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2.
J Clin Virol ; 145: 105024, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After receiving a COVID-19 vaccine, most recipients want to know if they are protected from infection and for how long. Since neutralizing antibodies are a correlate of protection, we developed a lateral flow assay (LFA) that measures levels of neutralizing antibodies from a drop of blood. The LFA is based on the principle that neutralizing antibodies block binding of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). METHODS: The ability of the LFA was assessed to correctly measure neutralization of sera, plasma or whole blood from patients with COVID-19 using SARS-CoV-2 microneutralization assays. We also determined if the LFA distinguished patients with seasonal respiratory viruses from patients with COVID-19. To demonstrate the usefulness of the LFA, we tested previously infected and non-infected COVID-19 vaccine recipients at baseline and after first and second vaccine doses. RESULTS: The LFA compared favorably with SARS-CoV-2 microneutralization assays with an area under the ROC curve of 98%. Sera obtained from patients with seasonal coronaviruses did not show neutralizing activity in the LFA. After a single mRNA vaccine dose, 87% of previously infected individuals demonstrated high levels of neutralizing antibodies. However, if individuals were not previously infected, only 24% demonstrated high levels of neutralizing antibodies after one vaccine dose. A second dose boosted neutralizing antibody levels just 8% higher in previously infected individuals, but over 63% higher in non-infected individuals. CONCLUSIONS: A rapid, semi-quantitative, highly portable and inexpensive neutralizing antibody test might be useful for monitoring rise and fall in vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies to COVID-19.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6097, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671037

RESUMO

Effective treatments against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are urgently needed. Monoclonal antibodies have shown promising results in patients. Here, we evaluate the in vivo prophylactic and therapeutic effect of COVA1-18, a neutralizing antibody highly potent against the B.1.1.7 isolate. In both prophylactic and therapeutic settings, SARS-CoV-2 remains undetectable in the lungs of treated hACE2 mice. Therapeutic treatment also causes a reduction in viral loads in the lungs of Syrian hamsters. When administered at 10 mg kg-1 one day prior to a high dose SARS-CoV-2 challenge in cynomolgus macaques, COVA1-18 shows very strong antiviral activity in the upper respiratory compartments. Using a mathematical model, we estimate that COVA1-18 reduces viral infectivity by more than 95% in these compartments, preventing lymphopenia and extensive lung lesions. Our findings demonstrate that COVA1-18 has a strong antiviral activity in three preclinical models and could be a valuable candidate for further clinical evaluation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Antivirais/farmacocinética , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Tecidual , Carga Viral
4.
Cell ; 184(22): 5593-5607.e18, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715022

RESUMO

Ebolaviruses cause a severe and often fatal illness with the potential for global spread. Monoclonal antibody-based treatments that have become available recently have a narrow therapeutic spectrum and are ineffective against ebolaviruses other than Ebola virus (EBOV), including medically important Bundibugyo (BDBV) and Sudan (SUDV) viruses. Here, we report the development of a therapeutic cocktail comprising two broadly neutralizing human antibodies, rEBOV-515 and rEBOV-442, that recognize non-overlapping sites on the ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP). Antibodies in the cocktail exhibited synergistic neutralizing activity, resisted viral escape, and possessed differing requirements for their Fc-regions for optimal in vivo activities. The cocktail protected non-human primates from ebolavirus disease caused by EBOV, BDBV, or SUDV with high therapeutic effectiveness. High-resolution structures of the cocktail antibodies in complex with GP revealed the molecular determinants for neutralization breadth and potency. This study provides advanced preclinical data to support clinical development of this cocktail for pan-ebolavirus therapy.

5.
J Biol Chem ; 297(5): 101315, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678311

RESUMO

Coagulopathy is associated with both inflammation and infection, including infections with novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, the causative agent Coagulopathy is associated with both inflammation and infection, including infection with novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Clot formation is promoted via cAMP-mediated secretion of von Willebrand factor (vWF), which fine-tunes the process of hemostasis. The exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) is a ubiquitously expressed intracellular cAMP receptor that plays a regulatory role in suppressing inflammation. To assess whether EPAC could regulate vWF release during inflammation, we utilized our EPAC1-null mouse model and revealed increased secretion of vWF in endotoxemic mice in the absence of the EPAC1 gene. Pharmacological inhibition of EPAC1 in vitro mimicked the EPAC1-/- phenotype. In addition, EPAC1 regulated tumor necrosis factor-α-triggered vWF secretion from human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a manner dependent upon inflammatory effector molecules PI3K and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, EPAC1 activation reduced inflammation-triggered vWF release, both in vivo and in vitro. Our data delineate a novel regulatory role for EPAC1 in vWF secretion and shed light on the potential development of new strategies to control thrombosis during inflammation.

