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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphocytic variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome (L-HES) is a subtype of HES driven by cytokines produced by clonal T-cells. Due to the rarity of its occurrence and challenges in diagnosis, this subtype of HES is under recognized. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report seven patients with L-HES, diagnosed from a group of 136 patients who were referred to our institution for the work-up of hypereosinophilia. The clinical presentation, symptoms and signs were heterogeneous and uncharacteristic; indistinguishable from idiopathic HES. Flow cytometry immunophenotypic analysis revealed aberrant T-cells in all patients, with a Th2 immunophenotype, CD2 + CD3-CD4 + CD5 + CD7dim+/-CD8- in six of seven (86%) cases. CD10 was partially expressed in one of seven (14%) cases, and clonal TCR gene rearrangement was detected by PCR in five of seven (71%) patients. All patients were treated with corticosteroids and two of seven (29%) patients received anti-IL5 antibody therapy. With a median follow-up time of 7.5 years (2.3-14.1 years), one (11%) patient developed peripheral T-cell lymphoma 6.1 years after the initial diagnosis of L-HES and responded well to chemotherapy. All patients were alive at the last follow-up. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, a combination of flow cytometry immunophenotyping and molecular analysis allows the identification of aberrant T-cells, facilitating a diagnosis of L-HES in patients with eosinophilia. A correct diagnosis is essential for the proper management of these patients.

2.
Am J Hematol ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112433

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC) is a heterogeneous disorder defined by multilineage dysplasia, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-related karyotype, or history of prior MDS. We evaluated 415 patients with AML-MRC treated from 2013 to 2018 and analyzed their clinical outcomes based on the diagnostic criteria of AML-MRC, therapy type and mutation profile. Criteria for AML-MRC included: cytogenetic abnormalities (AML-MRC-C) in 243 (59%), prior history of MDS in 75 (18%) including 47 (11%) with previously untreated MDS (AML-MRC-H) and 28 (7%) with previously treated MDS (AML-MRC-TS), and 97 (23%) with multilineage dysplasia (AML-MRC-M). Median age was 70 years (range 18-94). Among 95 evaluable patients, a total of 37 (39%) had secondary-type (ASXL1, BCOR, EZH2, SF3B1, SRSF2, STAG2, U2AF1, ZRSR2) mutations. Mutations in ASXL1, BCOR, SF3B1, SRSF2, and U2AF1 tended to appear in dominant clones. By multivariate analysis, AML-MRC subtype, age and serum LDH levels were independent predictors of outcome, with patients with AML-MRC-M (HR 0.56, CI 0.38-0.84, P = .004) and AML-MRC-H having better OS. Compared to a cohort of 468 patients with AML without MRC, patients with AML-MRC-M/AML-MRC-H had similar outcomes to those with intermediate risk AML by European LeukemiaNet criteria. Intensive therapy was associated with improved OS in patients with AML-MRC-M (HR 0.42, CI 0.19-0.94, P = .036) and with improved EFS in AML-MRC-M and AML-MRC-H (HR 0.26, CI 0.10-0.63, P = .003). This data suggests that not all diagnostic criteria for AML-MRC define high-risk patients and that specific subgroups may benefit from different therapeutic interventions.

4.
Ann Hematol ; 99(3): 487-500, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006151

RESUMO

Fusion partners of KMT2A affect disease phenotype and influence the current World Health Organization classification of hematologic neoplasms. The t(11;16)(q23;p13)/KMT2A-CREBBP is considered presumptive evidence of a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and a MDS-related cytogenetic abnormality in the classification of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we report 18 cases of hematologic neoplasms with t(11;16). There were 8 males and 10 females with a median age of 51.9 years at time of detection of t(11;16). Of 17 patients with enough clinical information and pathological materials for review, 16 had a history of cytotoxic therapies for various malignancies including 12/15 patients who received topoisomerase II inhibitors, and 15 were classified as having therapy-related neoplasms. The median interval from the diagnosis of primary malignancy to the detection of t(11;16) was 23.2 months. Dysplasia, usually mild, was observed in 7/17 patients. Blasts demonstrated monocytic differentiation in 8/8 patients who developed AML at the time or following detection of t(11;16). t(11;16) was observed as the sole chromosomal abnormality in 10/18 patients. KMT2A rearrangement was confirmed in 11/11 patients. The median survival from the detection of t(11;16) was 15.4 months. In summary, t(11;16)(q23;p13) is rare and overwhelmingly associated with prior exposure of cytotoxic therapy. Instead of being considered presumptive evidence of myelodysplasia, we suggest that the detection of t(11;16) should automatically prompt a search for a history of malignancy and cytotoxic therapy so that proper risk stratification and clinical management are made accordingly. The dismal outcome of patients with t(11;16) is in keeping with that of therapy-related neoplasms.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/administração & dosagem , Translocação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/mortalidade , Medição de Risco
5.
Blood Adv ; 4(3): 482-495, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027746

