Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 86
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2100508, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633734

RESUMO

SCOPE: The diet of breastfeeding mothers could bring nurslings into contact with flavor compounds putatively contributing to early sensory programming of the infant. The study investigated whether tastants from a customary curry dish consumed by mothers are detectable in their milk afterwards and can be perceived by the infant. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sensory evaluation identified pungency as the dominating taste impression of the curry dish. Its ingredients of chili, pepper, and ginger suggested the flavor compounds capsaicin, piperine, and 6-gingerol as analytical targets. Breastfeeding mothers were recruited for an intervention trial involving the consumption of the curry dish and subsequent collection of milk samples for flavor compound analysis. Targeted and untargeted MS-investigations identified exclusively piperine as an intervention-derived compound in human milk. However, concentrations were below the human taste threshold. CONCLUSION: Piperine from pepper-containing foods transfers into the mother's milk within one hour and is delivered to the nursling. Concentrations of 50 and 200 nM of piperine were 70 to 350 times below the human taste threshold, but TRPV1 desensitization through frequent exposure to sub-taste-threshold concentrations could contribute to an increased tolerance at a later age. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112320, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474871

RESUMO

This study aimed to fabricate cinnamon essential oil (CO)-laden 45S5 bioactive glass (BG)/soy protein (SP) scaffolds exhibiting antioxidant and antibacterial activity. In this regard, 45S5 BG-based scaffolds were produced by the foam replica method, and subsequently the scaffolds were coated with various concentrations of CO (2.5, 5 and 7 (v/v) %) incorporated SP solution. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the CO-laden SP effectively attached to the 45S5 BG scaffold struts. The presence of 45S5 BG, SP and CO was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Compressive strength results indicated that SP based coatings improved the scaffolds' mechanical properties compared to uncoated BG scaffolds. The loading efficiency and releasing behaviour of the different CO concentrations were tested by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results showed that CO incorporated scaffolds have controlled releasing behaviour over seven days. Furthermore, the coating on the scaffold surfaces slightly retarded, but it did not inhibit, the in vitro bioactivity of the scaffolds. Moreover, the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of CO was studied. The free radical scavenging activity measured by DPPH was 5 ± 1, 41 ± 3, 44 ± 1 and 43 ± 1 % for BGSP, CO2.5, CO5 and CO7, respectively. The antioxidant activity was thus enhanced by incorporating CO. Agar diffusion and colony counting results indicated that the incorporation of CO increased the antibacterial activity of scaffolds against S. aureus and E. coli. In addition, cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was investigated using MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. The results showed that the BG-SP scaffold was non-toxic under the investigated conditions, whereas dose-dependent toxicity was observed in CO-laden scaffolds. Considered together, the developed phytotherapeutic agent laden 45S5 BG-based scaffolds are promising for bone tissue engineering exhibiting capability to combat bone infections and to protect against oxidative stress damage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Óleos Voláteis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cerâmica , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Escherichia coli , Vidro , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas de Soja , Staphylococcus aureus , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
3.
J Neurochem ; 159(1): 101-115, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263932

RESUMO

Naturally occurring compounds such as sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenoids (SQTs) have been shown to modulate GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs). In this study, the modulatory potential of 11 SQTs at GABAA Rs was analyzed to characterize their potential neurotropic activity. Transfected HEK293 cells and primary hippocampal neurons were functionally investigated using electrophysiological whole-cell recordings. Significantly different effects of ß-caryophyllene and α-humulene, as well as their respective derivatives ß-caryolanol and humulol, were observed in the HEK293 cell system. In neurons, the concomitant presence of phasic and tonic GABAA R configurations accounts for differences in receptor modulation by SQTs. The in vivo presence of the γ2 and δ subunits is important for SQT modulation. While phasic GABAA receptors in hippocampal neurons exhibited significantly altered GABA-evoked current amplitudes in the presence of humulol and guaiol, negative allosteric potential at recombinantly expressed α1 ß2 γ2 receptors was only verified for humolol. Modeling and docking studies provided support for the binding of SQTs to the neurosteroid-binding site of the GABAA R localized between transmembrane segments 1 and 3 at the (+ α)-(- α) interface. In sum, differences in the modulation of GABAA R isoforms between SQTs were identified. Another finding is that our results provide an indication that nutritional digestion affects the neurotropic potential of natural compounds.

