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1.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 34(9): 1625-1628, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is an ultra-rare disorder in childhood and belongs to the microangiopathic hemolytic anemias (MAHA) and the thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA). In the acquired form, autoantibodies against ADAMTS13 inhibit cleaving of von Willebrand factor (vWF) multimers, thereby promoting their interaction with thrombocytes, causing TMA and MAHA. A recently introduced nanobody, caplacizumab, inhibits the binding of platelets to vWF. CASE-DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: During a first episode, a 10-year-old girl was admitted for TTP. Plasma exchange (PE) and immunosuppressive therapy with corticosteroids and mycophenolate mofetil were initiated. The course was complicated by catheter-associated septicemia and a very slow hematological and clinical recovery. Platelet count became normal at day 40 after admission and treatment initiation. Three years later, the child presented again with TTP. During this second episode, caplacizumab was introduced together with PE and immunosuppressive therapy within 4 days after admission. With this regimen, platelet count normalized within 3 days of treatment, and PE treatment could be stopped after a total of 14 days. The child could be discharged and caplacizumab was continued on an outpatient basis until day 30 after initiation. Adverse events during the use of caplacizumab were not encountered. CONCLUSIONS: Caplacizumab treatment was safe and effective in a child with relapsing, autoantibody-mediated TTP. With respect to this potentially life-threatening condition, the add-on use of caplacizumab represents a novel option to reduce morbidity and mortality and improve quality of life in children and adolescents with TTP.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792349

RESUMO

The IL-1 family member IL-37 broadly suppresses innate inflammation and acquired immunity. Similar to IL-1α and IL-33, IL-37 is a dual-function cytokine in that IL-37 translocates to the nucleus but also transmits a signal via surface membrane receptors. The role of nuclear IL-37 remains unknown on the ability of this cytokine to inhibit innate inflammation. Here, we compared suppression of innate inflammation in transgenic mice expressing native human IL-37 (IL-37Tg) with those of transgenic mice carrying the mutation of aspartic acid (D) to alanine (A) at amino acid 20 (IL-37D20ATg). The mutation D20A prevents cleavage of caspase-1, a step required for IL-37 nuclear translocation. In vitro, peritoneal macrophages from IL-37Tg mice reduced LPS-induced IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα and IFNγ by 40-50% whereas in macrophages from IL-37D20ATg mice this suppression was not observed, consistent with loss of nuclear function. Compared with macrophages from IL-37Tg mice, significantly less or no suppression of LPS-induced MAP kinase and NFκB activation was also observed in macrophages from IL-37D20ATg mice. In vivo, levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNFα in the lungs and liver were markedly reduced during endotoxemia in IL-37Tg mice but not observed in IL-37D20ATg mice. However, suppression of innate inflammation remains intact in the IL-37D20A mice once the cytokine is released from the cell and binds to its receptor. These studies reveal a nuclear function for suppression of innate inflammation and are consistent with the dual function of IL-37 and a role for caspase-1 in limiting inflammation.