RESUMO

TP53 mutations are associated with adverse outcomes and shorter response to hypomethylating agents (HMAs) in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Limited data have evaluated the impact of the type, number, and patterns of TP53 mutations in response outcomes and prognosis of MDS. We evaluated the clinicopathologic characteristics, outcomes, and response to therapy of 261 patients with MDS and TP53 mutations. Median age was 68 years (range, 18-80 years). A total of 217 patients (83%) had a complex karyotype. TP53 mutations were detected at a median variant allele frequency (VAF) of 0.39 (range, 0.01-0.94). TP53 deletion was associated with lower overall response rate (ORR) (odds ratio, 0.3; P = .021), and lower TP53 VAF correlated with higher ORR to HMAs. Increase in TP53 VAF at the time of transformation was observed in 13 patients (61%), and previously undetectable mutations were observed in 15 patients (65%). TP53 VAF was associated with worse prognosis (hazard ratio, 1.02 per 1% VAF increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.03; P < .001). Integration of TP53 VAF and karyotypic complexity identified prognostic subgroups within TP53-mutant MDS. We developed a multivariable model for overall survival that included the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) categories and TP53 VAF. Total score for each patient was calculated as follows: VAF TP53 + 13 × IPSS-R blast score + 16 × IPSS-R cytogenetic score + 28 × IPSS-R hemoglobin score + 46 × IPSS-R platelet score. Use of this model identified 4 prognostic subgroups with median survival times of not reached, 42.2, 21.9, and 9.2 months. These data suggest that outcomes of patients with TP53-mutated MDS are heterogeneous and that transformation may be driven not only by TP53 but also by other factors.

6.
Eur J Haematol ; 104(4): 336-343, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can be classified as germinal center B cell-like (GCB) or activated B cell-like (ABC)/non-GCB based on cell-of-origin (COO) classification. This study evaluated the prognostic significance of COO classification in 250 patients diagnosed with de novo DLBCL who received R-CHOP therapy. We also assessed whether the genomic status of MYC, BCL2, or MYC/BCL2 double expression (DE) could provide additional prognostic information for DLBCL patients. METHODS: The clinicopathologic features and outcome of patients with GCB DLBCL were compared to patients with non-GCB DLBCL using Fisher's exact test. The prognostic significance of COO, MYC-R, and MYC/BCL2 DE were studied using multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. RESULTS: There were 162 men and 88 women with a median age of 62 years (range, 18-86). Forty-five of 250 (18%) cases harbored MYC rearrangement (R). The frequency of MYC-R was much higher in GCB than in non-GCB tumors (40/165, 24% vs 5/85, 6%) (P = .0001). MYC/BCL2 DE was observed in 53 of 125 (42%) cases. COO classification failed to predict overall survival (OS) in DLBCL patients, either those patients with MYC-R were included (P = .10) or not (P = .27). In contrast, MYC-R and MYC/BCL2 DE significantly correlated with inferior OS (P = .0001 and P = .001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, MYC-R and MYC/BCL2 DE were still independent prognostic factors in DLBCL patients. CONCLUSIONS: MYC-R and MYC/BCL2 DE are independent prognostic factors for DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP. In this cohort, COO classification failed to stratify patient outcome.

7.
Anal Chem ; 92(1): 749-757, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793292

RESUMO

Osteosclerosis and myefibrosis are complications of myeloproliferative neoplasms. These disorders result in excess growth of trabecular bone and collagen fibers that replace hematopoietic cells, resulting in abnormal bone marrow function. Treatments using imatinib and JAK2 pathway inhibitors can be effective on osteosclerosis and fibrosis; therefore, accurate grading is critical for tracking treatment effectiveness. Current grading standards use a four-class system based on analysis of biopsies stained with three histological stains: hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson's trichrome, and reticulin. However, conventional grading can be subjective and imprecise, impacting the effectiveness of treatment. In this Article, we demonstrate that mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging may serve as a quantitative diagnostic tool for quantitatively tracking disease progression and response to treatment. The proposed approach is label-free and provides automated quantitative analysis of osteosclerosis and collagen fibrosis.