4.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(17): 4387-4396, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050388

RESUMO

The (semi)volatile fraction of Matricaria chamomilla L., an annual herbal plant from the family of Asteraceae, contains high quantities of sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenoids. A method was developed to achieve isolation and separation of these compounds, using a combination of solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and solid support-free liquid-liquid chromatography. The biphasic liquid solvent system n-heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water, 5/2/5/2 v/v/v/v (Arizona S) was elaborated as a suitable solvent system for the simultaneous separation of the target compounds. The lab-scale liquid-liquid chromatography separation performed in a countercurrent chromatography (CCC) column was successfully transferred to a semi-preparative centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) column, which enabled the isolation of artemisia ketone, artemisia alcohol, α-bisabolone oxide A, and (E)-en-yn-dicycloether. α-Bisabolol oxide A and (Z)-en-yn-dicycloether co-eluted, but were successfully separated by subsequent size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Similarly, spathulenol and α-bisabolol oxide B were obtained as a mixture, and were separated by means of column chromatography using silica gel as stationary phase. The isolated compounds were characterized by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Matricaria/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Centrifugação/métodos , Cromatografia em Gel/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Solventes/química
5.
Front Nutr ; 7: 565496, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072797

RESUMO

Due to its characteristic flavor and positive effects on human health, garlic is a highly valued food ingredient. Consumption of garlic alters the quality of body odors, which may in some instances hinder social interaction but be beneficial in other contexts, as it is assumed to contribute to early flavor learning in the breastfeeding context, for example. In previous work, allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) has been identified as the major odor-active metabolite in urine and milk, being excreted together with the odorless metabolites allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2) after ingestion of raw garlic. The present work aimed to elucidate whether commonly used culinary thermal processing steps influence the excretion profiles of garlic-derived compounds. To this aim, urine (n = 6) and milk (n = 4) samples were donated before and after ingestion of roasted and cooked garlic and investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry, and, in the case of milk, by aroma profile analysis. The concentrations of AMS, AMSO, and AMSO2 were determined by stable isotope dilution assays. Sensory evaluations revealed that a garlic-like odor was perceivable in milk samples donated after ingestion of roasted and cooked garlic. Besides AMS, AMSO, and AMSO2, no other odor-active or odorless compounds related to the ingestion of roasted or cooked garlic were detected in the urine and milk samples. Maximum concentrations of the metabolites were detected around 1-2 h after garlic intake. In some cases, a second maximum occurred around 6 h after ingestion of garlic. The cooking procedure led to a more important reduction of metabolite concentrations than the roasting procedure. These findings suggest that intake of processed garlic leads to a transfer of odor-active and odorless metabolites into milk, which contributes to early flavor learning during breastfeeding and may also have a physiological effect on the infant.

6.
Talanta ; 220: 121380, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928405

RESUMO

The wood of the Cembran pine (Pinus cembra L.), also known as Swiss pine, Arolla pine or Stone pine, has a prominent and long-lasting odor which has been reported to relieve stress in humans. However, the odorants responsible for this are unknown and it is also unclear whether the odor profile depends on the origin of the trees, namely different geographical regions and pedoclimatic conditions. Therefore, in this study human sensory analyses together with isolation and analysis of the target odorants via solvent-assisted flavor evaporation were performed. Afterwards, comparative odor extract dilution analysis (cOEDA) was applied to investigate the odorous constituents of pinewood samples from forests in Austria and Italy. Specific odorants were thereby identified using one-dimensional and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry using two capillary columns with different polarities (DB-5 and DB-FFAP). In total, 103 odorants were detected with successful identification of 98 of these substances. The identified odorants were predominately monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as well as organic acids. Several compounds including germacrene D, thymol, carvacrol, rotundone, ß-caryophyllene, α-humulene, cinnamaldehyde, and ethyl cinnamate are reported here for the first time as odorous constituents of pinewood. Principal component analysis of the data obtained from sensory evaluation and cOEDA indicated that terpenes and sesquiterpenes were correlated with higher hedonic rates for the wood samples. Moreover, a Mantel test between the geographical distances of the trees and their sensory and cOEDA values demonstrated that the origin of the trees had a significant impact on the sensory characteristics of the wood, in agreement with the differences in the relative proportions of different volatile components. As such, the odor of Cembran pinewood is prone to variation but, yet, unique.