3.
Liver Int ; 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adolescents today. In comparison to adult disease, pediatric NAFLD may show a periportal localization, which is associated with advanced fibrosis. This study aimed to assess the role of genetic risk variants for histologic disease pattern and severity in childhood NAFLD. METHODS: We studied 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a cohort of 70 adolescents with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Genotype was compared to an adult control cohort (n=200) and analyzed in relation to histologic disease severity and liver tissue proteomics. RESULTS: Three of the 14 SNPs were significantly associated with pediatric NAFLD after FDR adjustment, rs738409 (PNPLA3, P=2.80×10-06 ), rs1044498 (ENPP1, P=0.0091) and rs780094 (GCKR, P=0.0281). The severity of steatosis was critically associated with rs738409 (OR=3.25; 95% CI: 1.72-6.52, FDR adjusted P=0.0070). The strongest variants associated with severity of fibrosis were rs1260326, rs780094 (both GCKR) and rs659366 (UCP2). PNPLA3 was associated with a portal pattern of steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Proteome profiling revealed decreasing levels of GCKR protein with increasing carriage of the rs1260326/rs780094 minor alleles and down-regulation of the retinol pathway in rs738409 G/G carriers. Computational metabolic modelling highlighted functional relevance of PNPLA3, GCKR and UCP2 for NAFLD development. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for the role of PNPLA3 as a determinant of portal NAFLD localization and severity of portal fibrosis in children and adolescents, the risk variant being associated with an impaired hepatic retinol metabolism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Invest Radiol ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Today, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adults alike. Yet, the noninvasive evaluation of disease severity remains a diagnostic challenge. In this study, we apply multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (mMRE) for the quantification of liver steatosis and fibrosis in adolescents with NAFLD. METHODS: Fifty adolescents (age range, 10-17 years; mean BMI, 33.9 kg/m; range, 21.4-42.1 kg/m) with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included in this prospective study. Multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography was performed using external multifrequency vibrations of 30 to 60 Hz and tomoelastography postprocessing, resulting in penetration rate (a) and shear wave speed (c). Hepatic fat fraction was determined using Dixon method. The diagnostic accuracy of mMRE in grading liver steatosis and staging liver fibrosis was assessed by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: Multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography parameters c and a were independently sensitive to fibrosis and steatosis, respectively, providing area under the receiver operating characteristic values of 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.92), 0.91 (95% CI, 0.83-0.99), and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80-0.99) for the detection of any (≥F1), moderate (≥F2), and advanced (≥F3) fibrosis, and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.76-0.97) and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.77-0.96) for the detection of moderate (≥S2) and severe (S3) steatosis. CONCLUSIONS: One mMRE measurement provides 2 independent parameters with very good diagnostic accuracy in detecting moderate and advanced fibrosis as well as moderate and severe steatosis in pediatric NAFLD.

5.
6.
Gastroenterology ; 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267714

RESUMO

Caspase-8 (CASP8) is a protease that initiates apoptosis and regulates inflammation and immune responses. We identified germline mutations in CASP8 in 3 unrelated patients with infant-onset inflammatory bowel disease: 2 patients were homozygous for the mutation 710A>G, p.Q237R, which resulted in reduced protein expression, and 1 patient carried the mutation 793C>T, p.R265W. We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from our index patient and observed defects in T- and B-cell maturation, proliferation, and/or activation. Macrophages from 1 patient with CASP8 deficiency and monocytic BLaER1 cells with knockout of CASP8 or overexpression of CASP8 with the 710A>G mutation had altered inflammasome activity on stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Patient-derived intestinal organoids and colon carcinoma cells with knockout of CASP8 had defects in cell death processes that involved loss of TRAIL signaling and increased necroptosis. These findings indicate that CASP8 controls inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, and intestinal barrier integrity in humans.

7.
Nat Genet ; 50(3): 344-348, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483653

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 (encoded by TGFB1) is the prototypic member of the TGF-ß family of 33 proteins that orchestrate embryogenesis, development and tissue homeostasis1,2. Following its discovery 3 , enormous interest and numerous controversies have emerged about the role of TGF-ß in coordinating the balance of pro- and anti-oncogenic properties4,5, pro- and anti-inflammatory effects 6 , or pro- and anti-fibrinogenic characteristics 7 . Here we describe three individuals from two pedigrees with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the TGFB1 gene who presented with severe infantile inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and central nervous system (CNS) disease associated with epilepsy, brain atrophy and posterior leukoencephalopathy. The proteins encoded by the mutated TGFB1 alleles were characterized by impaired secretion, function or stability of the TGF-ß1-LAP complex, which is suggestive of perturbed bioavailability of TGF-ß1. Our study shows that TGF-ß1 has a critical and nonredundant role in the development and homeostasis of intestinal immunity and the CNS in humans.

