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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299005

RESUMO

Nanoparticles can interact with the complement system and modulate the inflammatory response. The effect of these interactions on the complement activity strongly depends on physicochemical properties of nanoparticles. The interactions of silver nanoparticles with serum proteins (particularly with the complement system components) have the potential to significantly affect the antibacterial activity of serum, with serious implications for human health. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of graphite oxide (GO) nanocomposites (GO, GO-PcZr(Lys)2-Ag, GO-Ag, GO-PcZr(Lys)2) on the antibacterial activity of normal human serum (NHS), serum activity against bacteria isolated from alveoli treated with nanocomposites, and nanocomposite sensitivity of bacteria exposed to serum in vitro (using normal human serum). Additionally, the in vivo cytotoxic effect of the GO compounds was determined with application of a Galleria mellonella larvae model. GO-PcZr(Lys)2, without IR irradiation enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of the human serum. IR irradiation enhances bactericidal activity of serum in the case of the GO-PcZr(Lys)2-Ag sample. Bacteria exposed to nanocomposites become more sensitive to the action of serum. Bacteria exposed to serum become more sensitive to the GO-Ag sample. None of the tested GO nanocomposites displayed a cytotoxicity towards larvae.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Grafite/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanocompostos/química , Óxidos/química , Soro/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos da radiação , Lepidópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Lepidópteros/efeitos da radiação , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanocompostos/administração & dosagem , Soro/microbiologia , Prata/química
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530493

RESUMO

The impact of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) on the microbiomic and pathogenic phenomena occurring in humans and other warm-blooded animals is relatively well-recognized. At the same time, there are scant data concerning the role of E. coli strains in the health and disease of cold-blooded animals. It is presently known that reptiles are common asymptomatic carriers of another human pathogen, Salmonella, which, when transferred to humans, may cause a disease referred to as reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS). We therefore hypothesized that reptiles may also be carriers of specific E. coli strains (reptilian Escherichia coli, RepEC) which may differ in their genetic composition from the human uropathogenic strain (UPEC) and avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). Therefore, we isolated RepECs (n = 24) from reptile feces and compared isolated strains' pathogenic potentials and phylogenic relations with the aforementioned UPEC (n = 24) and APEC (n = 24) strains. To this end, we conducted an array of molecular analyses, including determination of the phylogenetic groups of E. coli, virulence genotyping, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis-Restriction Analysis (RA-PFGE) and genetic population structure analysis using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). The majority of the tested RepEC strains belonged to nonpathogenic phylogroups, with an important exception of one strain, which belonged to the pathogenic group B2, typical of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. This strain was part of the globally disseminated ST131 lineage. Unlike RepEC strains and in line with previous studies, a high percentage of UPEC strains belonged to the phylogroup B2, and the percentage distribution of phylogroups among the tested APEC strains was relatively homogenous, with most coming from the following nonpathogenic groups: C, A and B1. The RA-PFGE displayed a high genetic diversity among all the tested E. coli groups. In the case of RepEC strains, the frequency of occurrence of virulence genes (VGs) was lower than in the UPEC and APEC strains. The presented study is one of the first attempting to compare the phylogenetic structures of E. coli populations isolated from three groups of vertebrates: reptiles, birds and mammals (humans).


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Filogenia , Répteis/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/classificação , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética
3.
Pathogens ; 10(1)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450948

RESUMO

Yersinia enterocolitica, widespread within domestic and wild-living animals, is a foodborne pathogen causing yersiniosis. The goal of this study was to assess a genetic similarity of Y. enterocolitica and Y. enterocolitica-like strains isolated from different hosts using Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) methods, and analyze the prevalence of virulence genes using multiplex-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Among 51 Yersinia sp. strains 20 virulotypes were determined. The most common virulence genes were ymoA, ureC, inv, myfA, and yst. Yersinia sp. strains had genes which may contribute to the bacterial invasion and colonization of the intestines as well as survival in serum. One wild boar Y. enterocolitica 1A strain possessed ail gene implying the possible pathogenicity of 1A biotype. Wild boar strains, represented mainly by 1A biotype, were not classified into the predominant Variable-Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR)/PFGE profile and virulotype. There was a clustering tendency among VNTR/PFGE profiles of pig origin, 4/O:3, and virulence profile. Pig and human strains formed the most related group, characterized by ~80% of genetic similarity what suggest the role of pigs as a potential source of infection for the pork consumers.