Assuntos
Pinus , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Monoterpenos , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
7.
Waste Manag ; 115: 36-46, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717550

RESUMO

Despite the growing interest of the automotive industry in using recycled polymers, their undesired odor is limiting their application in vehicles' interior components. To get deeper insights into its causes, this study aimed at characterizing the odor of post-consumer and recycled automotive polypropylene with different contents of talc and an anti-fogging additive. Samples were evaluated by different sensory methods currently applied by the automotive industry (GMW 3205 and VDA 270), which confirmed, that they are not feasible for reuse in interior automotive applications. As these odor evaluations are usually performed by non-trained panelists and do not allow a detailed description of the samples' single odor qualities, sensory evaluation according to ISO 13299 was performed by trained panelists. Samples showed medium-high odor intensities rated from 5.1 to 5.6, and a general dislike of the odor with hedonic ratings from 1.8 to 2.6 (scale 0-10). Their odor profiles correlated well with the odorants identified by chemo-analytical characterization using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and two-dimensional GC-O coupled with mass spectrometry (2D-GC-MS/O). An array of odorants with benzene and phenolic structures were identified as potential contributors to the samples' overall smell and are likely to originate from degradation of additives commonly used in automotive components. While the addition of talc or anti-fogging additive did not significantly improve the odor of the samples, the description of the samples' smell and the identification of odor-active compounds related to it allow the development of avoidance strategies for the manufacturing of neutral smelling products intended for vehicles' interior applications.


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Polipropilenos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Olfatometria , Olfato
8.
J Nat Prod ; 83(4): 834-842, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196341

RESUMO

Thymoquinone was recently reported as having a unique pencil-like odor and being the impact compound for the cedar-like and cedar wood-based product smell such as pencils. The compounds thymol and carvacrol are structurally related odorants commonly found in plants and foods such as thyme and oregano, also having a significant contribution to their overall aroma. However, a systematic elucidation of the sensory properties in this class of oxygenated, aromatic monoterpenoids has not been carried out. To close this gap and gain new insights into structure-odor relationships leading to pencil-like and woody odors, 19 structurally related derivatives of p-cymene starting from thymol and carvacrol were synthesized and characterized. The compounds had odor thresholds ranging from 2.0 ng/L air to 388.8 ng/L air, being lowest for thymol and carvacrol and highest for thymohydroquinone. The compounds smelled mostly thyme-like, oregano-like, and pencil-like with phenolic, earthy, and medicinal variations in their odor character, which could be successfully linked to structural motifs.


Assuntos
Cimenos/química , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Odorantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Monoterpenos/síntese química , Oxigênio/química , Limiar Sensorial/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(5): 1137-1149, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925488

RESUMO

The significance of wood odors beyond flavoring effects for barbecues and wine aged in barrels has recently been under discussion. Wood has an immense influence on our physical and mental condition through our palate, such as positive health and mood-stimulating effects. As a result of increased public interest, the key odorants from various natural wood species were recently decoded. To gain profound insights into the contribution of single odorants to the overall scent of distinct wood types, this study compares several softwood species (Scots pine, incense cedar, European larch, Norway spruce, and white fir) by odor profile analysis. Nine odor-active constituents, which were previously detected in those woods, were quantified using stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA). Odor activity values (OAVs) calculated on the basis of odor thresholds (OTs) determined in cellulose revealed hexanal, octanal, (E)-non-2-enal, p-cresol, vanillin, and thymoquinone as dominant odorants for wood odor. Recombination experiments by mixing the odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations in a cellulose matrix confirmed the successful characterization of the key odorants for Scots pine and incense cedar wood.