8.
Liver Int ; 38(6): 1095-1101, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic alcohol consumption and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) afflicts individuals with substantial morbidity and mortality with limited treatment options available. Hepatic inflammation, triggered by activated Kupffer cells, is a driving force in alcoholic liver disease. Interleukin 37 (IL-37) exerts anti-inflammatory effects in hepatic diseases, however, the impact of Interleukin 37 on alcoholic liver disease is unknown. In this study, we addressed the role of Interleukin 37 in alcoholic liver disease. METHODS: We utilized Interleukin 37 expressing transgenic mice and human recombinant Interleukin 37 in models of alcoholic liver disease. Interleukin 37 expression was measured in liver samples of 20 alcoholic steatohepatitis and 36 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients. RESULTS: Interleukin 37 transgenic mice are not protected against hepatic injury and inflammation in alcoholic liver disease. Ethanol suppressed Interleukin 37 expression in transgenic mice. Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) patients similarly exhibited reduced Interleukin 37 expression when compared to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. Human recombinant Interleukin 37 ameliorated hepatic inflammation in a binge drinking model of alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence for an exogenous noxae that suppresses Interleukin 37 expression which limits its anti-inflammatory effects in alcoholic liver disease.

9.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 66(6): 915-919, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The inflammatory process in Crohn disease (CD) involves the visceral fat, characterized by adipocyte hyperplasia and altered adipose tissue and serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), leptin, adiponectin and resistin. We investigated the effect of anti-TNF therapy with infliximab (IFX) on serum adipokine levels in pediatric CD. METHODS: Serum concentrations of resistin (ng/mL), leptin (ng/mL), and total adiponectin (µg/mL) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in 18 pediatric CD patients (mean age 15.0 ±â€Š1.5 years) before first, second, and fourth IFX infusion (weeks 0, 2, and 14) and compared with baseline values from sex- and BMI-matched healthy controls (HC, mean age 13.4 ±â€Š1.6 years). RESULTS: At baseline, CD patients (mean age 15.0 ±â€Š1.5 years, 10 of 18 boys) compared with HC (13.4 ±â€Š1.6 years, 7 of 15 boys) had higher resistin levels (median 14.7 ng/mL, range 5.1-50.5 vs 7.3 ng/mL, 0.5-14.5); P = 0.0002). At weeks 2 and 14, resistin decreased to 6.9 ng/mL (2.9-16.8) (P < 0.0001) and 9.2 ng/mL (4.1-20.6; P = 0.0011), respectively. Leptin and adiponectin were comparable between patients and HC at baseline. Leptin increased in girls from 9.5 ng/mL (4.0-30.1) to 16.0 ng/mL (7.9-35.2; P = 0.0156) and 17.2 ng/mL (10.8- 26.8; P = 0.1953) at weeks 0, 2, and 14 respectively; with a trend in boys from 2 (0.6-12.9) to 2.8 (1.7-8.6; P = 0.0840) and 3.3 (1.3-4.6; P = 0.1309). Adiponectin peaked initially from 7.8 µg/mL (4.6-11.9) at week 0 to 9.2 µg/mL (4.1-20.7; P = 0.0005) at week 2 and thereafter fell to 6.5 µg/mL (3.0-12.7; P = 0.0182) at week 14. CONCLUSIONS: TNF blockade is associated with changes in circulating adipokines. The marked early increase of the potent anti-inflammatory adiponectin may contribute to the rapid response to IFX in CD.

