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1.
Chemosphere ; 210: 401-416, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015131

RESUMO

In the operation of biological wastewater treatment processes, fast sludge settling during liquid-solids disengagement is preferred as it affects effluent quality, treatment efficiency and plant operation economy. An important property of fast settling biological sludge is the ability to spontaneously form big and dense flocs (flocculation) that readily separates from water. Therefore, there had been much research to study the conditions that promote biological sludge flocculation. However, reported findings have often been inconsistent and this has possibly been due to the complex nature of the biological flocculation process. Thus, it has been challenging for wastewater treatment plant operators to extract practical information from the literature. The aim of this review is to summarize the current state of understanding of the factors that affect sludge flocculation so that evaluation of such information can be facilitated and strategize for intervention in the sludge flocculation and deflocculation process.


Assuntos
Floculação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Esgotos/química , Esgotos/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
2.
Chemosphere ; 184: 1286-1297, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28672727

RESUMO

The formation, composition and characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMPs) were investigated in a novel system which coupled a sequencing batch reactor with a cake filtration system. Both suspended solids (SS) and turbidity were significantly removed, resulting in effluent SS of 0.12 mg L-1 and turbidity of 0.72 NTU after cake filtration. The average concentrations of proteins and carbohydrates decreased respectively from 4.0 ± 0.4 and 7.1 ± 0.6 mg/L in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) mixed liquor, to 0.85 ± 0.21 and 1.39 ± 0.29 mg/L in the cake filtration effluent. Analysis of the molecular weight (MW) distribution of SMPs revealed a substantial reduction in the intensity of high-MW peaks (503 and 22.71 kDa) after cake filtration, which implied the sludge cake layer and the underlying gel layer may play a role in the effectiveness of cake filtration beyond the physical phenomenon. Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that polycarboxylate- and polyaromatic humic acids were the dominant compounds and a noticeable decrease in the fraction of these compounds was observed in the cake filtration effluent. Analysis with GC-MS set for detecting low-MW SMPs identified aromatics, alcohols, alkanes and esters as the dominant compounds. SMPs exhibited both biodegradable and recalcitrant characteristics. More SMPs (total number of 91) were accumulated during the SBR start-up stage. A noticeable increase in the aromatic fractions was seen in the SBR effluent accoutring for 39% of total compounds, compared to the SBR mixed liquor (28%). Fewer compounds (total number of 66) were identified in cake filtration effluent compared to the SBR effluent (total number of 75).


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes da Água/análise , Reatores Biológicos , Filtração/métodos , Substâncias Húmicas , Esgotos , Microbiologia da Água
3.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0181652, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28749990

RESUMO

A filtration devise was developed to assess compressibility of fouling layers in membrane bioreactors. The system consists of a flat sheet membrane with air scouring operated at constant transmembrane pressure to assess the influence of pressure on resistance of fouling layers. By fitting a mathematical model, three model parameters were obtained; a back transport parameter describing the kinetics of fouling layer formation, a specific fouling layer resistance, and a compressibility parameter. This stands out from other on-site filterability tests as model parameters to simulate filtration performance are obtained together with a characterization of compressibility. Tests on membrane bioreactor sludge showed high reproducibility. The methodology's ability to assess compressibility was tested by filtrations of sludges from membrane bioreactors and conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants from three different sites. These proved that membrane bioreactor sludge showed higher compressibility than conventional activated sludge. In addition, detailed information on the underlying mechanisms of the difference in fouling propensity were obtained, as conventional activated sludge showed slower fouling formation, lower specific resistance and lower compressibility of fouling layers, which is explained by a higher degree of flocculation.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Filtração/instrumentação , Incrustação Biológica , Floculação , Membranas Artificiais , Pressão , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Purificação da Água
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