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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105270, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487976

RESUMO

Developmental studies have shown that infants exploit ordinal information to extract and generalize repetition-based rules from a sequence of items. Within the visual modality, this ability is constrained by the spatial layout within which items are delivered given that a left-to-right orientation boosts infants' rule learning, whereas a right-to-left orientation hinders this ability. Infants' rule learning operates across different domains and can also be transferred across modalities when learning is triggered by speech. However, no studies have investigated whether the transfer of rule learning occurs across different domains when language is not involved. Using a visual habituation procedure, we tested 7-month-old infants' ability to extract rule-like patterns from numerical sequences and generalize them to non-numerical sequences of visual shapes and whether this ability is affected by the spatial orientation. Infants were first habituated to left-to-right or right-to-left oriented numerical sequences instantiating an ABB rule and were then tested with the familiar rule instantiated across sequences of single geometrical shapes and a novel (ABA) rule. Results showed a transfer of learning from number to visual shapes for left-to-right oriented sequences but not for right-to-left oriented ones (Experiment 1) even when the direction of the numerical change (increasing vs. decreasing) within the habituation sequences violated a small-left/large-right number-space association (Experiment 2). These results provide the first demonstration that visual rule learning mechanisms in infancy operate at a high level of abstraction and confirm earlier findings that left-to-right oriented directional cues facilitate infants' representation of order.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fala , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Percepção Espacial
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 215: 105326, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883319

RESUMO

Adults present a large number of asymmetries in visuospatial behavior that are known to be supported by functional brain lateralization. Although there is evidence of lateralization for motor behavior and language processing in infancy, no study has explored visuospatial attention biases in the early stages of development. In this study, we tested for the presence of a leftward visuospatial bias (i.e., pseudoneglect) in 4- and 5-month-old infants using an adapted version of the line bisection task. Infants were trained to identify the center of a horizontal line (Experiment 1) while their eye gazes were monitored using a remote eye-tracking procedure to measure their potential gazing error. Infants exhibited a robust pseudoneglect, gazing leftward with respect to the veridical midpoint of the horizontal line. To investigate whether infants' pseudoneglect generalizes to any given object or is dependent on the horizontal dimension, in Experiment 2 we assessed infants' gaze deployment in vertically oriented lines. No leftward bias was found, suggesting that early visuospatial attention biases in infancy are constrained by the orientation of the visual plane in which the information is organized. The interplay between biological and cultural factors that might contribute to the early establishment of the observed leftward bias in the allocation of visuospatial attention is discussed.

3.
Infancy ; 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854536

RESUMO

Infants' ability to detect statistical regularities between visual objects has been demonstrated in previous studies (e.g., Kirkham et al., Cognition, 83, 2002, B35). The extent to which infants extract and learn the actual values of the transitional probabilities (TPs) between these objects nevertheless remains an open question. In three experiments providing identical learning conditions but contrasting different types of sequences at test, we examined 8-month-old infants' ability to discriminate between familiar sequences involving high or low values of TPs, and new sequences that involved null TPs. Results showed that infants discriminate between these three types of sequences, supporting the existence of a statistical learning mechanism by which infants extract fine-grained statistical information from a stream of visual stimuli. Interestingly, the expression of this statistical knowledge varied between experiments and specifically depended on the nature of the first two test trials. We argue that the predictability of this early test arrangement-namely whether the first two test items were either predictable or unexpected based on the habituation phase-determined infants' looking behaviors.

4.
Brain Sci ; 11(11)2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827394

RESUMO

The present study investigated whether, as in adults, 7-month-old infants' sensorimotor brain areas are recruited in response to the observation of emotional facial expressions. Activity of the sensorimotor cortex, as indexed by µ rhythm suppression, was recorded using electroencephalography (EEG) while infants observed neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions either in a static (N = 19) or dynamic (N = 19) condition. Graph theory analysis was used to investigate to which extent neural activity was functionally localized in specific cortical areas. Happy facial expressions elicited greater sensorimotor activation compared to angry faces in the dynamic experimental condition, while no difference was found between the three expressions in the static condition. Results also revealed that happy but not angry nor neutral expressions elicited a significant right-lateralized activation in the dynamic condition. Furthermore, dynamic emotional faces generated more efficient processing as they elicited higher global efficiency and lower networks' diameter compared to static faces. Overall, current results suggest that, contrarily to neutral and angry faces, happy expressions elicit sensorimotor activity at 7 months and dynamic emotional faces are more efficiently processed by functional brain networks. Finally, current data provide evidence of the existence of a right-lateralized activity for the processing of happy facial expressions.