8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(1): 95-106, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is an RNA-binding protein that is aberrantly expressed in cancers. We and others have previously shown that reduced hnRNP K expression downmodulates tumor-suppressive programs. However, overexpression of hnRNP K is the more commonly observed clinical phenomenon, yet its functional consequences and clinical significance remain unknown. METHODS: Clinical implications of hnRNP K overexpression were examined through immunohistochemistry on samples from patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who did not harbor MYC alterations (n = 75). A novel transgenic mouse model that overexpresses hnRNP K specifically in B cells was generated to directly examine the role of hnRNP K overexpression in mice (three transgenic lines). Molecular consequences of hnRNP K overexpression were determined through proteomics, formaldehyde-RNA-immunoprecipitation sequencing, and biochemical assays. Therapeutic response to BET-bromodomain inhibition in the context of hnRNP K overexpression was evaluated in vitro and in vivo (n = 3 per group). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: hnRNP K is overexpressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients without MYC genomic alterations. This overexpression is associated with dismal overall survival and progression-free survival (P < .001). Overexpression of hnRNP K in transgenic mice resulted in the development of lymphomas and reduced survival (P < .001 for all transgenic lines; Line 171[n = 30]: hazard ratio [HR] = 64.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 26.1 to 158.0; Line 173 [n = 31]: HR = 25.27, 95% CI = 10.3 to 62.1; Line 177 [n = 25]: HR = 119.5, 95% CI = 42.7 to 334.2, compared with wild-type mice). Clinical samples, mouse models, global screening assays, and biochemical studies revealed that hnRNP K's oncogenic potential stems from its ability to posttranscriptionally and translationally regulate MYC. Consequently, Hnrnpk overexpression renders cells sensitive to BET-bromodomain-inhibition in both in vitro and transplantation models, which represents a strategy for mitigating hnRNP K-mediated c-Myc activation in patients. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that hnRNP K is a bona fide oncogene when overexpressed and represents a novel mechanism for c-Myc activation in the absence of MYC lesions.

9.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(3): e238-e246, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data to inform surveillance and treatment for leukaemia predisposition syndromes are scarce and recommendations are largely based on expert opinion. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features and outcomes of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, an inherited bone marrow failure disorder with high risk of developing myeloid malignancies. METHODS: We did a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study in collaboration with the North American Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Registry. We reviewed patient medical records from 17 centres in the USA and Canada. Patients with a genetic (biallelic mutations in the SBDS gene) or clinical diagnosis (cytopenias and pancreatic dysfunction) of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome who developed myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia were eligible without additional restriction. Medical records were reviewed between March 1, 2001, and Oct 5, 2017. Masked central review of bone marrow pathology was done if available to confirm leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome diagnosis. We describe the clinical features and overall survival of these patients. FINDINGS: We initially identified 37 patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia. 27 patients had samples available for central pathology review and were reclassified accordingly (central diagnosis concurred with local in 15 [56%] cases), 10 had no samples available and were classified based on the local review data, and 1 patient was excluded at this stage as not eligible. 36 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 10 (28%) initially presented with acute myeloid leukaemia and 26 (72%) initially presented with myelodysplastic syndrome. With a median follow-up of 4·9 years (IQR 3·9-8·4), median overall survival for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome was 7·7 years (95% CI 0·8-not reached) and 0·99 years (95% CI 0·2-2·4) for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. Overall survival at 3 years was 11% (95% CI 1-39) for patients with leukaemia and 51% (29-68) for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Management and surveillance were variable. 18 (69%) of 26 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome received upfront therapy (14 haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and 4 chemotherapy), 4 (15%) patients received no treatment, 2 (8%) had unavailable data, and 2 (8%) progressed to acute myeloid leukaemia before receiving treatment. 12 patients received treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia-including the two patients initially diagnosed with myelodysplastic who progressed- two (16%) received HSCT as initial therapy and ten (83%) received chemotherapy with intent to proceed with HSCT. 33 (92%) of 36 patients (eight of ten with leukaemia and 25 of 26 with myelodysplastic syndrome) were known to have Shwachman-Diamond syndrome before development of a myeloid malignancy and could have been monitored with bone marrow surveillance. Bone marrow surveillance before myeloid malignancy diagnosis was done in three (33%) of nine patients with leukaemia for whom surveillance status was confirmed and 11 (46%) of 24 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Patients monitored had a 3-year overall survival of 62% (95% CI 32-82; n=14) compared with 28% (95% CI 10-50; n=19; p=0·13) without surveillance. Six (40%) of 15 patients with available longitudinal data developed myelodysplastic syndrome in the setting of stable blood counts. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that prognosis is poor for patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia owing to both therapy-resistant disease and treatment-related toxicities. Improved surveillance algorithms and risk stratification tools, studies of clonal evolution, and prospective trials are needed to inform effective prevention and treatment strategies for leukaemia predisposition in patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. FUNDING: National Institute of Health.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , /mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , /terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
10.
Leukemia ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719677