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Olfato , Madeira/química , Aromatizantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Padrões de Referência , Vinho/análise
10.
Waste Manag ; 104: 228-238, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982786

RESUMO

The establishment of recycling systems aiming at high-quality recyclates from post-consumer plastic waste are essential to avoid the waste of resources. One main impediment for introducing recyclates into the market is their unwanted odor. For this reason, this study aimed at determining if the collection strategy affects the odor profile of post-consumer LDPE bags. Furthermore, the effect of hot water washing, inspired by the conventional mechanical recycling procedure, on the odor of post-consumer LDPE bags was screened. More than 60 odorants were detected in LDPE bags collected in a separate plastic fraction as well as in LDPE bags from the non-separated collection by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry, and 37 of them were unequivocally identified using two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry. The sensory results revealed that the type of collection affects the overall odor intensity, the hedonic tone of the odor and the odor profile. Namely, cheesy and fecal smelling odorants were predominant in the waste that had not been separated at source, whereas odorants with earthy and moldy smells showed mostly higher intensity ratings in the waste separated at source. Short chain carboxylic acids, likely originating from microbial spoilage of organic waste, were found with higher dilution factors in the mixed fraction, and could, accordingly, contribute to the observed differences. Additionally, we could show that the hot washing procedure, applied to the LDPE sample from the separate collection system, significantly reduced the overall odor intensity from 8 to 6.3 (0-10 scale). However, the washed waste still showed high smell intensity ratings.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Polietileno , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Olfatometria , Olfato
11.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 1219, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798404

RESUMO

Odor masking is a very prominent problem in our daily routines, mainly concerning unpleasant sweat or toilet odors. In the current study we explored the effectiveness of odor masking both on a behavioral and neuronal level. By definition, participants cannot differentiate a fully masked unpleasant odor from the pleasant pure odor used as a masking agent on a behavioral level. We hypothesized, however, that one can still discriminate between a fully masked odor mixture and the pure masking odor on a neuronal level and that, using a reinforcing feedback paradigm, participants could be trained to perceive this difference. A pleasant, lemon-like odor (citral) and a mixture of citral and minor amounts of an unpleasant, goat-like odor (caproic acid) were presented to participants repeatedly using a computer-controlled olfactometer and participants had to decide whether two presented stimuli were the same or different. Accuracy of this task was incentivized with a possible monetary reward. Functional imaging was used throughout the task to investigate central processing of the two stimuli. The participants rated both stimuli as isopleasant and isointense, indicating that the unpleasant odor was fully masked by the pleasant odor. The isolated caproic acid component of the mixture was rated less pleasant than the pleasant odor in a prior experimental session. Although the masked and pure stimuli were not discriminated in the forced-choice task, quality ratings on a dimensional scale differed. Further, we observed an increased activation of the insula and ventral striatum/putamen for the pure in contrast to the fully masked odor, hence revealing a difference in neuronal processing. Our hypothesis that perceptual discrimination and neuronal processing can be enhanced using a reinforcing feedback paradigm is not supported by our data.

12.
Pharmaceutics ; 11(11)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683863

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to produce antibacterial poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-gelatin (GEL) electrospun nanofiber mats containing clove essential oil (CLV) using glacial acetic acid (GAA) as a "benign" (non-toxic) solvent. The addition of CLV increased the fiber diameter from 241 ± 96 to 305 ± 82 nm. Aside from this, the wettability of PCL-GEL nanofiber mats was increased by the addition of CLV. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis confirmed the presence of CLV, and the actual content of CLV was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our investigations showed that CLV-loaded PCL-GEL nanofiber mats did not have cytotoxic effects on normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells. On the other hand, the fibers exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Consequently, PCL-GEL/CLV nanofiber mats are potential candidates for antibiotic-free wound healing applications.

13.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(21): 5545-5554, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201455

RESUMO

Acrylates (acrylic esters) are versatile monomers that are widely used in polymer formulations because of their highly reactive α,ß-unsaturated carboxyl structure. Commonly used acrylates such as butyl acrylate are known to emit a strong unpleasant odour, and the monomers are therefore potential off-odorants in acrylic polymers. However, up to now, the odour properties of structurally related acrylic esters have not been characterised in detail. To obtain deeper insights into the smell properties of different acrylates, we investigated the relationship between the molecular structure and odour thresholds as well as the odour qualities of 20 acrylic esters, nine of these synthesised here for the first time. The OT values of 16 acrylates fell within the range from 0.73 to 20 ng/Lair, corresponding to a high-odour activity. Moreover, sec-butyl acrylate and 2-methoxyphenyl acrylate showed even lower OT values of 0.073 and 0.068, respectively. On the other hand, the OT values of the hydroxylated acrylates 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate and 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate were 5-244 times higher than those of the other compounds, demonstrating that the presence of a hydroxyl group obviously favours odour inactivity.