5.
Child Dev ; 92(5): 2142-2152, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028788

RESUMO

Infant research is providing accumulating evidence that number-space mappings appear early in development. Here, a Posner cueing paradigm was used to investigate the neural mechanisms underpinning the attentional bias induced by nonsymbolic numerical cues in 9-month-old infants (N = 32). Event-related potentials and saccadic reaction time were measured to the onset of a peripheral target flashing right after the offset of a centered small or large numerical cue, with the location of the target being either congruent or incongruent with the number's relative position on a left-to-right oriented representational continuum. Results indicated that the cueing effect induced by numbers on infants' orienting of eye gaze brings about sensory facilitation in processing visual information at the cued location.


Assuntos
Atenção , Fixação Ocular , Sinais (Psicologia) , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Lactente , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação
6.
Infancy ; 26(3): 442-454, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709450

RESUMO

Rule learning (RL) refers to infants' ability to extract high-order, repetition-based rules from a sequence of elements and to generalize them to new items. RL has been demonstrated in both the auditory and the visual modality, but no studies have investigated infants' transfer of learning across these two modalities, a process that is fundamental for the development of many complex cognitive skills. Using a visual habituation procedure within a cross-modal RL task, we tested 7-month-old infants' transfer of learning both from speech to vision (auditory-visual-AV-condition) and from vision to speech (visual-auditory-VA-condition). Results showed a transfer of learning in the AV condition, but only for those infants who were able to efficiently extract the rule during the learning (habituation) phase. In contrast, in the VA condition infants provided no evidence of RL. Overall, this study indicates that 7-month-old infants can transfers high-order rules across modalities with an advantage for transferring from speech to vision, and that this ability is constrained by infants' individual differences in the way they process the to-be-learned rules.

7.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 51(12): 4621-4631, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582879

RESUMO

Statistical learning refers to the ability to extract the statistical relations embedded in a sequence, and it plays a crucial role in the development of communicative and social skills that are impacted in the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Here, we investigated the relationship between infants' SL ability and autistic traits in their parents. Using a visual habituation task, we tested infant offspring of adults (non-diagnosed) who show high (HAT infants) versus low (LAT infants) autistic traits. Results demonstrated that LAT infants learned the statistical structure embedded in a visual sequence, while HAT infants failed. Moreover, infants' SL ability was related to autistic traits in their parents, further suggesting that early dysfunctions in SL might contribute to variabilities in ASD symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Comunicação , Humanos , Pais , Habilidades Sociais
8.
Infancy ; 26(2): 319-326, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438835

RESUMO

Tracking adjacent (AD) and non-adjacent (NAD) dependencies in a sequence of elements is critical for the development of many complex abilities, such as language acquisition and social interaction. While learning of AD in infancy is a domain-general ability that is functioning across different domains, infants' processing of NAD has been reported only for speech sequences. Here, we tested 9- to 12- and 13- to 15-month-olds' ability to extract AxB grammars in visual sequences of unfamiliar elements. Infants were habituated to a series of 3-visual arrays following an AxB grammar in which the first element (A) predicted the third element (B), while intervening X elements changed continuously. Following habituation, infants were tested with 3-item arrays in which initial and final positions were switched (novel) or kept consistent with the habituation phase (familiar). Older infants successfully recognized the familiar AxB grammar at test, whereas the younger group showed some sensitivity to extract to NAD, albeit in a less robust form. This finding provides the first evidence that the ability to track NAD is a domain-general ability that is present also in the visual domain and that the sensitivity to such dependencies is related to developmental changes, as demonstrated in the auditory domain.

9.
Infant Behav Dev ; 61: 101506, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227679

RESUMO

Infants' social environment is rich of complex sequences of events and actions. This study investigates whether 12-month-old infants are able to learn statistical regularities from a sequence of human gestures and whether this ability is affected by a social vs non-social context. Using a visual familiarization task, infants were familiarized to a continuous sequence of eight videos in which two women imitated each other performing arm gestures. The sequence of videos in which the two women performed imitative gestures was organized into 4 different gesture units. Videos within a gesture unit had a highly predictable transitional probability, while such transition was less predictable between gesture units. The social context was manipulated varying the mutual gaze of the actors and their body orientation. At test, infants were able to discriminate between the high- and low-predictable gesture units in the social, but not in the non-social condition. Results demonstrate that infants are capable to detect statistical regularities from a sequence of human gestures performed by two different individuals. Moreover, our findings indicate that salient social cues can modulate infants' ability to extract statistical information from a sequence of gestures.


Assuntos
Gestos , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Meio Social , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino
10.
Infant Behav Dev ; 61: 101501, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161207

RESUMO

Rule learning (RL) is an implicit learning mechanism that allows infants to detect and generalize rule-like repetition-based patterns (such as ABB and ABA) from a sequence of elements. Increasing evidence shows that RL operates both in the auditory and the visual domain and is modulated by the perceptual expertise with the to-be-learned stimuli. Yet, whether infants' ability to detect a high-order rule from a sequence of stimuli is affected by affective information remains a largely unexplored issue. Using a visual habituation paradigm, we investigated whether the presence of emotional expressions with a positive and a negative value (i.e., happiness and anger) modulates 7- to 8-month-old infants' ability to learn a rule-like pattern from a sequence of faces of different identities. Results demonstrate that emotional facial expressions (either positive and negative) modulate infants' visual RL mechanism, even though positive and negative facial expressions affect infants' RL in a different manner: while anger disrupts infants' ability to learn the rule-like pattern from a face sequence, in the presence of a happy face infants show a familiarity preference, thus maintaining their learning ability. These findings show that emotional expressions exert an influence on infants' RL abilities, contributing to the investigation on how emotion and cognition interact in face processing during infancy.