4.
Pathogens ; 9(8)2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784631

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis (S. enterica ser. Enteritidis) is the most frequently detected serovar in human salmonellosis, and its ability to produce a biofilm and the risk of transmission from animals and food of animal origin to humans are significant. The main aim of the present work was to compare S. enterica ser. Enteritidis strains isolated from poultry and human feces in terms of resistance profiles, prevalence of selected resistance genes, and their potential for biofilm formation, by assessing their biofilm growth intensity, the prevalence and expression of selected genes associated with this phenomenon, and the correlation between increased antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation ability of the two tested groups of S. enterica ser. Enteritidis. This study showed a difference in antimicrobial resistance (minimal inhibitory concentration value) between S. enterica ser. Enteritidis groups; however, the majority of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains were isolated from poultry (environmental samples from chicken broilers, turkey broilers, and laying hens). Differences in the prevalence of resistance genes were observed; the most common gene among poultry strains was floR, and that among strains from humans was blaTEM. S. enterica ser. Enteritidis strains isolated from poultry under the tested incubation conditions exhibited better biofilm growth than strains isolated from humans. A higher level of gene expression associated with the production of cellulose was only detected in the S48 strain isolated from poultry. On the other hand, increased expression of genes associated with quorum sensing was observed in two strains isolated from poultry farms and one strain isolated from human feces.

5.
J Inorg Biochem ; 210: 111124, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534287

RESUMO

Biological activity against reference and multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical strains of fluoroquinolones (FQs): ciprofloxacin (HCp), norfloxacin (HNr), lomefloxacin (HLm) and sparfloxacin (HSf), phosphine ligands derived from those antibiotics and 14 phosphino copper(I) and copper(II) complexes with 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, 1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2'-biquinoline have been determined. Almost all phosphines showed excellent antibacterial activity relative to reference strains (S. aureus ATCC 6538, E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumoniae ATCC 4352, and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853). In rare cases P. aeruginosa rods showed natural insensitivity to oxides, and their copper(II) complexes. Most of the studied compounds showed weak antibacterial activity against clinical multi-drug resistant strains (MDR P. aeruginosa 16, 46, 325, 355, MRD A. baumanii 483 and MDR S. aureus 177). However, phosphines Ph2PCH2Sf (PSf), Ph2PCH2Lm (PLm) and their copper(I) complexes were characterized by the best antibacterial activity. In addition, PSf compounds, in which the activities relative to P. aeruginosa MDRs were relatively diverse, paid particular attention in our studies. Genetic and phenotypic studies of these strains showed significant differences between the strains, indicating different profiles of FQs resistance mechanisms. This may prove that a change in the spatial conformation of the PSf derivatives relative to the native form of HSf increased its affinity for the target site of action in gyrase, leading to selective inhibition of the multiplication of MDR strains. In conclusion, differences in PSf activity within closely related P. aeruginosa strains may indicate its diagnostic and therapeutic potential.

6.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(9): 2166-2171, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424607

RESUMO

Reptiles appear to be an important vector for Gram-negative pathogens, therefore, they are epidemiologically relevant. However, the composition of reptilian microbiota has been poorly recognized so far. The majority of studies concern exotic reptiles as asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella serovars. Studies of other intestinal bacteria of reptiles are rare. Only recently, the microbiota of free-living European reptiles have been investigated, however, on the basis of small samples, mainly in protected areas. Here, we aim to investigate cloacal Gram-negative microbiota of free-living Natrix natrix. Snakes (N = 45) used in the study were collected in Kraków (Poland) and its vicinity. Nineteen species of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated. The most common species were: Aeromonas hydrophila, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella spp. The bacteria prevalent in N. natrix cloacal swabs are likely to represent the natural intestinal Gram-negative microbiota of the examined snakes. Importantly, the identified bacteria are pathogenic to humans, which clearly highlights the epidemiological potential of free-living N. natrix. The risk of infection is high for immunocompromised humans, children (under 5 years old), elderly persons, and pregnant women. Our study provides the largest dataset on intestinal Gram-negative microbiota of wild snakes. The presence of multiple human pathogens determined by us calls for the necessity of further studies on reptile-transmitted bacteria in anthropogenic environments.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Microbiota , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Polônia , Gravidez , Salmonella
7.
Future Microbiol ; 15: 259-271, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271108

