-effects, and promising long-term outcomes in pediatric/young adult patients with DS-ALL.


Children with Down syndrome have a 20 times higher risk of developing a type of blood cancer called Down syndrome-associated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Children who develop Down syndrome-associated ALL typically receive chemotherapy to treat their cancer; however, they can experience severe toxicity or other consequences from these therapies, especially stem cell transplant, and have a poor prognosis if their disease returns after treatment. These children need an effective but less toxic treatment option. Tisagenlecleucel is a chimeric antigen receptor-T cell therapy that specially modifies the patient's own T-cells to recognize and attack the cancer cells. Tisagenlecleucel is approved for use in children and young adults with ALL whose disease reappears after two or more treatments or whose disease doesn't respond to treatment. Here we present data from 16 patients across three clinical studies showing that tisagenlecleucel is well-tolerated and an effective treatment option for children and young adults with Down syndrome-associated ALL, and was similar to what is observed in patients without Down syndrome. Taken together, patients with Down syndrome-associated ALL have unique medical needs, and tisagenlecleucel may help them live longer, avoid stem cell transplantation, and the toxicity from chemotherapy.

3.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 807992, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35281233

RESUMO

The ALL SCTped 2012 FORUM (For Omitting Radiation Under Majority age) trial compared outcomes for children ≥4 years of age transplanted for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) who were randomised to myeloablation with a total body irradiation (TBI)-based or chemotherapy-based conditioning regimen. The TBI-based preparation was associated with a lower rate of relapse compared with chemoconditioning. Nevertheless, the age considered suitable for TBI was progressively raised over time to spare the most fragile youngest patients from irradiation-related complications. The best approach to use for children <4 years of age remains unclear. Children diagnosed with ALL in their first year of life, defined as infants, have a remarkably poorer prognosis compared with older children. This is largely explained by the biology of their ALL, with infants often carrying a KMT2A gene rearrangement, as well as by their fragility. In contrast, the clinical presentations and biological features of ALL in children >1 year but <4 years often resemble those presented by older children. In this review, we explore the state of the art regarding haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children <4 years, the preparative regimens available, and new developments in the field that may influence treatment decisions.

4.
Blood Cancer Discov ; 3(1): 66-81, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019853

RESUMO

We assessed minimal residual disease (MRD) detection and B-cell aplasia after tisagenlecleucel therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to define biomarkers predictive of relapse (N = 143). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) MRD detection >0 in bone marrow (BM) was highly associated with relapse. B-cell recovery [signifying loss of functional chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells] within the first year of treatment was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) for relapse of 4.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.03-9.97; P < 0.001]. Multivariate analysis at day 28 showed independent associations of BMNGS-MRD >0 (HR = 4.87; 95% CI, 2.18-10.8; P < 0.001) and B-cell recovery (HR = 3.33; 95% CI, 1.44-7.69; P = 0.005) with relapse. By 3 months, the BMNGS-MRD HR increased to 12 (95% CI, 2.87-50; P < 0.001), whereas B-cell recovery was not independently predictive (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 0.33-4.79; P = 0.7). Relapses occurring with persistence of B-cell aplasia were largely CD19- (23/25: 88%). Detectable BMNGS-MRD reliably predicts risk with sufficient time to consider approaches to relapse prevention such as hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) or second CAR-T cell infusion. SIGNIFICANCE: Detectable disease by BMNGS-MRD with or without B-cell aplasia is highly predictive of relapse after tisagenlecleucel therapy for ALL. Clonotypic rearrangements used to follow NGS-MRD did not change after loss of CD19 or lineage switch. High-risk patients identified by these biomarkers may benefit from HCT or investigational cell therapies.See related commentary by Ghorashian and Bartram, p. 2.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Antígenos CD19 , Criança , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neoplasia Residual/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Recidiva , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nat Biotechnol ; 40(4): 488-498, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873326

RESUMO

Unlike chimeric antigen receptors, T-cell receptors (TCRs) can recognize intracellular targets presented on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules. Here we demonstrate that T cells expressing TCRs specific for peptides from the intracellular lymphoid-specific enzyme terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), presented in the context of HLA-A*02:01, specifically eliminate primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells of T- and B-cell origin in vitro and in three mouse models of disseminated B-ALL. By contrast, the treatment spares normal peripheral T- and B-cell repertoires and normal myeloid cells in vitro, and in vivo in humanized mice. TdT is an attractive cancer target as it is highly and homogeneously expressed in 80-94% of B- and T-ALLs, but only transiently expressed during normal lymphoid differentiation, limiting on-target toxicity of TdT-specific T cells. TCR-modified T cells targeting TdT may be a promising immunotherapy for B-ALL and T-ALL that preserves normal lymphocytes.