11.
J Innate Immun ; 9(4): 403-418, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28601872

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae infections can lead to severe complications with excessive immune activation and tissue damage. Interleukin-37 (IL-37) has gained importance as a suppressor of innate and acquired immunity, and its effects have been therapeutic as they prevent tissue damage in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. By using RAW macrophages, stably transfected with human IL-37, we showed a 70% decrease in the cytokine levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß, and a 2.2-fold reduction of the intracellular killing capacity of internalized pneumococci in response to pneumococcal infection. In a murine model of infection with S. pneumoniae, using mice transgenic for human IL-37b (IL-37tg), we observed an initial decrease in cytokine expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß in the lungs, followed by a late-phase enhancement of pneumococcal burden and subsequent increase of proinflammatory cytokine levels. Additionally, a marked increase in recruitment of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils was noted, while TRAIL mRNA was reduced 3-fold in lungs of IL-37tg mice, resulting in necrotizing pneumonia with augmented death of infiltrating neutrophils, enhanced bacteremic spread, and increased mortality. In conclusion, we have identified that IL-37 modulates several core components of a successful inflammatory response to pneumococcal pneumonia, which lead to increased inflammation, tissue damage, and mortality.


Assuntos
Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/imunologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Bacteriólise , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1/genética , Pulmão/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células RAW 264.7 , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/genética , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Transgenes/genética
12.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 65(6): 633-638, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence points toward an active immunological role of intra-abdominal adipose tissue in Crohn disease (CD). We quantified the abdominal adipose tissue compartments using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 27 pediatric patients with CD compared with 14 controls undergoing MRI examination for other reasons. METHODS: Total (TAAT), subcutaneous (SCAT) and intra-abdominal (IAAT) adipose tissue areas were measured by semiautomatic segmentation on a transverse slice centered on the umbilicus (mean ±â€Šstandard deviation in square centimeter) using standard T1-weighted sequences. IAAT/TAAT and IAAT/height ratios were calculated and analyzed for associations with disease duration, phenotype, or therapy. RESULTS: Patients with CD (median age 15.0 years, range 7.7-17.9, 18/27 boys, median disease duration 29 months, range 0-136) compared to controls (median age 13.9 years, range 3.3-17.8, 4/14 boys) had higher IAAT area (42.3 ±â€Š21.0 vs 28.7 ±â€Š11.6, P = 0.0494) but similar SCAT and TAAT areas (104.6 ±â€Š72.8 vs 96.5 ±â€Š50.8, P = 0.8170 and 146.9 ±â€Š87.3 vs 125.3 ±â€Š61.5, P = 0.7417, respectively). IAAT/TAAT ratio was higher in patients with CD compared to controls (0.32 ±â€Š0.10 vs 0.24 ±â€Š0.04, P = 0.0081). Patients with disease duration >2 years (n = 14) had higher IAAT/TAAT ratio than those with shorter disease and controls (0.35 ±â€Š0.10 vs 0.28 ±â€Š0.08, P = 0.0288 and 0.24 ±â€Š0.04, P = 0.0009, respectively). In these patients, increased IAAT/height ratio was associated with complicated disease (P = 0.043, r = 0.573). No association was found between IAAT/TAAT ratio and actual disease activity or therapy. CONCLUSIONS: IAAT is increased in pediatric CD and correlates with disease duration. Assessment of IAAT accumulation may be considered in future MRI scores for inflammation and bowel damage in CD and during follow-up of different therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/imunologia , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/análise , Composição Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Eur J Immunol ; 46(5): 1067-81, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27060871

RESUMO

IL-37 is unique in the IL-1 family in that unlike other members of the family, IL-37 broadly suppresses innate immunity. IL-37 can be elevated in humans with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases where it likely functions to limit inflammation. Transgenic mice expressing human IL-37 (IL37-tg) exhibit less severe inflammation in models of endotoxin shock, colitis, myocardial infarction, lung, and spinal cord injury. IL37-tg mice have reduced antigen-specific responses and dendritic cells (DCs) from these mice exhibit characteristics of tolerogenic DCs. Compared to aging wild-type (WT) mice, aging IL37-tg mice are protected against B-cell leukemogenesis and heart failure. Treatment of WT mice with recombinant human IL-37 has been shown to be protective in several models of inflammation and injury. IL-37 binds to the IL-18 receptor but then recruits the orphan IL-1R8 (formerly TIR8 or SIGIRR) in order to function as an inhibitor. Here, we review the discovery of IL-37, its production, release, and mechanisms by which IL-37 reduces inflammation and suppresses immune responses. The data reviewed here suggest a therapeutic potential for IL-37.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-1/imunologia , Animais , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1/genética , Interleucina-1/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptores de Interleucina-1/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(5): 1411-6, 2016 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26787859

