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1.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are rare, but highly aggressive. These entities are of embryonal origin occurring in the central nervous system (CNS) of young children. Molecularly these tumors are driven by a single hallmark mutation, resulting in inactivation of SMARCB1 or SMARCA4. Additionally, activation of the MAPK signaling axis and preclinical antitumor efficacy of its inhibition have been described in AT/RT. METHODS: We established and validated a patient-derived neurosphere culture and xenograft model of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) subtype AT/RT, at diagnosis and relapse from the same patient. We set out to study the vascular phenotype of these tumors to evaluate the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in AT/RT. We also used the model to study combined MEK and MELK inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for AT/RT. RESULTS: We found MELK to be highly overexpressed in both patient samples of AT/RT and in our primary cultures and xenografts. We identified a potent antitumor efficacy of the MELK inhibitor OTSSP167, as well as strong synergy with the MEK inhibitor trametinib, against primary AT/RT neurospheres. Additionally, vascular phenotyping of AT/RT patient material and xenografts revealed significant BBB aberrancies in these tumors. Finally, we show in vivo efficacy of the non-BBB penetrable drugs OTSSP167 and trametinib in AT/RT xenografts, demonstrating the therapeutic implications of the observed BBB deficiencies and validating MEK/MELK inhibition as a potential treatment. CONCLUSION: Altogether, we developed a combination treatment strategy for AT/RT based on MEK/MELK inhibition and identify therapeutically exploitable BBB deficiencies in these tumors.

2.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(8): 1407-1422, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402619

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vanishing white matter (VWM) is a fatal, stress-sensitive leukodystrophy that mainly affects children and is currently without treatment. VWM is caused by recessive mutations in eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) that is crucial for initiation of mRNA translation and its regulation during the integrated stress response (ISR). Mutations reduce eIF2B activity. VWM pathomechanisms remain unclear. In contrast with the housekeeping function of eIF2B, astrocytes are selectively affected in VWM. One study objective was to test our hypothesis that in the brain translation of specific mRNAs is altered by eIF2B mutations, impacting primarily astrocytes. The second objective was to investigate whether modulation of eIF2B activity could ameliorate this altered translation and improve the disease. METHODS: Mice with biallelic missense mutations in eIF2B that recapitulate human VWM were used to screen for mRNAs with altered translation in brain using polysomal profiling. Findings were verified in brain tissue from VWM patients using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. The compound ISRIB (for "ISR inhibitor") was administered to VWM mice to increase eIF2B activity. Its effect on translation, neuropathology, and clinical signs was assessed. RESULTS: In brains of VWM compared to wild-type mice we observed the most prominent changes in translation concerning ISR mRNAs; their expression levels correlated with disease severity. We substantiated these findings in VWM patients' brains. ISRIB normalized expression of mRNA markers, ameliorated brain white matter pathology and improved motor skills in VWM mice. INTERPRETATION: The present findings show that ISR deregulation is central in VWM pathomechanisms and a viable target for therapy.