14.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(17): 3757-3761, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079176

RESUMO

Soft, squashable toys known as squishies have become increasingly popular amongst children. In this study, one such toy was evaluated sensorially by a trained panel and analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O) after thermal extraction of the sample. Sensory analysis revealed the presence of an intense and unpleasant odour exhibited by the sample. The smell was dominated by almond- and inflatable swimming aid-like, as well as malty and glue-like notes, but also pleasant odours that were described as caramel-like and coconut-like. GC-MS/O analysis identified 2-butoxyethanol, cyclohexanone, γ-nonalactone, and ethyl maltol as being the main causative substances for the overall odour of the product. The data additionally indicated that the pleasant smelling substances γ-nonalactone (coconut-like smell) and ethyl maltol (caramel-like smell) were intentionally added by the manufacturer to mask the unpleasant odour of the solvents.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria/métodos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Solventes/análise
15.
Front Nutr ; 6: 43, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111029

RESUMO

The consumption of garlic (Allium sativum) is widely known to (negatively) impact body odor, in particular breath and sweat, but also urine. Despite this common phenomenon, the underlying processes in the body that lead to the malodor are not yet fully understood. In previous studies we identified three volatile garlic-derived metabolites in human milk and urine, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO), and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2). In the present study, we monitored the excretion processes of these metabolites via human urine after consumption of garlic over time, whereby 19 sets of eight urine samples (one sample pre-ingestion and seven samples post-ingestion) were analyzed using two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (HRGC-GC-MS/O). The highest concentrations of these metabolites were detected in urine ~1-2 h after garlic ingestion, with a second increase observed after 6-8 h in the urine of some participants. Moreover, the highest observed concentrations differed between the individual participants or test series by up to one order of magnitude.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039166

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to fabricate and characterize various concentrations of peppermint essential oil (PEP) loaded on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun fiber mats for healing applications, where PEP was intended to impart antibacterial activity to the fibers. SEM images illustrated that the morphology of all electrospun fiber mats was smooth, uniform, and bead-free. The average fiber diameter was reduced by the addition of PEP from 1.6 ± 0.1 to 1.0 ± 0.2 µm. Functional groups of the fibers were determined by Raman spectroscopy. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis demonstrated the actual PEP content in the samples. In vitro degradation was determined by measuring weight loss and their morphology change, showing that the electrospun fibers slightly degraded by the addition of PEP. The wettability of PCL and PEP loaded electrospun fiber mats was measured by determining contact angle and it was shown that wettability increased with the incorporation of PEP. The antimicrobial activity results revealed that PEP loaded PCL electrospun fiber mats exhibited inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (gram-negative) bacteria. In addition, an in-vitro cell viability assay using normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells revealed improved cell viability on PCL, PCLPEP1.5, PCLPEP3, and PCLGEL6 electrospun fiber mats compared to the control (CNT) after 48 h cell culture. Our findings showed for the first time PEP loaded PCL electrospun fiber mats with antibiotic-free antibacterial activity as promising candidates for wound healing applications.

17.
Food Chem ; 274: 603-610, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372984

RESUMO

Maternal garlic intake during pregnancy and the breastfeeding period has been reported to be associated with the potential of modulating later garlic acceptance in infants. However, the metabolism of garlic constituents in humans and their elimination and potential excretion into human milk are not yet fully understood. In previous studies, we identified volatile garlic-derived metabolites in human milk as well as in human urine, namely allyl methyl sulfide, allyl methyl sulfoxide and allyl methyl sulfone. To monitor the excretion of these garlic metabolites in a larger cohort, we quantified these metabolites in a total of 18 human milk sets, whereby each set comprised of one sample collected before and three samples after garlic consumption. The analyses revealed that the concentrations of the metabolites were most abundant 1-3.5 h after garlic consumption, with distinct differences between test persons regarding metabolite concentrations as well as temporal excretion.