RESUMO

IL-37, a member of the IL-1 family, broadly reduces innate inflammation as well as acquired immunity. Whether the antiinflammatory properties of IL-37 extend to the central nervous system remains unknown, however. In the present study, we subjected mice transgenic for human IL-37 (hIL-37tg) and wild-type (WT) mice to spinal cord contusion injury and then treated them with recombinant human IL-37 (rIL-37). In the hIL-37tg mice, the expression of IL-37 was barely detectable in the uninjured cords, but was strongly induced at 24 h and 72 h after the spinal cord injury (SCI). Compared with WT mice, hIL-37tg mice exhibited increased myelin and neuronal sparing and protection against locomotor deficits, including 2.5-fold greater speed in a forced treadmill challenge. Reduced levels of cytokines (e.g., an 80% reduction in IL-6) were observed in the injured cords of hIL-37tg mice, along with lower numbers of blood-borne neutrophils, macrophages, and activated microglia. We treated WT mice with a single intraspinal injection of either full-length or processed rIL-37 after the injury and found that the IL-37-treated mice had significantly enhanced locomotor skills in an open field using the Basso Mouse Scale, as well as supported faster speed on a mechanical treadmill. Treatment with both forms of rIL-37 led to similar beneficial effects on locomotor recovery after SCI. This study presents novel data indicating that IL-37 suppresses inflammation in a clinically relevant model of SCI, and suggests that rIL-37 may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of acute SCI.


Assuntos
Interleucina-1/uso terapêutico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Quimiocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interleucina-1/genética , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo
16.
J Crohns Colitis ; 10(1): 112-5, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26464403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: X-linked chronic granulomatous disease [X-CGD] due to hemizygous mutations in CYBB is characterised by invasive bacterial and fungal infections and granulomatous inflammation. Inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] is an additional or isolated manifestation. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation [alloHSCT] is the standard curative treatment. X-CGD carriers are usually healthy but those with non-random X-chromosome inactivation [XCI] may develop infectious or autoinflammatory manifestations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report on two female patients with severe treatment-refractory Crohn-like IBD manifesting at age 23 and 8 years, respectively. NADPH-oxidase activity testing and molecular genetics proved X-CGD carrier status with non-random XCI. As in CGD, histopathology from colonic biopsies disclosed pigment-laden macrophages and reduced CD68(+) macrophages. Following submyelo-ablative conditioning, the younger patient was treated with alloHSCT at age 20 years. She came into remission within 3 months after transplantation and shows complete mucosal healing after 16 months off all medications. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that children and young adults with refractory IBD should mandatorily be tested for CGD. AlloHSCT should be considered as curative therapy in severely diseased female carriers of X-CGD with non-random XCI.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/genética , Doença de Crohn/terapia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Biópsia por Agulha , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , NADPH Oxidase 2 , Medição de Risco , Amostragem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Inativação do Cromossomo X/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nat Immunol ; 16(4): 354-65, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25729923