Assuntos
DNA Nucleotidilexotransferase , Linfócitos T , Animais , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfócitos , Camundongos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética
6.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(2): 404-420, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893945

RESUMO

PURPOSE: GATA2 deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency that has become increasingly recognized due to improved molecular diagnostics and clinical awareness. The only cure for GATA2 deficiency is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The inconsistency of genotype-phenotype correlations makes the decision regarding "who and when" to transplant challenging. Despite considerable morbidity and mortality, the reported proportion of patients with GATA2 deficiency that has undergone allo-HSCT is low (~ 35%). The purpose of this study was to explore if detailed clinical, genetic, and bone marrow characteristics could predict end-point outcome, i.e., death and allo-HSCT. METHODS: All medical genetics departments in Norway were contacted to identify GATA2 deficient individuals. Clinical information, genetic variants, treatment, and outcome were subsequently retrieved from the patients' medical records. RESULTS: Between 2013 and 2020, we identified 10 index cases or probands, four additional symptomatic patients, and no asymptomatic patients with germline GATA2 variants. These patients had a diverse clinical phenotype dominated by cytopenia (13/14), myeloid neoplasia (10/14), warts (8/14), and hearing loss (7/14). No valid genotype-phenotype correlations were found in our data set, and the phenotypes varied also within families. We found that 11/14 patients (79%), with known GATA2 deficiency, had already undergone allo-HSCT. In addition, one patient is awaiting allo-HSCT. The indications to perform allo-HSCT were myeloid neoplasia, disseminated viral infection, severe obliterating bronchiolitis, and/or HPV-associated in situ carcinoma. Two patients died, 8 months and 7 years after allo-HSCT, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our main conclusion is that the majority of patients with symptomatic GATA2 deficiency will need allo-HSCT, and a close surveillance of these patients is important to find the "optimal window" for allo-HSCT. We advocate a more offensive approach to allo-HSCT than previously described.


Assuntos
Deficiência de GATA2 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Medula Óssea , Deficiência de GATA2/diagnóstico , Deficiência de GATA2/genética , Deficiência de GATA2/terapia , Fator de Transcrição GATA2/genética , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia
7.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 777108, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805054

RESUMO

Minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment plays a central role in risk stratification and treatment guidance in paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). As such, MRD prior to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a major factor that is independently correlated with outcome. High burden of MRD is negatively correlated with post-transplant survival, as both the risk of leukaemia recurrence and non-relapse mortality increase with greater levels of MRD. Despite growing evidence supporting these findings, controversies still exist. In particular, it is still not clear whether multiparameter flow cytometry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, which is used to recognise immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements, can be employed interchangeably. Moreover, the higher sensitivity in MRD quantification offered by next-generation sequencing techniques may further refine the ability to stratify transplant-associated risks. While MRD quantification from bone marrow prior to HSCT remains the state of the art, heavily pre-treated patients may benefit from additional staging, such as using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography to detect focal residues of disease. Additionally, the timing of MRD detection (i.e., immediately before administration of the conditioning regimen or weeks before) is a matter of debate. Pre-transplant MRD negativity has previously been associated with superior outcomes; however, in the recent For Omitting Radiation Under Majority age (FORUM) study, pre-HSCT MRD positivity was associated with neither relapse risk nor survival. In this review, we discuss the level of MRD that may require pre-transplant therapy intensification, risking time delay and complications (as well as losing the window for HSCT if disease progression occurs), as opposed to an adapted post-transplant strategy to achieve long-term remission. Indeed, MRD monitoring may be a valuable tool to guide individualised treatment decisions, including tapering of immunosuppression, cellular therapies (such as donor lymphocyte infusions) or additional immunotherapy (such as bispecific T-cell engagers or chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy).