6.
Cell Rep ; 37(1): 109784, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592170

RESUMO

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineages that are more transmissible and resistant to currently approved antibody therapies poses a considerable challenge to the clinical treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Therefore, the need for ongoing discovery efforts to identify broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 is of utmost importance. Here, we report a panel of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies isolated using the linking B cell receptor to antigen specificity through sequencing (LIBRA-seq) technology from an individual who recovered from COVID-19. Of these antibodies, 54042-4 shows potent neutralization against authentic SARS-CoV-2 viruses, including variants of concern (VOCs). A cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of 54042-4 in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 spike reveals an epitope composed of residues that are highly conserved in currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 lineages. Further, 54042-4 possesses uncommon genetic and structural characteristics that distinguish it from other potently neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Together, these findings provide motivation for the development of 54042-4 as a lead candidate to counteract current and future SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Mapeamento de Epitopos/métodos , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/química , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Células Vero
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 706757, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335620

RESUMO

Three clinically relevant ebolaviruses - Ebola (EBOV), Bundibugyo (BDBV), and Sudan (SUDV) viruses, are responsible for severe disease and occasional deadly outbreaks in Africa. The largest Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic to date in 2013-2016 in West Africa highlighted the urgent need for countermeasures, leading to the development and FDA approval of the Ebola virus vaccine rVSV-ZEBOV (Ervebo®) in 2020 and two monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapeutics (Inmazeb® [atoltivimab, maftivimab, and odesivimab-ebgn] and Ebanga® (ansuvimab-zykl) in 2020. The humoral response plays an indispensable role in ebolavirus immunity, based on studies of mAbs isolated from the antibody genes in peripheral blood circulating ebolavirus-specific human memory B cells. However, antibodies in the body are not secreted by circulating memory B cells in the blood but rather principally by plasma cells in the bone marrow. Little is known about the protective polyclonal antibody responses in convalescent plasma. Here we exploited both single-cell antibody gene sequencing and proteomic sequencing approaches to assess the composition of the ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP)-reactive antibody repertoire in the plasma of an EVD survivor. We first identified 1,512 GP-specific mAb variable gene sequences from single cells in the memory B cell compartment. Using mass spectrometric analysis of the corresponding GP-specific plasma IgG, we found that only a portion of the large B cell antibody repertoire was represented in the plasma. Molecular and functional analysis of proteomics-identified mAbs revealed recognition of epitopes in three major antigenic sites - the GP head domain, the glycan cap, and the base region, with a high prevalence of neutralizing and protective mAb specificities that targeted the base and glycan cap regions on the GP. Polyclonal plasma antibodies from the survivor reacted broadly to EBOV, BDBV, and SUDV GP, while reactivity of the potently neutralizing mAbs we identified was limited mostly to the homologous EBOV GP. Together these results reveal a restricted diversity of neutralizing humoral response in which mAbs targeting two antigenic sites on GP - glycan cap and base - play a principal role in plasma-antibody-mediated protective immunity against EVD.

8.
Arch Virol ; 166(12): 3513-3566, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463877

RESUMO

In March 2021, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. The phylum was expanded by four families (Aliusviridae, Crepuscuviridae, Myriaviridae, and Natareviridae), three subfamilies (Alpharhabdovirinae, Betarhabdovirinae, and Gammarhabdovirinae), 42 genera, and 200 species. Thirty-nine species were renamed and/or moved and seven species were abolished. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.