RESUMO

Aim: Characterization of the ability of Fusobacterium nucleatum DSM 15643 and DSM 20482 strains in the presence of Cu2+ and H2O2 to reactive oxygen species generation. Method: Spectrophotometric ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) method was used. Results: Determination of: MIC for Cu2+, H2O2 and ABTS; survivability of F. nucleatum under atmospheric oxygen exposure; the level and rate constants of free radicals production by the bacteria. Conclusion: F. nucleatum in the presence of Cu2+ and H2O2 is able to generate free radicals. Reactive oxygen species are produced mainly outside the bacterial cell, which suggests that outer membrane proteins may be involved in oxidative process.

8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 199-213, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021174

RESUMO

Purpose: Resistance to antibiotics is a major problem of public health. One of the alternative therapies is silver - more and more popular because of nanotechnology development and new possibilities of usage. As a component of colloid, powder, cream, bandages, etc., nanosilver is often recommended to treat the multidrug-resistant pathogens and we can observe its overuse also outside of the clinic where different physicochemical forms of silver nanoformulations (e.g. size, shape, compounds, surface area) are introduced. In this research, we described the consequences of long-term bacteria exposure to silver nanoformulations with different physicochemical properties, including changes in genome and changes of bacterial sensitivity to silver nanoformulations and/or antibiotics. Moreover, the prevalence of exogenous resistance to silver among multidrug-resistant bacteria was determined. Materials and Methods: Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria strains are described as sensitive and multidrug-resistant strains. The sensitivity of the tested bacterial strains to antibiotics was carried out with disc diffusion methods. The sensitivity of bacteria to silver nanoformulations and development of bacterial resistance to silver nanoformulations has been verified via determination of the minimal inhibitory concentrations. The presence of sil genes was verified via PCR reaction and DNA electrophoresis. The genomic and phenotypic changes have been verified via genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Results: Bacteria after long-term exposure to silver nanoformulations may change their sensitivity to silver forms and/or antibiotics, depending on the physicochemical properties of silver nanoformulations, resulting from phenotypic or genetic changes in the bacterial cell. Finally, adaptants and mutants may become more sensitive or resistant to some antibiotics than wild types. Conclusion: Application of silver nanoformulations in the case of multiple resistance or multidrug-resistant bacterial infection can enhance or decrease their resistance to antibiotics. The usage of nanosilver in a clinic and outside of the clinic should be determined and should be under strong control. Moreover, each silver nanomaterial should be considered as a separate agent with a potential different mode of antibacterial action.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/química , Prata/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prata/química
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 312, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella is generally considered as a human pathogen causing typhoid fever and gastrointestinal infections called salmonellosis, with S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium strains as the main causative agents. Salmonella enterica strains have a wide host array including humans, birds, pigs, horses, dogs, cats, reptiles, amphibians and insects. Up to 90% of reptiles are the carriers of one or more serovars of Salmonella. Extraintestinal bacterial infections associated with reptiles pose serious health threat to humans. The import of exotic species of reptiles as pet animals to Europe correlates with the emergence of Salmonella serotypes, which not found previously in European countries. The presented study is a new report about Salmonella serotypes associated with exotic reptiles in Poland. The goal of this research was to examine the zoonotic potential of Salmonella strains isolated from reptiles by comparative analysis with S. Enteritidis strains occurring in human population and causing salmonellosis. RESULTS: The main findings of our work show that exotic reptiles are asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella serovars other than correlated with salmonellosis in humans (S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium). Among the isolated Salmonella strains we identified serovars that have not been reported earlier in Poland, for example belonging to subspecies diarizonae and salamae. Restriction analysis with Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), showed a great diversity among Salmonella strains isolated from reptiles. Almost all tested strains had distinct restriction patterns. While S. Enteritidis strains were quite homogeneous in term of phylogenetic relations. Most of the tested VGs were common for the two tested groups of Salmonella strains. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results show that Salmonella strains isolated from reptiles share most of virulence genes with the S. Enteritidis strains and exhibit a greater phylogenetic diversity than the tested S. Enteritidis population.