9.
Nat Med ; 27(10): 1806-1817, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621053

RESUMO

Germline SAMD9 and SAMD9L mutations (SAMD9/9Lmut) predispose to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with propensity for somatic rescue. In this study, we investigated a clinically annotated pediatric MDS cohort (n = 669) to define the prevalence, genetic landscape, phenotype, therapy outcome and clonal architecture of SAMD9/9L syndromes. In consecutively diagnosed MDS, germline SAMD9/9Lmut accounted for 8% and were mutually exclusive with GATA2 mutations present in 7% of the cohort. Among SAMD9/9Lmut cases, refractory cytopenia was the most prevalent MDS subtype (90%); acquired monosomy 7 was present in 38%; constitutional abnormalities were noted in 57%; and immune dysfunction was present in 28%. The clinical outcome was independent of germline mutations. In total, 67 patients had 58 distinct germline SAMD9/9Lmut clustering to protein middle regions. Despite inconclusive in silico prediction, 94% of SAMD9/9Lmut suppressed HEK293 cell growth, and mutations expressed in CD34+ cells induced overt cell death. Furthermore, we found that 61% of SAMD9/9Lmut patients underwent somatic genetic rescue (SGR) resulting in clonal hematopoiesis, of which 95% was maladaptive (monosomy 7 ± cancer mutations), and 51% had adaptive nature (revertant UPD7q, somatic SAMD9/9Lmut). Finally, bone marrow single-cell DNA sequencing revealed multiple competing SGR events in individual patients. Our findings demonstrate that SGR is common in SAMD9/9Lmut MDS and exemplify the exceptional plasticity of hematopoiesis in children.


Assuntos
Evolução Clonal/genética , Hematopoiese Clonal/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA2/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Células HEK293 , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Análise de Célula Única
11.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 705179, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395344

RESUMO

Specific protocols define eligibility, conditioning, donor selection, graft composition and prophylaxis of graft vs. host disease for children and young adults undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). However, international protocols rarely, if ever, detail supportive care, including pharmaceutical infection prophylaxis, physical protection with face masks and cohort isolation or food restrictions. Supportive care suffers from a lack of scientific evidence and implementation of practices in the transplant centers brings extensive restrictions to the child's and family's daily life after HSCT. Therefore, the Board of the Pediatric Diseases Working Party (PDWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) held a series of dedicated workshops since 2017 with the aim of initiating the production of a set of minimal recommendations. The present paper describes the consensus reached within the field of infection prophylaxis.

13.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tisagenlecleucel, an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy, has demonstrated efficacy in children and young adults with relapsed/refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) in two multicenter phase 2 trials (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02435849 (ELIANA) and NCT02228096 (ENSIGN)), leading to commercialization of tisagenlecleucel for the treatment of patients up to age 25 years with B-ALL that is refractory or in second or greater relapse. METHODS: A pooled analysis of 137 patients from these trials (ELIANA: n=79; ENSIGN: n=58) was performed to provide a comprehensive safety profile for tisagenlecleucel. RESULTS: Grade 3/4 tisagenlecleucel-related adverse events (AEs) were reported in 77% of patients. Specific AEs of interest that occurred ≤8 weeks postinfusion included cytokine-release syndrome (CRS; 79% (grade 4: 22%)), infections (42%; grade 3/4: 19%), prolonged (not resolved by day 28) cytopenias (40%; grade 3/4: 34%), neurologic events (36%; grade 3: 10%; no grade 4 events), and tumor lysis syndrome (4%; all grade 3). Treatment for CRS included tocilizumab (40%) and corticosteroids (23%). The frequency of neurologic events increased with CRS severity (p<0.001). Median time to resolution of grade 3/4 cytopenias to grade ≤2 was 2.0 (95% CI 1.87 to 2.23) months for neutropenia, 2.4 (95% CI 1.97 to 3.68) months for lymphopenia, 2.0 (95% CI 1.87 to 2.27) months for leukopenia, 1.9 (95% CI 1.74 to 2.10) months for thrombocytopenia, and 1.0 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.87) month for anemia. All patients who achieved complete remission (CR)/CR with incomplete hematologic recovery experienced B cell aplasia; however, as nearly all responders also received immunoglobulin replacement, few grade 3/4 infections occurred >1 year postinfusion. CONCLUSIONS: This pooled analysis provides a detailed safety profile for tisagenlecleucel during the course of clinical trials, and AE management guidance, with a longer follow-up duration compared with previous reports.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 203: 114216, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182411