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and cytopenias due to uncontrolled programmed cell death. The presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines and constitutive activation of innate immunity signals in MDS cells suggest inflammatory cell death, such as necroptosis, may be responsible for disease phenotype. We evaluated 64 bone marrow samples from 55 patients with MDS or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) obtained prior to (n = 46) or after (n = 18) therapy with hypomethylating agents (HMAs). RNA from sorted bone marrow CD34+ cells was isolated and subject to amplification and RNA-Seq. Compared with healthy controls, expression levels of MLKL (CMML: 2.09 log2FC, p = 0.0013; MDS: 1.89 log2FC, p = 0.003), but not RIPK1 or RIPK3, were significantly upregulated. Higher expression levels of MLKL were associated with lower hemoglobin levels at diagnosis (-0.19 log2FC per 1 g/dL increase of Hgb, p = 0.03). Significant reduction in MLKL levels was observed after HMA therapy (-1.06 log2FC, p = 0.05) particularly among nonresponders (-2.89 log2FC, p = 0.06). Higher RIPK1 expression was associated with shorter survival (HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.00-3.67, p = 0.049 by Cox proportional hazards). This data provides further support for a role of necroptosis in MDS, and potentially response to HMAs and prognosis. This data also indicate that RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL are potential therapeutic targets in MDS.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222912, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569199

RESUMO

To confirm that neoplastic monocyte-derived collagen- and fibronectin-producing fibrocytes induce bone marrow (BM) fibrosis in primary myelofibrosis (PMF), we injected PMF BM-derived fibrocyte-precursor CD14+/CD34- monocytes into the tail vein of NOD-SCID-γ (NSG) mice. PMF BM-derived CD14+/CD34- monocytes engrafted and induced a PMF-like phenotype with splenomegaly, myeloid hyperplasia with clusters of atypical megakaryocytes, persistence of the JAK2V617F mutation, and BM and spleen fibrosis. As control we used normal human BM-derived CD14+/CD34- monocytes. These monocytes also engrafted and gave rise to normal megakaryocytes that, like PMF CD14+/CD34--derived megakaryocytes, expressed HLA-ABC and human CD42b antigens. Using 2 clonogenic assays we confirmed that PMF and normal BM-derived CD14+/CD34- monocytes give rise to megakaryocyte colony-forming cells, suggesting that a subpopulation BM monocytes harbors megakaryocyte progenitor capacity. Taken together, our data suggest that PMF monocytes induce myelofibrosis-like phenotype in immunodeficient mice and that PMF and normal BM-derived CD14+/CD34- monocytes give rise to megakaryocyte progenitor cells.

12.
Clin Case Rep ; 7(9): 1804-1805, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534758

RESUMO

Recognizing Gaucher disease in elderly patients can be challenging. We present a Gaucher disease type 1 case diagnosed in an elderly patient with thrombocytopenia and lung adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis of Gaucher disease was delayed due to lack of familiarity about Gaucher Disease type 1 which can manifest in adulthood.