Assuntos
Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Répteis/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Animais , Portador Sadio , Cromatografia Gasosa , DNA Bacteriano , Genótipo , Humanos , Salmonella enterica/patogenicidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Virulência , Zoonoses
10.
Gut Pathog ; 11: 10, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828388

RESUMO

Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) are facultative pathogens that are part of the normal human intestinal flora. The ExPEC group includes uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC), and avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). Virulence factors (VF) related to the pathogenicity of ExPEC are numerous and have a wide range of activities, from those related to bacteria colonization to those related to virulence, including adhesins, toxins, iron acquisition factors, lipopolysaccharides, polysaccharide capsules, and invasins, which are usually encoded on pathogenicity islands (PAIs), plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Mechanisms underlying the dynamics of ExPEC transmission and the selection of virulent clones are still poorly understood and require further research. The time shift between colonization of ExPEC and the development of infection remains problematic in the context of establishing the relation between consumption of contaminated food and the appearance of first disease symptoms. What appears to be most difficult is to prove that ExPEC strains cause disease symptoms and to examine the mechanism of transition from the asymptomatic colonization of the intestines to the spreading of the bacteria outside the digestive system. A significant problem for researchers who are trying to ascribe ExPEC transmission to food, people or the environment is to draw the distinction between colonization of ExPEC and infection. Food safety is an important challenge for public health both at the production stage and in the course of its processing and distribution. Examination of the genetic similarity of ExPEC strains will allow to determine their origin from different sources. Many levels of genotyping have been proposed in which the typing of strains, plasmids and genes is compared in order to obtain a more complete picture of this complex problem. The aim of our study was to characterize E. coli strains isolated from humans, animals and food for the presence of bacterial genes encoding virulence factors such as toxins, and iron acquisition systems (siderophores) in the context of an increasing spread of ExPEC infections.

11.
Microb Drug Resist ; 25(2): 277-286, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698495

RESUMO

Enterococci are a natural component of the intestinal flora of many organisms, including humans and birds. As opportunistic pathogens, they can cause fatal infections of the urinary tract and endocarditis in humans, whereas in poultry symptoms are joint disease, sepsis, and falls in the first week of life. The study covered 107 Enterococcus strains-56 isolated from humans and 51 from turkeys. Among the isolates investigated Enterococcus faecalis was detected in 80.36% of human and 80.39% of turkey samples. Enterococcus faecium was identified in 8.93% of human and 17.65% of turkey strains. The highest percentage of the strains was resistant to tetracycline as follows: 48 (85.71%) and 48 (94.12%) of human and turkey strains, respectively. Resistance to erythromycin occurred in 37.50% of the human and in 76.47% of turkey strains, otherwise 27.10% of all strains showed resistance to ciprofloxacin. Our study revealed that 25% of human and 15.69% of turkey strains were resistant to vancomycin. Multidrug resistance showed in 32.14% and 43.14% of human and turkey strains, respectively. The tetracycline resistance gene, tetM, was detected in 82.24% of all strains analyzed, whereas the tetO gene was found in 53.57% of human but only in 7.84% of turkey strains. The vancomycin resistance gene (vanA) was detected in seven Enterococcus strains (six isolated from turkeys and one from humans). The ermB gene (resistance to macrolide) was detected in 55.14% of all isolates (42.86% of human and 68.63% of turkey strains), whereas the ermA gene was detected in 17.65% of turkey but only in 3.57% of human isolates. All the strains had the ability to form biofilms. A stronger biofilm was formed after 24-hour incubation by strains isolated from turkeys, whereas after 48 hours of incubation all examined strains produced strong biofilm.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/genética , Perus/microbiologia , Animais , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polônia/epidemiologia
12.
Curr Med Chem ; 26(11): 1960-1978, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378478