3.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 33, 2019 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MNGIE is a rare and fatal disease in which absence of the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase induces systemic accumulation of thymidine and deoxyuridine and secondary mitochondrial DNA alterations. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are frequently reported in MNGIE patients, however, they are not resolved with the current treatment interventions. Recently, our understanding of the GI pathology has increased, which rationalizes the pursuit of more targeted therapeutic strategies. In particular, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) play key roles in GI physiology and are involved in the pathogenesis of the GI dysmotility. However, understanding of the triggers of ICC deficits in MNGIE is lacking. Herein, we review the current knowledge about the pathology of GI dysmotility in MNGIE, discuss potential mechanisms in relation to ICC loss/dysfunction, remark on the limited contribution of the current treatments, and propose intervention strategies to overcome ICC deficits. Finally, we address the advances and new research avenues offered by organoids and tissue engineering technologies, and propose schemes to implement to further our understanding of the GI pathology and utility in regenerative and personalized medicine in MNGIE. CONCLUSION: Interstitial cells of Cajal play key roles in the physiology of the gastrointestinal motility. Evaluation of their status in the GI dysmotility related to MNGIE would be valuable for diagnosis of MNGIE. Understanding the underlying pathological and molecular mechanisms affecting ICC is an asset for the development of targeted prevention and treatment strategies for the GI dysmotility related to MNGIE.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Células Intersticiais de Cajal/patologia , Timidina Fosforilase/deficiência , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Intersticiais de Cajal/metabolismo , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/metabolismo , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Distrofia Muscular Oculofaríngea/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular Oculofaríngea/patologia , Mutação/genética , Timidina Fosforilase/genética , Timidina Fosforilase/metabolismo
4.
Neurology ; 92(11): e1225-e1237, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the leukodystrophy caused by pathogenic variants in LARS2 and KARS, encoding mitochondrial leucyl transfer RNA (tRNA) synthase and mitochondrial and cytoplasmic lysyl tRNA synthase, respectively. METHODS: We composed a group of 5 patients with leukodystrophy, in whom whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing revealed pathogenic variants in LARS2 or KARS. Clinical information, brain MRIs, and postmortem brain autopsy data were collected. We assessed aminoacylation activities of purified mutant recombinant mitochondrial leucyl tRNA synthase and performed aminoacylation assays on patients' lymphoblasts and fibroblasts. RESULTS: Patients had a combination of early-onset deafness and later-onset neurologic deterioration caused by progressive brain white matter abnormalities on MRI. Female patients with LARS2 pathogenic variants had premature ovarian failure. In 2 patients, MRI showed additional signs of early-onset vascular abnormalities. In 2 other patients with LARS2 and KARS pathogenic variants, magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed elevated white matter lactate, suggesting mitochondrial disease. Pathology in one patient with LARS2 pathogenic variants displayed evidence of primary disease of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes with lack of myelin and deficient astrogliosis. Aminoacylation activities of purified recombinant mutant leucyl tRNA synthase showed a 3-fold loss of catalytic efficiency. Aminoacylation assays on patients' lymphoblasts and fibroblasts showed about 50% reduction of enzyme activity. CONCLUSION: This study adds LARS2 and KARS pathogenic variants as gene defects that may underlie deafness, ovarian failure, and leukodystrophy with mitochondrial signature. We discuss the specific MRI characteristics shared by leukodystrophies caused by mitochondrial tRNA synthase defects. We propose to add aminoacylation assays as biochemical diagnostic tools for leukodystrophies.

5.
Prenat Diagn ; 39(3): 219-231, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS) is a challenge. Motor assessment is of additional value to advanced ultrasound examinations (AUE) for in utero FADS diagnosis before 24 weeks of gestation. METHODS: All consecutive fetuses with greater than or equal to two contractures on the 20 week structural anomaly scan (2007-2016) were included. Findings at AUE, including motor assessment were analysed and related to outcome. RESULTS: Sixty-six fetuses fulfilled the inclusion criteria. On the basis of the first AUE, FADS was suspected in 13 of 66, arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) in 12 of 66, bilateral pes equinovares (BPEV) in 40 of 66, and Holt-Oram syndrome in one of 66. On the basis of the first motor assessment, the suspected diagnosis changed in 19 of 66, in 13 of 66 worsening to FADS, six of 66 amelioration from FADS, and confirmed FADS in seven of 13. The result was 20 FADS, seven AMC, and 38 BPEV. Second AUE in 44 fetuses showed additional contractures in two of eight FADS, and one intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). The second motor assessment changed the diagnosis in three of 43, one worsening from BPEV into FADS, two ameliorations from FADS, and confirmed FADS in seven by deterioration of motility. The result was nine FADS, six AMC, and 29 BPEV. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that motor assessment has additional value to distinguish between FADS, AMC, and BPEV.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476126

RESUMO

Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum (H-ABC) is a rare hypomyelinating leukodystrophy characterized by infantile or childhood onset of motor developmental delay, progressive rigidity and spasticity, with hypomyelination and progressive atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum due to a genetic mutation of the TUBB4A gene. It has only been recognized since 2002 and the full spectrum of the disorder is still being delineated. Here, we review a case report of a severely affected girl with a thorough neuropathological evaluation demonstrating novel clinical and pathological findings. Clinically, our patient demonstrated visual dysfunction and hypodontia in addition to the typical phenotype. Morphologically, more severe and widespread changes in the white matter were observed, including to the optic tracts; in gray structures such as the caudate nucleus, thalamus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra; as well as an area of focal cortical dysplasia. Overall this case offers further insight into the broad range of clinical and neuropathological findings that may be associated with H-ABC and related TUBB4A gene mutations.