13.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383966

RESUMO

Breast implant anaplastic large cell lymphoma is an entity recently recognized by the World Health Organization. The tumor arises around textured-surface breast implants and is usually confined to the surrounding fibrous capsule. Currently, there are no recommendations for handling and sampling of capsules from patients with suspected breast implant anaplastic large cell lymphoma without a grossly identifiable tumor. We analyzed complete capsulectomies without distinct gross lesions from patients with breast implant anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The gross appearance of the capsules as well as the presence, extent and depth of tumor cells on the luminal side and number of sections involved by lymphoma were determined by review of routine stains and CD30 immunohistochemistry. We then used a mathematical model that included the extent of tumor cells and number of positive sections to calculate the minimum number of sections required to identify 95% of randomly distributed lesions. We identified 50 patients with breast implant anaplastic large cell lymphoma who had complete capsulectomies. The implants were textured in all 32 (100%) cases with available information. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma was found in 44/50 (88%) capsules; no tumor was found in six (12%) patients who had lymphoma cells only in the effusion. The median number of sections reviewed was 20 (range, 2-240), the median percentage of sections involved by tumor was 6% (range, 0-90%), and the median percentage of sections involved by lymphoma was 10% (range, 0-90%). Invasion deep into or through the capsule was identified in 18/50 (36%) patients. In patients with breast implant anaplastic large cell lymphoma without a grossly identifiable tumor we identified a spectrum of involvement and we propose a protocol for handling, sampling and reporting these cases. The number of sections to exclude the presence of lymphoma with more than 95% certainty was supported by a mathematic rationale.

15.
Cancer Genet ; 238: 18-22, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425921

RESUMO

AML and MDS are most common myeloid neoplasms that affect mainly older patients. Overexpression of certain proto-oncogenes plays an indispensable role in tumorigenesis and overexpression can be a consequence of gene rearrangement, amplification and/or mutation. Rearrangement and amplification of KMT2A located at chromosome band 11q23 is a well-characterized genetic driver in a subset of AML/MDS cases and is associated with a poor prognosis. The presence of homogeneously staining regions (hsr) also has been correlated with amplification of specific proto-oncogenes. In this study, we correlated hsr(11)(q23) with KMT2A in a large cohort of AML/MDS (n = 54) patients. We identified 37 patients with hsr(11)(q23) in the setting of AML (n = 27) and MDS (n = 10). All patients showed a complex karyotype including 12 cases with monosomy 17. KMT2A FISH analysis was available for 35 patients which showed KMT2A amplification in all patients. Among control cases with hsr involving chromosomes other than 11q [non-11q hsr, n = 17], FISH analysis for KMT2A was available in 10 cases and none of these cases showed KMT2A amplification (p = 0.0001, Fisher's exact test, two-tailed). Mutational analysis was performed in 32 patients with hsr(11)(q23). The most common mutated gene was TP53 (n = 29), followed by DNMT3A (n = 4), NF1 (n = 4), and TET2 (n = 3). Thirty (83%) patients died over a median follow-up of 7.6 months (range, 0.4-33.4). In summary, hsr(11)(q23) in AML/MDS cases is associated with a complex karyotype, monosomy 17, KMT2A amplification, and TP53 mutation.

16.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 40: 45-48, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928887

RESUMO

Blast phase of PV is often associated with a complex karyotype (CK) and bilineage dysplasia. We hypothesized that BM morphologic abnormalities detected in the Chronic phase (CP) can identify patients with an increased risk of developing blast phase (BP). We also compared cases of BP PV to a group of acute myeloid leukemia cases with JAK2 mutation (AML-JAK2mut). We collected morphological, cytogenetics (CG), and molecular information at the time of diagnosis and at time of diagnosis of BP. We evaluate the presence of splicing factor mutations at BP. A total of 60/477 (12.5%) patients with diagnosis of BP of PV were identified, 17 of them had BM sample available during CP. Ten patients with PV CP were used as control group. We found that dyserythropoiesis during evolution were more frequent in patients who develop BP than in patients who remain in CP (13/17 vs. 3/10; P = .0402). Similarly, ring sideroblast (RS) increase during CP were more frequent in patients who develop BP (8/16 vs. 0/10. P = .0095). By ELN risk stratification for CG risk in BP all patients had adverse or intermediate risk; in AML-JAK2mut 2/11 patients (18%) had favorable as risk category. TP53 mutations were significantly more frequent in BP than in AML-JAK2mut (7/14 vs. 1/11, P = .0421). Mutation analysis for splicing factor at BP was performed on 13 patients. Only 2 patients with >15% RS had SRSF2 (2 patients) and SF3B1 (1 patient) mutations. The other patients were wild type. Dyserythropoiesis and the acquisition of RS precede other markers of disease progression to BP. CK and TP53 mutation are more frequent in BP than in AML-JAK2mut. SF3B1 mutations are rare in BP.