9.
J Clin Invest ; 131(20)2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449440

RESUMO

The mRNA-1273 vaccine is effective against SARS-CoV-2 and was granted emergency use authorization by the FDA. Clinical studies, however, cannot provide the controlled response to infection and complex immunological insight that are only possible with preclinical studies. Hamsters are the only model that reliably exhibits severe SARS-CoV-2 disease similar to that in hospitalized patients, making them pertinent for vaccine evaluation. We demonstrate that prime or prime-boost administration of mRNA-1273 in hamsters elicited robust neutralizing antibodies, ameliorated weight loss, suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication in the airways, and better protected against disease at the highest prime-boost dose. Unlike in mice and nonhuman primates, low-level virus replication in mRNA-1273-vaccinated hamsters coincided with an anamnestic response. Single-cell RNA sequencing of lung tissue permitted high-resolution analysis that is not possible in vaccinated humans. mRNA-1273 prevented inflammatory cell infiltration and the reduction of lymphocyte proportions, but enabled antiviral responses conducive to lung homeostasis. Surprisingly, infection triggered transcriptome programs in some types of immune cells from vaccinated hamsters that were shared, albeit attenuated, with mock-vaccinated hamsters. Our results support the use of mRNA-1273 in a 2-dose schedule and provide insight into the potential responses within the lungs of vaccinated humans who are exposed to SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pulmão/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/biossíntese , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única , Replicação Viral
10.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 91, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294728

RESUMO

The development of effective countermeasures against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the agent responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, is a priority. We designed and produced ConVac, a replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vaccine vector that expresses the S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We used golden Syrian hamsters as animal models of severe COVID-19 to test the efficacy of the ConVac vaccine. A single vaccine dose elicited high levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific binding and neutralizing antibodies; following intranasal challenge with SARS-CoV-2, animals were protected from weight loss and viral replication in the lungs. No enhanced pathology was observed in vaccinated animals upon challenge, but some inflammation was still detected. The data indicate rapid control of SARS-CoV-2 replication by the S1-based VSV-vectored SARS-CoV-2 ConVac vaccine.

11.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(602)2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261800

RESUMO

Although substantial progress has been made with Ebola virus (EBOV) vaccine measures, the immune correlates of vaccine-mediated protection remain uncertain. Here, five mucosal vaccine vectors based on human and avian paramyxoviruses provided nonhuman primates with varying degrees of protection, despite expressing the same EBOV glycoprotein (GP) immunogen. Each vaccine produced antibody responses that differed in Fc-mediated functions and isotype composition, as well as in magnitude and coverage toward GP and its conformational and linear epitopes. Differences in the degree of protection and comprehensive characterization of the response afforded the opportunity to identify which features and functions were elevated in survivors and could therefore serve as vaccine correlates of protection. Pairwise network correlation analysis of 139 immune- and vaccine-related parameters was performed to demonstrate relationships with survival. Total GP-specific antibodies, as measured by biolayer interferometry, but not neutralizing IgG or IgA titers, correlated with survival. Fc-mediated functions and the amount of receptor binding domain antibodies were associated with improved survival outcomes, alluding to the protective mechanisms of these vaccines. Therefore, functional qualities of the antibody response, particularly Fc-mediated effects and GP specificity, rather than simply magnitude of the response, appear central to vaccine-induced protection against EBOV. The heterogeneity of the response profile between the vaccines indicates that each vaccine likely exhibits its own protective signature and the requirements for an efficacious EBOV vaccine are complex.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Ebola , Ebolavirus , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Primatas
13.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100018

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic antibody discovery efforts have met with notable success but have been associated with a generally inefficient process, requiring the production and characterization of exceptionally large numbers of candidates for the identification of a small set of leads. Here, we show that incorporating antibody-ligand blocking as part of LIBRA-seq, the high-throughput sequencing platform for antibody discovery, results in efficient identification of ultra-potent neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. LIBRA-seq with ligand blocking is a general platform for functional antibody discovery targeting the disruption of antigen-ligand interactions.

14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 681586, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177926