7.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 14(12): 747-748, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341432
8.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 18(1): 149, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications are the main cause of death in patients with mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). Available treatments often restore biochemical homeostasis, but fail to cure gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: We evaluated the small intestine neuromuscular pathology of an untreated MNGIE patient and two recipients of hematopoietic stem cells, focusing on enteric neurons and glia. Additionally, we evaluated the intestinal neuromuscular pathology in a mouse model of MNGIE treated with hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. Quantification of muscle wall thickness and ganglion cell density was performed blind to the genotype with ImageJ. Significance of differences between groups was determined by two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test (P < 0.05). RESULTS: Our data confirm that MNGIE presents with muscle atrophy and loss of Cajal cells and CD117/c-kit immunoreactivity in the small intestine. We also show that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation does not benefit human intestinal pathology at least on short-term. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be insufficient to restore intestinal neuropathology, especially at later stages of MNGIE. As interstitial Cajal cells and their networks play a key role in development of gastrointestinal dysmotility, alternative therapeutic approaches taking absence of these cells into account could be required.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Terapia Genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/patologia , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/terapia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Células Intersticiais de Cajal/patologia , Camundongos , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(22): 5645-5657, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061363

RESUMO

Purpose: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a highly aggressive pediatric brain tumor, for which no effective therapeutic options currently exist. We here determined the potential of inhibition of the maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) for the treatment of DIPG.Experimental Design: We evaluated the antitumor efficacy of the small-molecule MELK inhibitor OTSSP167 in vitro in patient-derived DIPG cultures, and identified the mechanism of action of MELK inhibition in DIPG by RNA sequencing of treated cells. In addition, we determined the blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration of OTSSP167 and evaluated its translational potential by treating mice bearing patient-derived DIPG xenografts.Results: This study shows that MELK is highly expressed in DIPG cells, both in patient samples and in relevant in vitro and in vivo models, and that treatment with OTSSP167 strongly decreases proliferation of patient-derived DIPG cultures. Inhibition of MELK in DIPG cells functions through reducing inhibitory phosphorylation of PPARγ, resulting in an increase in nuclear translocation and consequent transcriptional activity. Brain pharmacokinetic analyses show that OTSSP167 is a strong substrate for both MDR1 and BCRP, limiting its BBB penetration. Nonetheless, treatment of Mdr1a/b;Bcrp1 knockout mice carrying patient-derived DIPG xenografts with OTSSP167 decreased tumor growth, induced remissions, and resulted in improved survival.Conclusions: We show a strong preclinical effect of the kinase inhibitor OTSSP167 in the treatment of DIPG and identify the MELK-PPARγ signaling axis as a putative therapeutic target in this disease. Clin Cancer Res; 24(22); 5645-57. ©2018 AACR.

10.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 6(1): 46, 2018 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860944

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid beta (Aß) deposits as plaques in the parenchyma and in the walls of cortical and leptomeningeal blood vessels of the brain called cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). It is suggested that CAA type-1, which refers to amyloid deposition in both capillaries and larger vessels, adds to the symptomatic manifestation of AD and correlates with disease severity. Currently, CAA cannot be diagnosed pre-mortem and disease mechanisms involved in CAA are elusive. To obtain insight in the disease mechanism of CAA and to identify marker proteins specifically associated with CAA we performed a laser dissection microscopy assisted mass spectrometry analysis of post-mortem human brain tissue of (I) AD cases with only amyloid deposits in the brain parenchyma and no vascular related amyloid, (II) AD cases with severe CAA type-1 and no or low numbers of parenchymal amyloid deposits and (III) cognitively healthy controls without amyloid deposits. By contrasting the quantitative proteomics data between the three groups, 29 potential CAA-selective proteins were identified. A selection of these proteins was analysed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to confirm regulation and to determine protein localization and their relation to brain pathology. In addition, specificity of these markers in relation to other small vessel diseases including prion CAA, CADASIL, CARASAL and hypertension related small vessel disease was assessed using immunohistochemistry.Increased levels of clusterin (CLU), apolipoprotein E (APOE) and serum amyloid P-component (APCS) were observed in AD cases with CAA. In addition, we identified norrin (NDP) and collagen alpha-2(VI) (COL6A2) as highly selective markers that are clearly present in CAA yet virtually absent in relation to parenchymal amyloid plaque pathology. NDP showed the highest specificity to CAA when compared to other small vessel diseases. The specific changes in the proteome of CAA provide new insight in the pathogenesis and yields valuable selective biomarkers for the diagnosis of CAA.