RESUMO

Salmonellosis continues to be a significant worldwide health problem. Despite rapid progress in identifying mechanisms of Salmonella virulence and resistance to chemicals, our knowledge of these mechanisms remains limited. Furthermore, it appears that the resistance to antibiotics can be amplified by ubiquitous usage of the disinfectants (biocides), both by industry and by ordinary households. Salmonella, as other Gram-negative bacteria possess outer membrane proteins (OMPs), which participate in maintaining cell integrity, adapting to environment, and interacting with infected host. Moreover, the OMPs may also contribute to resistance to antibacterials. This review summarizes the role of OMPs in Salmonella serum resistance, antibiotics resistance and cross-resistance to biocides. Although collected data do not allow to assign OMPs as markers of the Salmonella susceptibility to the above-mentioned factors, some of these proteins retain a dominant presence in certain types of resistance.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Salmonella/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Desinfetantes/efeitos adversos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/imunologia
13.
BMC Microbiol ; 18(1): 86, 2018 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30119648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yersinia enterocolitica is widespread within the humans, pigs and wild boars. The low isolation rate of Y. enterocolitica from food or environmental and clinical samples may be caused by limited sensitivity of culture methods. The main goal of present study was identification of presumptive Y. enterocolitica isolates using MALDI TOF MS. The identification of isolates may be difficult due to variability of bacterial strains in terms of biochemical characteristics. This work emphasizes the necessity of use of multiple methods for zoonotic Y. enterocolitica identification. RESULTS: Identification of Y. enterocolitica isolates was based on MALDI TOF MS, and verified by VITEK® 2 Compact and PCR. There were no discrepancies in identification of all human' and pig' isolates using MALDI TOF MS and VITEK® 2 Compact. However three isolates from wild boars were not decisively confirmed as Y. enterocolitica. MALDI TOF MS has identified the wild boar' isolates designated as 3dz, 4dz, 8dz as Y. enterocolitica with a high score of matching with the reference spectra of MALDI Biotyper. In turn, VITEK® 2 Compact identified 3dz and 8dz as Y. kristensenii, and isolate 4dz as Y. enterocolitica. The PCR for Y. enterocolitica 16S rDNA for these three isolates was negative, but the 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified these isolates as Y. kristensenii (3dz, 4dz) and Y. pekkanenii (8dz). The wild boar' isolates 3dz, 4dz and 8dz could not be classified using biotyping. The main bioserotype present within pigs and human faeces was 4/O:3. It has been shown that Y. enterocolitica 1B/O:8 can be isolated from human faeces using ITC/CIN culturing. CONCLUSION: The results of our study indicate wild boars as a reservoir of new and atypical strains of Yersinia, for which protein and biochemical profiles are not included in the MALDI Biotyper or VITEK® 2 Compact databases. Pigs in the south-west Poland are the reservoir for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains. Four biochemical features included in VITEK® 2 Compact known to be common with Wauters scheme were shown to produce incompatible results, thus VITEK® 2 Compact cannot be applied in biotyping of Y. enterocolitica.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Yersinia enterocolitica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA Ribossômico , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Polônia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência , Especificidade da Espécie , Yersinia/classificação , Yersinia/genética , Yersinia/isolamento & purificação , Yersinia enterocolitica/classificação , Yersinia enterocolitica/genética
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(2)2018 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29393866

RESUMO

Silver is considered as antibacterial agent with well-known mode of action and bacterial resistance against it is well described. The development of nanotechnology provided different methods for the modification of the chemical and physical structure of silver, which may increase its antibacterial potential. The physico-chemical properties of silver nanoparticles and their interaction with living cells differs substantially from those of silver ions. Moreover, the variety of the forms and characteristics of various silver nanoparticles are also responsible for differences in their antibacterial mode of action and probably bacterial mechanism of resistance. The paper discusses in details the aforementioned aspects of silver activity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/farmacologia , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/ultraestrutura , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Prata/química
15.
Microbiol Res ; 207: 211-225, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29458857