Assuntos
Janus Quinase 2/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Policitemia Vera/diagnóstico , Crise Blástica/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Policitemia Vera/genética , Policitemia Vera/patologia , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética
17.
Am J Hematol ; 94(7): 757-766, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963592

RESUMO

Myeloid neoplasms with germline DDX41 mutations have been incorporated into the 2017 WHO classification. Limited studies describing the clinicopathologic features and mutation profile are available. We searched for myeloid neoplasms with a DDX41 gene mutation tested by an 81-gene next-generation sequencing panel over a 7-month period. We identified 34 patients with myeloid neoplasms with DDX41 abnormalities; 26 (76%) men and 8 women (24%) [median age, 70 years], 20 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 10 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 1 chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and 3 myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Fifty-nine DDX41 variants were detected: 27 (46%) appeared somatic and 32 (54%) were presumably germline mutations. The majority of presumed germline mutations were upstream of the Helicase 2 domain (93%) and involved loss of the start codon (30%). The majority of somatic mutations were within the Helicase 2 domain (78%), with the missense mutation p.R525H being most common (67%). There was a significant difference in the location of germline or somatic mutations (P < .0001). Concomitant mutations were detected involving 19 genes, but only TP53 (n = 11, 32%), ASXL1 (n = 8, 24%), and JAK2 (n = 4, 12%) were recurrent. Twenty (59%) patients showed diploid cytogenetics. Twenty-three (68%) patients presented with AML or MDS-EB-2, suggesting an association with high-grade myeloid neoplasm. Patients with myeloid neoplasms carrying DDX41 mutations show male predominance (3:1), higher age at presentation, association with TP53 mutations, and association with high-grade myeloid neoplasms in our cohort at a referral cancer center setting. These findings support the recognition of myeloid neoplasms with DDX41 mutation as unique, need for germline confirmation, and further assessment of family members.

19.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 108: 131-136, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004601

RESUMO

KIT mutations are observed in about 20-40% of acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21)(q22;q22.1)/RUNX1-RUNX1T1 [abbreviated AML t(8;21) here] with mutations involving exon 17 being the most common. Despite high frequencies of KIT mutations in both AML t(8;21) and systemic mastocytosis (SM), AML t(8;21) associated with SM is uncommon, and restricted to KIT exon 17 mutated cases. In this study, we report two cases of AML t(8;21) associated SM that KIT mutation occurred in exon 8 (T417_D419delinsY). In both patients, the bone marrow displayed increased round/ovoid mast cells with bilobated nuclei and absence of CD2 and CD25 expression. RUNX1/RUNX1T1 fusion was shown in both myeloblasts and mast cells by FISH. Patient #1 was refractory to induction chemotherapy and died at day 50; patient #2 had residual AML, marked SM, and persistent RUNX1/RUNX1T1 fusion after induction therapy.


Assuntos
Éxons/genética , Leucemia Mieloide/genética , Mastocitose Sistêmica/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Doença Aguda , Cromossomos Humanos Par 21 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Leucemia Mieloide/complicações , Leucemia Mieloide/patologia , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Mastócitos/patologia , Mastocitose Sistêmica/complicações , Mastocitose Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteína 1 Parceira de Translocação de RUNX1/genética , Translocação Genética
20.
Case Rep Pathol ; 2019: 4915086, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941227

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common type of leukemia in Western countries with an incidence of 3-5 cases per 100,000 persons. Most patients follow an indolent clinical course with eventual progression and need for therapy. In contrast, T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare type of T-cell leukemia with most patients having an aggressive clinical course and a dismal prognosis. Therapies are limited for T-PLL patients and there is a high relapse rate. Morphologically, the cells of CLL and T-PLL can show overlapping features. Here, we report the case of a 61-year-old man who presented with a clinically indolent CLL and T-PLL, initially diagnosed solely and followed as CLL, despite the presence of an associated but unrecognized aberrant T-cell population in blood. After 2 years, the T-PLL component became more apparent with cutaneous and hematologic manifestations and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunophenotypic and cytogenetic analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated an ATM deletion in both CLL and T-PLL components. Retrospective testing demonstrated that composite CLL and T-PLL were both present in skin and lymph nodes as well as in blood and bone marrow since initial presentation. This case is also unique because it highlights that a subset of T-PLL patients can present with clinically indolent disease. The concomitant detection of ATM mutation in CLL and T-PLL components raises the possibility of a common pathogenic mechanism.

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