11.
Brain Pathol ; 28(3): 369-371, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740940

RESUMO

Leukodystrophies are genetically determined disorders due to defects in any structural components of the brain white matter. This mini-symposium presents a selection of leukodystrophies due to astrocytic dysfunction, the astrocytopathies. Examples are provided of astrocytopathies due to defects in astrocyte-specific proteins and in which astrocytes play a major role in the pathophysiology. Knowledge on the disease mechanisms underlying these leukodystrophies also provides information how loss of physiologic functions and gain of detrimental functions in astrocytes leads to degeneration of the white matter.

12.
Brain Pathol ; 28(3): 408-421, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740943

RESUMO

VWM is one of the most prevalent leukodystrophies with unique clinical, pathological and molecular features. It mostly affects children, but may develop at all ages, from birth to senescence. It is dominated by cerebellar ataxia and susceptible to stresses that act as factors provoking disease onset or episodes of rapid neurological deterioration possibly leading to death. VWM is caused by mutations in any of the genes encoding the five subunits of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). Although eIF2B is ubiquitously expressed, VWM primarily manifests as a leukodystrophy with increasing white matter rarefaction and cystic degeneration, meager astrogliosis with no glial scarring and dysmorphic immature astrocytes and increased numbers of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells that are restrained from maturing into myelin-forming cells. Recent findings point to a central role for astrocytes in driving the brain pathology, with secondary effects on both oligodendroglia and axons. In this, VWM belongs to the growing group of astrocytopathies, in which loss of essential astrocytic functions and gain of detrimental functions drive degeneration of the white matter. Additional disease mechanisms include activation of the unfolded protein response with constitutive predisposition to cellular stress, failure of astrocyte-microglia crosstalk and possibly secondary effects on the oxidative phosphorylation. VWM involves a translation initiation factor. The group of leukodystrophies due to defects in mRNA translation is also growing, suggesting that this may be a common disease mechanism. The combination of all these features makes VWM an intriguing natural model to understand the biology and pathology of the white matter.

13.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(4): 429-444, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687020

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to study the occurrence and development of axonal pathology and the influence of astrocytes in vanishing white matter. Methods: Axons and myelin were analyzed using electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry on Eif2b4 and Eif2b5 single- and double-mutant mice and patient brain tissue. In addition, astrocyte-forebrain co-culture studies were performed. Results: In the corpus callosum of Eif2b5-mutant mice, myelin sheath thickness, axonal diameter, and G-ratio developed normally up to 4 months. At 7 months, however, axons had become thinner, while in control mice axonal diameters had increased further. Myelin sheath thickness remained close to normal, resulting in an abnormally low G-ratio in Eif2b5-mutant mice. In more severely affected Eif2b4-Eif2b5 double-mutants, similar abnormalities were already present at 4 months, while in milder affected Eif2b4 mutants, few abnormalities were observed at 7 months. Additionally, from 2 months onward an increased percentage of thin, unmyelinated axons and increased axonal density were present in Eif2b5-mutant mice. Co-cultures showed that Eif2b5 mutant astrocytes induced increased axonal density, also in control forebrain tissue, and that control astrocytes induced normal axonal density, also in mutant forebrain tissue. In vanishing white matter patient brains, axons and myelin sheaths were thinner than normal in moderately and severely affected white matter. In mutant mice and patients, signs of axonal transport defects and cytoskeletal abnormalities were minimal. Interpretation: In vanishing white matter, axons are initially normal and atrophy later. Astrocytes are central in this process. If therapy becomes available, axonal pathology may be prevented with early intervention.