RESUMO

We investigated serological responses following a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in spring 2020 on a US Marine recruit training base. 147 participants that were isolated during an outbreak of respiratory illness were enrolled in this study, with visits approximately 6 and 10 weeks post-outbreak (PO). This cohort is comprised of young healthy adults, ages 18-26, with a high rate of asymptomatic infection or mild symptoms, and therefore differs from previously reported longitudinal studies on humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2, which often focus on more diverse age populations and worse clinical presentation. 80.9% (119/147) of the participants presented with circulating IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) receptor-binding domain (RBD) at 6 weeks PO, of whom 97.3% (111/114) remained positive, with significantly decreased levels, at 10 weeks PO. Neutralizing activity was detected in all sera from SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive participants tested (n=38) at 6 and 10 weeks PO, without significant loss between time points. IgG and IgA antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 RBD, S1, S2, and the nucleocapsid (N) protein, as well neutralization activity, were generally comparable between those participants that had asymptomatic infection or mild disease. A multiplex assay including S proteins from SARS-CoV-2 and related zoonotic and human endemic betacoronaviruses revealed a positive correlation for polyclonal cross-reactivity to S after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, young adults that experienced asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection developed comparable humoral responses, with no decrease in neutralizing activity at least up to 10 weeks after infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , Militares , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Formação de Anticorpos , Doenças Assintomáticas , Estudos de Coortes , Surtos de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(11): e348-e355, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175003

RESUMO

Disease outbreaks caused by Ebola virus and other filoviruses highlight the urgent need for an in-depth understanding of the role of antibody responses in recovery. In this Personal View we aim to discuss the controversial biological role of antibodies during natural filovirus infections in humans. Survival during natural human filovirus infections correlates with the magnitude of the process of antibodies binding to the filovirus glycoprotein and neutralising the virus. Despite the severity of the disease, highly potent monoclonal antibodies have been isolated from survivors of natural filovirus infections, suggesting that the magnitude of the antibody response is insufficient for prevention of severe disease. Unlike natural infections, filovirus vaccines, which express the viral glycoprotein, do induce protective concentrations of antibodies, albeit only when administered at very high doses. Multiple mechanisms by which filoviruses can delay and reduce the antibody response have been identified in the past decade. Furthermore, subneutralising antibody concentrations have been shown to enhance filovirus infections of immune cells bearing Fc receptors. Understanding the role of antibody responses during natural filovirus infections is important for the development of safe and potent vaccines and antibody-based treatments.

16.
Cell Rep ; 35(5): 109086, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951434

RESUMO

New World hantaviruses (NWHs) are endemic in North and South America and cause hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), with a case fatality rate of up to 40%. Knowledge of the natural humoral immune response to NWH infection is limited. Here, we describe human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from individuals previously infected with Sin Nombre virus (SNV) or Andes virus (ANDV). Most SNV-reactive antibodies show broad recognition and cross-neutralization of both New and Old World hantaviruses, while many ANDV-reactive antibodies show activity for ANDV only. mAbs ANDV-44 and SNV-53 compete for binding to a distinct site on the ANDV surface glycoprotein and show potently neutralizing activity to New and Old World hantaviruses. Four mAbs show therapeutic efficacy at clinically relevant doses in hamsters. These studies reveal a convergent and potently neutralizing human antibody response to NWHs and suggest therapeutic potential for human mAbs against HCPS.

17.
J Immunol ; 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049971

RESUMO

Protective immunity against COVID-19 likely depends on the production of SARS-CoV-2-specific plasma cells and memory B cells postinfection or postvaccination. Previous work has found that germinal center reactions are disrupted in severe COVID-19. This may adversely affect long-term immunity against reinfection. Consistent with an extrafollicular B cell response, patients with severe COVID-19 have elevated frequencies of clonally expanded, class-switched, unmutated plasmablasts. However, it is unclear whether B cell populations in individuals with mild COVID-19 are similarly skewed. In this study, we use single-cell RNA sequencing of B cells to show that in contrast to patients with severe COVID-19, subjects with mildly symptomatic COVID-19 have B cell repertoires enriched for clonally diverse, somatically hypermutated memory B cells ∼30 d after the onset of symptoms. This provides evidence that B cell responses are less disrupted in mild COVID-19 and result in the production of memory B cells.