Assuntos
Alho/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Compostos Alílicos/química , Compostos Alílicos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Sulfetos/química , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Volatilização
18.
Front Public Health ; 6: 350, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555813

RESUMO

Acrylic paints are fast drying water based paints that are easy to handle and have a high covering capacity and therefore possess many characteristics that make them applicable in a wide range of applications, such as varnishes or artists paints. Due to their emitted volatile organic compounds, these paints are associated with different work-related diseases and are known to emit an unpleasant odor. In this study six acrylic paints for artists were analyzed regarding their odor-active constituents. Therefore, the samples were extracted with dichloromethane and purified via solvent assisted flavor evaporation prior to analysis of the distillates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and GC-GC-MS/O. Additionally all samples were sensorially characterized by a trained sensory panel. The identified odorous substances were primarily benzene derivatives (styrene, ethylbenzene, allylbenzene, propylbenzene) with a plastic-like, aromatic and solvent-like odor. Thereby, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, indane, and tetralin derivatives) contributed to the plastic- and mothball-like odor whereas acrylic monomers (butyl acrylate) were found to be responsible for a mushroom-like and geranium leaf-like odor. As most of these substances are also known to be harmful, a reduction or replacement of these substances by less toxic and non-odor active ingredients is likely to turn out to be advisable in order to reduce the odor and potential negative physiological effects of paints.

19.
Front Chem ; 6: 410, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255016

RESUMO

Ramson (Allium ursinum) is known for its typical garlic-like aroma. Both ramson and garlic belong to the genus allium which is characterized by a high content of sulfurous compounds. However, in contrast to garlic, ramson is in general not associated with an unpleasant breath following consumption. While there is data available regarding the metabolism of volatile garlic constituents in the human body, the metabolism of ramson was not yet addressed. To elucidate if ramson has an impact on the body odor, this study aimed at identifying volatile ramson-derived metabolites in human milk and urine. Therefore, milk and urine samples were gathered before and after ramson consumption, and were analyzed sensorially by a trained human sensory panel as well as chemo-analytically applying gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O). Sensory evaluation revealed a garlic-/cabbage like odor in milk samples obtained after ramson consumption, demonstrating that ramson consumption affected the milk aroma. Analyzes by means of GC-MS/O further confirmed excretion of three ramson-derived metabolites in milk and urine samples collected after ramson consumption, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2). Of these metabolites only AMS had a garlic-/cabbage-like odor, while the other two were odorless. These metabolites were subsequently quantified using stable isotope dilution assays. Nine urine sets, each comprising eight urine samples, and nine milk sets, each comprising four samples, were analyzed. In case of the urine sets a time interval of about 24 h was monitored, in case of the milk sets a time interval of up to 9 h. Despite the fact that all samples contained the same metabolites there were relevant differences found between individual subjects, especially with regard to the temporal rate of metabolite excretion. Generally, the maxima of metabolite excretion were observed in milk sets within 3 h after ramson consumption. In urine the highest AMS and AMSO amounts were observed within 2 h whereas the maximum concentration of AMSO2 was reached about 2 to 4 h after ramson ingestion. This study suggests that ramson constituents are heavily metabolized in the human body.

20.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 410(25): 6595-6607, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062512

RESUMO

Over the centuries, oak wood has been used in the maturation process of alcoholic beverages imparting aroma and flavor notes. Whereas several studies have dealt with the impact of oak wood on the chemical composition of, for example, wine aroma, only limited information is available on the odorant composition of unmodified and raw oak wood itself. To close this gap, a combination of human sensory and chemo-analytical techniques was applied for the elucidation of the chemical composition of oak odor, comprising extraction of the volatile fraction of oak wood by means of solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and subsequent mild concentration of the distillate. Odor extract dilution analysis (OEDA), which is based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), was then applied for the targeted characterization of the odor-active compounds. Overall, a total of 97 odorants was identified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O) and heart-cut two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (2D-GC-MS/O). The majority of these odorants comprised a series of terpenes, mainly mono- and sesquiterpenes, aldehydes, acids, and lactones, as well as a number of odorants containing a phenolic core moiety. Several odorants are reported here for the first time as volatile organic compounds in oak wood. Identification of the molecular composition of oak wood odor helps to establish a better understanding of the distinctive smell of oak wood, and offers the basis for unveiling its potential effects on humans when being exposed to oak wood smell in daily life. Graphical abstract ᅟ.


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Quercus/classificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Olfatometria
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...