14.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 8: 152-165, 2018 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687034

RESUMO

Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by thymidine phosphorylase (TP) deficiency resulting in systemic accumulation of thymidine (d-Thd) and deoxyuridine (d-Urd) and characterized by early-onset neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms. Long-term effective and safe treatment is not available. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation may improve clinical manifestations but carries disease and transplant-related risks. In this study, lentiviral vector-based hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSCGT) was performed in Tymp-/-Upp1-/- mice with the human phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter driving TYMP. Supranormal blood TP activity reduced intestinal nucleoside levels significantly at low vector copy number (median, 1.3; range, 0.2-3.6). Furthermore, we covered two major issues not addressed before. First, we demonstrate aberrant morphology of brain astrocytes in areas of spongy degeneration, which was reversed by HSCGT. Second, long-term follow-up and vector integration site analysis were performed to assess safety of the therapeutic LV vectors in depth. This report confirms and supplements previous work on the efficacy of HSCGT in reducing the toxic metabolites in Tymp-/-Upp1-/- mice, using a clinically applicable gene transfer vector and a highly efficient gene transfer method, and importantly demonstrates phenotypic correction with a favorable risk profile, warranting further development toward clinical implementation.

15.
Ann Neurol ; 83(3): 636-649, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Loss of function of the astrocyte-specific protein MLC1 leads to the childhood-onset leukodystrophy "megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts" (MLC). Studies on isolated cells show a role for MLC1 in astrocyte volume regulation and suggest that disturbed brain ion and water homeostasis is central to the disease. Excitability of neuronal networks is particularly sensitive to ion and water homeostasis. In line with this, reports of seizures and epilepsy in MLC patients exist. However, systematic assessment and mechanistic understanding of seizures in MLC are lacking. METHODS: We analyzed an MLC patient inventory to study occurrence of seizures in MLC. We used two distinct genetic mouse models of MLC to further study epileptiform activity and seizure threshold through wireless extracellular field potential recordings. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and K+ -sensitive electrode recordings in mouse brain slices were used to explore the underlying mechanisms of epilepsy in MLC. RESULTS: An early onset of seizures is common in MLC. Similarly, in MLC mice, we uncovered spontaneous epileptiform brain activity and a lowered threshold for induced seizures. At the cellular level, we found that although passive and active properties of individual pyramidal neurons are unchanged, extracellular K+ dynamics and neuronal network activity are abnormal in MLC mice. INTERPRETATION: Disturbed astrocyte regulation of ion and water homeostasis in MLC causes hyperexcitability of neuronal networks and seizures. These findings suggest a role for defective astrocyte volume regulation in epilepsy. Ann Neurol 2018;83:636-649.

16.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-7, 2018 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353507

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of an abnormal number of ribs in a cohort of fetuses and neonates with trisomy 21 and compare this with a subgroup of fetuses without anomalies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radiographs of 67 deceased fetuses, neonates, and infants that were diagnosed with trisomy 21 were reviewed. Terminations of pregnancy were included. The control group was composed of 107 deceased fetuses, neonates, and infants without known chromosomal abnormalities, structural malformations, infections or placental pathology. Cases in which the number of thoracic ribs or presence of cervical ribs could not be reliably assessed were excluded. The literature concerning vertebral patterning in trisomy 21 cases and healthy subjects was reviewed. RESULTS: Absent or rudimentary 12th thoracic ribs were found in 26/54 (48.1%) cases with trisomy 21 and cervical ribs were present in 27/47 (57.4%) cases. This prevalence was significantly higher compared to controls (28/100, 28.0%, Χ2(1) = 6.252, p = .012 and 28/97, 28.9%, Χ2(1) = 10.955, p < .001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Rudimentary or absent 12th thoracic ribs and cervical ribs are significantly more prevalent in deceased fetuses and infants with trisomy 21.

17.
Neuropediatrics ; 49(2): 112-117, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29179231

RESUMO

4H leukodystrophy is characterized by hypomyelination, hypodontia, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. With its variability in clinical symptoms, application of pattern recognition to identify specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features proved useful for the diagnosis. We collected 3T MR imaging data of 12 patients with mutations in POLR3A (n = 8), POLR3B (n = 3), and POLR1C (n = 1), all obtained at the same scanner. We assessed these images and compared them with previously obtained 1.5T images in 8 patients. Novel MRI findings were myelin islets, closed eye sign, and a cyst-like lesion in the splenium. Myelin islets were variable numbers of small T1 hyperintense and T2 hypointense dots, mostly in the frontal and parietal white matter, and present in all patients. This interpretation was supported with perivascular staining of myelin protein in the hypomyelinated white matter of a deceased 4H patient. All patients had better myelination of the medial lemniscus with a relatively hypointense signal of this structure on axial T2-weighted (T2W) images ("closed eye sign"). Five patients had a small cyst-like lesion in the splenium. In 10 patients with sagittal T2W images, we also found spinal cord hypomyelination. In conclusion, imaging at 3T identified additional features in 4H leukodystrophy, aiding the MRI diagnosis of this entity.