RESUMO

Cysteine proteases of the papain family, including mammalian cathepsins, play important physiological roles, however, their excessive activity may contribute to the development of various pathologies. Therefore, cysteine cathepsin inhibitors are being considered as promising drugs to treat cathepsin-driven diseases. Diverse saprophytic and parasitic microbes produce such inhibitors, which target the host's proteases playing pivotal roles in immune responses, thus leading to the survival of microbes within their host. Yersinia enterocolitica is a Gram-negative zoopathogenic coccobacillus, which has developed several mechanisms to evade the host's immune system. Nevertheless, the bacterium has not yet been shown to produce any cysteine protease inhibitors. Here we demonstrate that Y. enterocolitica strains of different bioserotypes and genotypes synthesize papain and human cathepsin L inhibitors, but not bovine cathepsin B inhibitors. By employing fluorimetry and zymography, the cell-surface inhibitors were shown to associate peripherally with the outer membrane, while the inhibitors present in cell-free extracts proved to: interact reversibly with their target enzymes, exhibit thermolability and stability in a range of pH values (5-9), and have high molecular weights. Batch affinity chromatography on papain-agarose resin was then undertaken to isolate putative inhibitors of cysteine proteases from the bacterial extract. The isolated 18 kDa protein was identified by LC-MS/MS as the periplasmic chaperone Skp. The Skp-containing eluate inhibited the activity of cysteine cathepsins produced by human dermal fibroblasts. The homologous Skp protein was also isolated from the extract of Escherichia coli. Our results point to a possible new biological role of the bacterial chaperone Skp.


Assuntos
Catepsinas/metabolismo , Extratos Celulares/química , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/metabolismo , Papaína/antagonistas & inibidores , Yersinia enterocolitica/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Cisteína Proteases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Humanos , Chaperonas Moleculares , Papaína/metabolismo
16.
Microb Drug Resist ; 24(3): 314-322, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628752

RESUMO

Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of foodborne diseases in humans, particularly when transmitted by the handling or consumption of undercooked poultry meat. Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting, but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., fluoroquinolones and macrolides) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. The indiscriminate use of these drugs, both in clinical medicine and animal production, has a major impact on public health. The aim of the present study was to identify Campylobacter strains, isolated from turkey and broilers, using both PCR and the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) methods to reveal the accuracy of identification, as well to evaluate the antimicrobial and genetic resistance of the investigated strains. MALDI-TOF and PCR methods were used to show differences, if any, in the specificity of that test. In this study, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry gave the same results as multiplex PCR, in all cases. The highest rate of resistance (i.e., 100% of turkey and broiler strains) was detected against ciprofloxacin, whereas 58.1% of turkey and 78.6% of broiler strains were resistant to tetracycline. Multidrug-resistant isolates were not found in the study. All ciprofloxacin-resistant strains had a mutation in the gyrA gene, at the Thr-86 position. The presence of the tetO gene was found in 71% of turkey and in 100% of broiler strains. All resistant to tetracycline strains included tetO gene. Additionally, in five turkey and three broiler strains, susceptible to tetracycline, tetO gene was present. These results indicate the high prevalence of Campylobacter strains, which are phenotypically and genetically resistant to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter coli/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter coli/classificação , Campylobacter coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter jejuni/classificação , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Galinhas/microbiologia , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , DNA Girase/genética , DNA Girase/metabolismo , Fazendas , Fezes/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Polônia/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Perus/microbiologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(10)2017 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934165

RESUMO

Complement is one of the most important parts of the innate immune system. Some bacteria can gain resistance against the bactericidal action of complement by decorating their outer cell surface with lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) containing a very long O-antigen or with specific outer membrane proteins. Additionally, the presence of sialic acid in the LPS molecules can provide a level of protection for bacteria, likening them to human cells, a phenomenon known as molecular mimicry. Salmonella O48, which contains sialic acid in the O-antigen, is the major cause of reptile-associated salmonellosis, a worldwide public health problem. In this study, we tested the effect of prolonged exposure to human serum on strains from Salmonella serogroup O48, specifically on the O-antigen length. After multiple passages in serum, three out of four tested strains became resistant to serum action. The gas-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed that, for most of the strains, the average length of the LPS O-antigen increased. Thus, we have discovered a link between the resistance of bacterial cells to serum and the elongation of the LPS O-antigen.