RESUMO

A fast and reliable method based on two-channel liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was developed and successfully validated for quantification of busulfan. The drug vehicle polyethylene glycol 400 was quantified simultaneously in patient samples. The sample preparation consisted of simple protein precipitation using a mixture of methanol and zinc sulphate containing busulfan-d8 as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was performed on a short biphenyl column (30 mm × 3.0 mm, 5 µm particles) using a step gradient from 30 % to 85 % methanol, ensuring co-elution of the analyte and internal standard. Quantification was performed using the mass transition of 264.1 > 151.1 for busulfan and 272.1 > 159.1 for the internal standard. Using only 20 µL of plasma sample, the lower limit of quantification was 25 ng/mL. Signal to noise ratio at the lower limit of quantification exceeded 300. The assay performance was not adversely affected by matrix effects originating from drug formulation excipients or other sample components. The coefficient of variation was ≤4 % and the mean accuracy 101-108 % across the calibration range 25-5 000 ng/mL. Chromatographic run time was 2 min and 8 s, allowing an effective run-time of 1 min and 10 s when using two alternating LC-channels. The assay has been implemented in routine practice with accreditation according to the ISO 15189 standard, and performs well in external quality control assessments. We present for the first time that shortly after an IV infusion of busulfan, the plasma levels of polyethylene glycol 400 may be in the range of 400-800 mg/L. The presence of these levels of detergent in patient samples may have detrimental effects on assay performance in LC-MS/MS, not limited to busulfan assays. This may be a concern for any LC-MS/MS analysis performed on samples collected within the first 24 h after an IV infusion of busulfan.


Assuntos
Bussulfano , Excipientes , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Plasma , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(9)2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923026

RESUMO

Despite poor survival, controversies remain in the treatment for refractory or relapsed pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma (r/r NHL). The current project aimed to collect international experience on the re-induction treatment of r/r NHL, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), risk factors associated with outcome, and to suggest treatment recommendations. Inclusion criteria were (i) refractory disease, disease progression or relapse of any NHL subtype except anaplastic large cell lymphoma, (ii) age < 18 years at initial diagnosis, (iii) diagnosis in/after January 2000. Data from 639 eligible patients were evaluable. The eight-year probability of overall survival was 34 ± 2% with highly significant differences according to NHL subtypes: 28 ± 3% for 254 Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia, 50 ± 6% for 98 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, 57 ± 8% for 41 primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphomas, 27 ± 3% for 177 T-lymphoblastic lymphomas, 52 ± 10% for 34 precursor-B-cell lymphoblastic lymphomas and 30 ± 9% for 35 patients with rare NHL subtypes. Subtype-specific factors associated with survival and treatment recommendations are suggested. There were no survivors without HSCT, except in few very small subgroups. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to further improve survival in r/r NHL. The current study provides the largest real-world series, which underlines the role of HSCT and suggests treatment recommendations.

16.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 18(1): 67-81, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Fusion of histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2A gene (KMT2A) with the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 12 gene (ARHGEF12), both located in 11q23, was reported in some leukemic patients. We report a KMT2A-ARHGEF12 fusion occurring during treatment of a pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with topoisomerase II inhibitors leading to a secondary acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiple genetic analyses were performed on bone marrow cells of a girl initially diagnosed with AML. RESULTS: At the time of diagnosis with AML, the t(9;11)(p21;q23)/KMT2A-MLLT3 genetic abnormality was found. After chemotherapy resulting in AML clinical remission, a 2 Mb deletion in 11q23 was found generating a KMT2A-ARHGEF12 fusion gene. When the patient later developed B lineage ALL, a t(14;19)(q32;q13), loss of one chromosome 9, and KMT2A-ARHGEF12 were detected. CONCLUSION: The patient sequentially developed AML and ALL with three leukemia-specific genomic abnormalities in her bone marrow cells, two of which were KMT2A-rearrangements.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Criança , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Fusão Gênica , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia
17.
Blood Adv ; 5(2): 593-601, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496754