RESUMO

Interleukin 37 (IL-37) and IL-1R8 (SIGIRR or TIR8) are anti-inflammatory orphan members of the IL-1 ligand family and IL-1 receptor family, respectively. Here we demonstrate formation and function of the endogenous ligand-receptor complex IL-37-IL-1R8-IL-18Rα. The tripartite complex assembled rapidly on the surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Silencing of IL-1R8 or IL-18Rα impaired the anti-inflammatory activity of IL-37. Whereas mice with transgenic expression of IL-37 (IL-37tg mice) with intact IL-1R8 were protected from endotoxemia, IL-1R8-deficient IL-37tg mice were not. Proteomic and transcriptomic investigations revealed that IL-37 used IL-1R8 to harness the anti-inflammatory properties of the signaling molecules Mer, PTEN, STAT3 and p62(dok) and to inhibit the kinases Fyn and TAK1 and the transcription factor NF-κB, as well as mitogen-activated protein kinases. Furthermore, IL-37-IL-1R8 exerted a pseudo-starvational effect on the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR. IL-37 thus bound to IL-18Rα and exploited IL-1R8 to activate a multifaceted intracellular anti-inflammatory program.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-18/imunologia , Interleucina-1/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-1/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1/genética , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-18/antagonistas & inibidores , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-18/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/imunologia , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fyn/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fyn/imunologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/imunologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Interleucina-1/deficiência , Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/imunologia , c-Mer Tirosina Quinase
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(42): 15178-83, 2014 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25294929

RESUMO

IL-1 family member IL-37 limits innate inflammation in models of colitis and LPS-induced shock, but a role in adaptive immunity remains unknown. Here, we studied mice expressing human IL-37b isoform (IL-37tg) subjected to skin contact hypersensitivity (CHS) to dinitrofluorobenzene. CHS challenge to the hapten was significantly decreased in IL-37tg mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice (-61%; P < 0.001 at 48 h). Skin dendritic cells (DCs) were present and migrated to lymph nodes after antigen uptake in IL-37tg mice. When hapten-sensitized DCs were adoptively transferred to WT mice, antigen challenge was greatly impaired in mice receiving DCs from IL-37tg mice compared with those receiving DCs from WT mice (-60%; P < 0.01 at 48 h). In DCs isolated from IL-37tg mice, LPS-induced increase of MHC II and costimulatory molecule CD40 was reduced by 51 and 31%, respectively. In these DCs, release of IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-12 was reduced whereas IL-10 secretion increased (37%). Consistent with these findings, DCs from IL-37tg mice exhibited a lower ability to stimulate syngeneic and allogeneic naive T cells as well as antigen-specific T cells and displayed enhanced induction of T regulatory (Treg) cells (86%; P < 0.001) in vitro. Histological analysis of CHS skin in mice receiving hapten-sensitized DCs from IL-37tg mice revealed a marked reduction in CD8(+) T cells (-74%) but an increase in Treg cells (2.6-fold). Together, these findings reveal that DCs expressing IL-37 are tolerogenic, thereby impairing activation of effector T-cell responses and inducing Treg cells. IL-37 thus emerges as an inhibitor of adaptive immunity.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Movimento Celular , Quimiotaxia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatite de Contato/imunologia , Dinitrofluorbenzeno/química , Citometria de Fluxo , Haptenos/química , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fagocitose , Pele/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4711, 2014 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25182023

RESUMO

Cytokines of the IL-1 family are important modulators of obesity-induced inflammation and the development of systemic insulin resistance. Here we show that IL-1 family member IL-37, recently characterized as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, ameliorates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Mice transgenic for human IL-37 (IL-37tg) exhibit reduced numbers of adipose tissue macrophages, increased circulating levels of adiponectin and preserved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after 16 weeks of HFD. In vitro treatment of adipocytes with recombinant IL-37 reduces adipogenesis and activates AMPK signalling. In humans, elevated steady-state IL-37 adipose tissue mRNA levels are positively correlated with insulin sensitivity and a lower inflammatory status of the adipose tissue. These findings reveal IL-37 as an important anti-inflammatory modulator during obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in both mice and humans, and suggest that IL-37 is a potential target for the treatment of obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipócitos/patologia , Adiponectina/sangue , Adiponectina/genética , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Expressão Gênica , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/genética , Interleucina-1/genética , Interleucina-1/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células
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