Assuntos
Complemento C3/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/química , Antígenos O/química , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação do Complemento , Complemento C3/química , Meios de Cultura/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Mimetismo Molecular , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/imunologia , Antígenos O/imunologia , Salmonella/imunologia , Soro/química , Soro/imunologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(7)2017 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28696348

RESUMO

A new emerging phenomenon is the association between the incorrect use of biocides in the process of disinfection in farms and the emergence of cross-resistance in Salmonella populations. Adaptation of the microorganisms to the sub-inhibitory concentrations of the disinfectants is not clear, but may result in an increase of sensitivity or resistance to antibiotics, depending on the biocide used and the challenged Salmonella serovar. Exposure of five Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Senftenberg (S. Senftenberg) strains to triamine-containing disinfectant did not result in variants with resistance to antibiotics, but has changed their susceptibility to normal human serum (NHS). Three biocide variants developed reduced sensitivity to NHS in comparison to the sensitive parental strains, while two isolates lost their resistance to serum. For S. Senftenberg, which exhibited the highest triamine tolerance (6 × MIC) and intrinsic sensitivity to 22.5% and 45% NHS, a downregulation of flagellin and enolase has been demonstrated, which might suggest a lower adhesion and virulence of the bacteria. This is the first report demonstrating the influence of biocide tolerance on NHS resistance. In conclusion, there was a potential in S. Senftenberg to adjust to the conditions, where the biocide containing triamine was present. However, the adaptation did not result in the increase of antibiotic resistance, but manifested in changes within outer membrane proteins' patterns. The strategy of bacterial membrane proteins' analysis provides an opportunity to adjust the ways of infection treatments, especially when it is connected to the life-threating bacteremia caused by Salmonella species.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enterica/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
19.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0164069, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27695090

RESUMO

Differential analysis of outer membrane composition of S. Enteritidis strains, resistant to 50% normal human serum (NHS) was performed in order to find factors influencing the resistance to higher concentrations of NHS. Ten S. Enteritidis clinical strains, resistant to 50% NHS, all producing very long lipopolysaccharide, were subjected to the challenge of 75% NHS. Five extreme strains: two resistant and three sensitive to 75% NHS, were chosen for the further analysis of outer membrane proteins composition. Substantial differences were found in the levels of particular outer membrane proteins between resistant and sensitive strains, i.e. outer membrane protease E (PgtE) was present mainly in resistant strains, while sensitive strains possessed a high level of flagellar hook-associated protein 2 (FliD) and significantly higher levels of outer membrane protein A (OmpA).


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Proteoma , Proteômica , Salmonella enteritidis/imunologia , Salmonella enteritidis/metabolismo , Complemento C3/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Masculino , Viabilidade Microbiana/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteômica/métodos , Temperatura
20.
Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) ; 70(0): 610-7, 2016 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27333931

RESUMO

The presented study is to analyze the participation of outer membrane proteins of Gram- negative bacteria in sensitivity to silver nanomaterials. The mechanism of interaction of silver with the bacterial cell is best described in this group of microorganisms. There are several theories regarding the effectiveness of antimicrobial ions and nanosilver, and at the indicated differences in the way they work. Outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria are involved in the procurement of silver from the environment and contribute to the development mechanisms of resistance to nanometals. They are measurable parameter in the field of cell phenotypic response to the presence of Gram-negative bacteria in the environment silver nanoforms: its properties, chemical composition, content or times of action. Proteomic methods (including two dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI­TOF MS) are therefore relevant techniques for determining the susceptibility of bacteria to silver and the changes taking place in the outer membrane under the influence: uptime/exposure and physical and chemical parameters of silver nanomaterials. Many products containing nanosilver is still in the research phase in terms of physico­chemical characteristics and biological activity, others have been already implemented in many industries. During the very fast nanotechnology developing and introduction to the market products based on the nanosilver the bacterial answer to nanosilver is needed.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Prata/uso terapêutico
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