18.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(7): 712-720, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether young adults who are infected with SARS-CoV-2 are at risk of subsequent infection is uncertain. We investigated the risk of subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection among young adults seropositive for a previous infection. METHODS: This analysis was performed as part of the prospective COVID-19 Health Action Response for Marines study (CHARM). CHARM included predominantly male US Marine recruits, aged 18-20 years, following a 2-week unsupervised quarantine at home. After the home quarantine period, upon arrival at a Marine-supervised 2-week quarantine facility (college campus or hotel), participants were enrolled and were assessed for baseline SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity, defined as a dilution of 1:150 or more on receptor-binding domain and full-length spike protein ELISA. Participants also completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic information, risk factors, reporting of 14 specific COVID-19-related symptoms or any other unspecified symptom, and brief medical history. SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed by PCR at weeks 0, 1, and 2 of quarantine and participants completed a follow-up questionnaire, which included questions about the same COVID-19-related symptoms since the last study visit. Participants were excluded at this stage if they had a positive PCR test during quarantine. Participants who had three negative swab PCR results during quarantine and a baseline serum serology test at the beginning of the supervised quarantine that identified them as seronegative or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 then went on to basic training at Marine Corps Recruit Depot-Parris Island. Three PCR tests were done at weeks 2, 4, and 6 in both seropositive and seronegative groups, along with the follow-up symptom questionnaire and baseline neutralising antibody titres on all subsequently infected seropositive and selected seropositive uninfected participants (prospective study period). FINDINGS: Between May 11, 2020, and Nov 2, 2020, we enrolled 3249 participants, of whom 3168 (98%) continued into the 2-week quarantine period. 3076 (95%) participants, 2825 (92%) of whom were men, were then followed up during the prospective study period after quarantine for 6 weeks. Among 189 seropositive participants, 19 (10%) had at least one positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 during the 6-week follow-up (1·1 cases per person-year). In contrast, 1079 (48%) of 2247 seronegative participants tested positive (6·2 cases per person-year). The incidence rate ratio was 0·18 (95% CI 0·11-0·28; p<0·001). Among seropositive recruits, infection was more likely with lower baseline full-length spike protein IgG titres than in those with higher baseline full-length spike protein IgG titres (hazard ratio 0·45 [95% CI 0·32-0·65]; p<0·001). Infected seropositive participants had viral loads that were about 10-times lower than those of infected seronegative participants (ORF1ab gene cycle threshold difference 3·95 [95% CI 1·23-6·67]; p=0·004). Among seropositive participants, baseline neutralising titres were detected in 45 (83%) of 54 uninfected and in six (32%) of 19 infected participants during the 6 weeks of observation (ID50 difference p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Seropositive young adults had about one-fifth the risk of subsequent infection compared with seronegative individuals. Although antibodies induced by initial infection are largely protective, they do not guarantee effective SARS-CoV-2 neutralisation activity or immunity against subsequent infection. These findings might be relevant for optimisation of mass vaccination strategies. FUNDING: Defense Health Agency and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Quarentena , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Immunity ; 54(4): 815-828.e5, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852832

RESUMO

Protective Ebola virus (EBOV) antibodies have neutralizing activity and induction of antibody constant domain (Fc)-mediated innate immune effector functions. Efforts to enhance Fc effector functionality often focus on maximizing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, yet distinct combinations of functions could be critical for antibody-mediated protection. As neutralizing antibodies have been cloned from EBOV disease survivors, we sought to identify survivor Fc effector profiles to help guide Fc optimization strategies. Survivors developed a range of functional antibody responses, and we therefore applied a rapid, high-throughput Fc engineering platform to define the most protective profiles. We generated a library of Fc variants with identical antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) from an EBOV neutralizing antibody. Fc variants with antibody-mediated complement deposition and moderate natural killer (NK) cell activity demonstrated complete protective activity in a stringent in vivo mouse model. Our findings highlight the importance of specific effector functions in antibody-mediated protection, and the experimental platform presents a generalizable resource for identifying correlates of immunity to guide therapeutic antibody design.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos/imunologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Receptores Fc/imunologia
20.
Cell Rep ; 35(2): 108984, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852862

RESUMO

Antibodies that target the glycan cap epitope on the ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) are common in the adaptive response of survivors. A subset is known to be broadly neutralizing, but the details of their epitopes and basis for neutralization are not well understood. Here, we present cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of diverse glycan cap antibodies that variably synergize with GP base-binding antibodies. These structures describe a conserved site of vulnerability that anchors the mucin-like domains (MLDs) to the glycan cap, which we call the MLD anchor and cradle. Antibodies that bind to the MLD cradle share common features, including use of IGHV1-69 and IGHJ6 germline genes, which exploit hydrophobic residues and form ß-hairpin structures to mimic the MLD anchor, disrupt MLD attachment, destabilize GP quaternary structure, and block cleavage events required for receptor binding. Our results provide a molecular basis for ebolavirus neutralization by broadly reactive glycan cap antibodies.

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