RESUMO

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a systemic inflammatory response associated with chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapies. In severe cases, CRS can be associated with coagulopathy and hypofibrinogenemia. We present our global multicenter experience with CRS-associated coagulopathy after tisagenlecleucel therapy in 137 patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia from the ELIANA and ENSIGN trials. These trials included clinical guidelines for fibrinogen replacement during CRS-associated coagulopathy. Hypofibrinogenemia requiring replacement was observed only in patients with severe CRS. A higher percentage of patients who required replacement were <10 years old, compared with those who did not require replacement. Twenty-three patients received replacement for hypofibrinogenemia (<1.5 g/L); 9 of them developed marked hypofibrinogenemia (<1 g/L). Very low fibrinogen levels (<1 g/L) were documented in patients before maximal CRS (n = 1), during maximal CRS (n = 7), and at CRS improvement (n = 1). Although hypofibrinogenemia was the most clinically significant coagulopathy, some patients also developed prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time and increased international normalized ratio, further increasing the risk of bleeding. Hypofibrinogenemia was effectively managed using fibrinogen concentrate or cryoprecipitate replacement; severe (grade 4) bleeding events were rare (n = 2). CRS-associated coagulopathy with hypofibrinogenemia is manageable according to empiric guidelines of fibrinogen replacement for CAR-T trials. Fibrinogen concentrate should be used when cryoprecipitate is not reliably available. Monitoring fibrinogen levels in patients with moderate or severe CRS is essential for avoiding potentially fatal bleeding events. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02435849 and #NCT02228096.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Criança , Humanos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T
19.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(1): 84-90, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594103

RESUMO

Up to 40% of donor-recipient pairs in SCT have some degree of ABO incompatibility, which may cause severe complications. The aim of this study was to describe available options and survey current practices by means of a questionnaire circulated within the EBMT Pediatric Diseases Working Party investigators. Major ABO incompatibility (donor's RBCs have antigens missing on the recipient's cell surface, towards which the recipient has circulating isohemagglutinins) requires most frequently an intervention in case of bone marrow grafts, as immediate or delayed hemolysis, delayed erythropoiesis and pure red cell aplasia may occur. RBC depletion from the graft (82%), recipient plasma-exchange (14%) were the most common practices, according to the survey. Graft manipulation is rarely needed in mobilized peripheral blood grafts. In case of minor incompatible grafts (donor has isohemagglutinins directed against recipient RBC antigens), isohemagglutinin depletion from the graft by plasma reduction/centrifugation may be considered, but acute tolerability of minor incompatible grafts is rarely an issue. According to the survey, minor ABO incompatibility was either managed by means of plasma removal from the graft, especially when isohemagglutinin titer was above a certain threshold, or led to no intervention at all (41%). Advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Incompatibilidade de Grupos Sanguíneos , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Criança , Eritrócitos , Hemólise , Humanos
20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(2): 575-584, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082212

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a DNA repair disorder with a high predisposition to hematologic malignancies. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We describe the natural history of NBS, including cancer incidence, risk of death, and the potential effectiveness of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in preventing both pathologies: malignancy and immunodeficiency. RESULTS: Among 241 patients with NBS enrolled in the study from 11 countries, 151 (63.0%) patients were diagnosed with cancer. Incidence rates for primary and secondary cancer, tumor characteristics, and risk factors affecting overall survival (OS) were estimated. The cumulative cancer incidence was 40.21% ± 3.5% and 77.78% ± 3.4% at 10 years and 20 years of follow-up, respectively. Most of the tumors n = 95 (62.9%) were non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Overall, 20 (13.2%) secondary malignancies occurred at a median age of 18 (interquartile range, 13.7-21.5) years. The probability of 20-year overall survival (OS) for the whole cohort was 44.6% ± 4.5%. Patients who developed cancer had a shorter 20-year OS than those without malignancy (29.6% vs. 86.2%; P < 10-5). A total of 49 patients with NBS underwent HSCT, including 14 patients transplanted before malignancy. Patients with NBS with diagnosed cancer who received HSCT had higher 20-year OS than those who did not (42.7% vs. 30.3%; P = 0.038, respectively). In the group of patients who underwent preemptive transplantation, only 1 patient developed cancer, which is 6.7 times lower as compared with nontransplanted patients [incidence rate ratio 0.149 (95% confidence interval, 0.138-0.162); P < 0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: There is a beneficial effect of HSCT on the long-term survival of patients with NBS transplanted in their first complete remission of cancer.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
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