18.
Glia ; 66(4): 862-873, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29285798

RESUMO

Leukodystrophies are often devastating diseases, presented with progressive clinical signs as spasticity, ataxia and cognitive decline, and lack proper treatment options. New therapy strategies for leukodystrophies mostly focus on oligodendrocyte replacement to rescue lack of myelin in the brain, even though disease pathology also often involves other glial cells and the spinal cord. In this study we investigated spinal cord pathology in a mouse model for Vanishing White Matter disease (VWM) and show that astrocytes in the white matter are severely affected. Astrocyte pathology starts postnatally in the sensory tracts, followed by changes in the astrocytic populations in the motor tracts. Studies in post-mortem tissue of two VWM patients, a 13-year-old boy and a 6-year-old girl, confirmed astrocyte abnormalities in the spinal cord. For proper development of new treatment options for VWM and, possibly, other leukodystrophies, future studies should investigate spinal cord involvement.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/patologia , Leucoencefalopatias/patologia , Medula Espinal/patologia , Adolescente , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Criança , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fator de Iniciação 2B em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 2B em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/embriologia , Substância Cinzenta/metabolismo , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Medula Espinal/embriologia , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Substância Branca/embriologia , Substância Branca/metabolismo , Substância Branca/patologia
19.
J Nucl Med ; 59(4): 612-615, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28818988

RESUMO

Inadequate tumor uptake of the vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab could explain lack of effect in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Methods: By combining data from a PET imaging study using 89Zr-labeled bevacizumab and an autopsy study, a 1-on-1 analysis of multiregional in vivo and ex vivo 89Zr-bevacizumab uptake, tumor histology, and vascular morphology in a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma patient was performed. Results: In vivo 89Zr-bevacizumab measurements showed heterogeneity between lesions. Additional ex vivo measurements and immunohistochemistry of cervicomedullary metastasis samples showed uptake to be highest in the area with marked microvascular proliferation. In the primary pontine tumor, all samples showed similar vascular morphology. Other histologic features were similar between the samples studied. Conclusion: In vivo 89Zr-bevacizumab PET serves to identify heterogeneous uptake between tumor lesions, whereas subcentimeter intralesional heterogeneity could be identified only by ex vivo measurements. 89Zr-bevacizumab uptake is enhanced by vascular proliferation, although our results suggest it is not the only determinant of intralesional uptake heterogeneity.

20.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 89(1): 105-111, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging is useful in predicting clinical course of patients with metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), an inherited white matter disorder treatable with haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). METHODS: 21 patients with juvenile or adult MLD (12 HCT-treated) were compared with 16 controls in the same age range. Clinical outcome was determined as good, moderate or poor. Metabolites were quantified in white matter, and significance of metabolite concentrations at baseline for outcome prediction was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Evolution of metabolic changes was assessed for patients with follow-up examinations. RESULTS: In this retrospective study, 16 patients with baseline scans were included, 5 with good, 3 with moderate and 8 with poor outcome, and 16 controls. We observed significant group differences for all metabolite concentrations in white matter (p<0.001). Compared with controls, patients had decreased N-acetylaspartate and glutamate, and increased myo-inositol and lactate, most pronounced in patients with poor outcome (post hoc, all p<0.05). Logistic regression showed complete separation of data. Creatine could distinguish poor from moderate and good outcome, the sum of glutamate and glutamine could distinguish good from moderate and poor outcome, and N-acetylaspartate could distinguish all outcome groups. For 13 patients (8 with baseline scans), one or more follow-up examinations were evaluated, revealing stabilisation or even partial normalisation of metabolites in patients with moderate and good outcome, clearly visible in the ratio of choline/N-acetylaspartate. CONCLUSION: In MLD, quantitative spectroscopic imaging at baseline is predictive for outcome and aids in determining eligibility for HCT.


Assuntos
Leucodistrofia Metacromática/metabolismo , Leucodistrofia Metacromática/patologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Adolescente , Adulto , Ácido Aspártico/análogos & derivados , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Creatina/metabolismo , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucodistrofia Metacromática/terapia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Substância Branca/metabolismo , Substância Branca/patologia
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