Assuntos
Ira/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Felicidade , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia
11.
Front Psychol ; 11: 281, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158415

RESUMO

The ability to learn and generalize abstract rules from sensory input - i.e., Rule Learning (RL) - is seen as pivotal to language development, and specifically to the acquisition of the grammatical structure of language. Although many studies have shown that RL in infancy is operating across different perceptual domains, including vision, no studies have directly investigated the link between infants' visual RL and later language acquisition. Here, we conducted a longitudinal study to investigate whether 7-month-olds' ability to detect visual structural regularities predicts linguistic outcome at 2 years of age. At 7 months, infants were tested for their ability to extract and generalize ABB and ABA structures from sequences of visual shapes, and at 24 months their lexical and grammatical skills were assessed using the MacArthur-Bates CDI. Regression analyses showed that infants' visual RL abilities selectively predicted early grammatical abilities, but not lexical abilities. These results may provide the first evidence that RL mechanisms are involved in language acquisition, and suggest that RL abilities may act as an early neurocognitive marker for language impairments.

12.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 179: 260-275, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562633

RESUMO

When adding or subtracting quantities, adults tend to overestimate addition outcomes and underestimate subtraction outcomes. They also shift visuospatial attention to the right when adding and to the left when subtracting. These operational momentum phenomena are thought to reflect an underlying representation in which small magnitudes are associated with the left side of space and large magnitudes with the right side of space. Currently, there is limited research on operational momentum in early childhood or for operations other than addition and subtraction. The current study tested whether English-speaking 3- and 4-year-old children and college-aged adults exhibit operational momentum when ordering quantities. Participants were presented with two experimental blocks. In one block of trials, they were tasked with choosing the same quantity they had previously seen three times; in the other block, they were asked to generate the next quantity in a doubling sequence composed of three ascending quantities. A bias to shift attention to the right after an ascending operation was found in both age groups, and a bias to overestimate the next sequential quantity during an ascending ordering operation was found in adults under conditions of uncertainty. These data suggest that, for children, the spatial biases during operating are more pronounced than the mis-estimation biases. These findings highlight the spatial underpinnings of operational momentum and suggest that both very young children and adults conceptualize quantity along a horizontal continuum during ordering operations, even before formal schooling.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Matemática/métodos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Atenção/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 2437, 2017 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28550288

RESUMO

A wealth of studies show that human adults map ordered information onto a directional spatial continuum. We asked whether mapping ordinal information into a directional space constitutes an early predisposition, already functional prior to the acquisition of symbolic knowledge and language. While it is known that preverbal infants represent numerical order along a left-to-right spatial continuum, no studies have investigated yet whether infants, like adults, organize any kind of ordinal information onto a directional space. We investigated whether 7-month-olds' ability to learn high-order rule-like patterns from visual sequences of geometric shapes was affected by the spatial orientation of the sequences (left-to-right vs. right-to-left). Results showed that infants readily learn rule-like patterns when visual sequences were presented from left to right, but not when presented from right to left. This result provides evidence that spatial orientation critically determines preverbal infants' ability to perceive and learn ordered information in visual sequences, opening to the idea that a left-to-right spatially organized mental representation of ordered dimensions might be rooted in biologically-determined constraints on human brain development.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Viés , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória
14.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 161: 161-177, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28527749

RESUMO

There has been compelling evidence favoring the idea that human adults similarly represent number and time along a horizontal mental number line (MNL) and mental time line (MTL), respectively. Yet, analogies drawn between the MNL and MTL have been challenged by recent studies suggesting that adults' representations of number and time arise from different spatial frames of reference; whereas the MNL relies on both hand-centered and object-centered coordinates, the MTL appears to be exclusively anchored on object-centered coordinates. To directly test this possibility, here we explored the extent to which visual feedback and proprioceptive feedback affect children's performance in a Number Comparison task (Experiment 1) and a Time Comparison task (Experiment 2), in which participants needed to associate a lateralized key with numerical and temporal words, respectively. Children (5- and 6-year-olds) performed the task with their hands either uncrossed or crossed over the body midline (i.e., manipulation of proprioceptive feedback) and with either visual control over their hands allowed or precluded under blindfolds (i.e., manipulation of visual feedback). Results showed that children were facilitated in associating smaller/larger numbers with the left/right side of the external space, but only when hands were uncrossed and visual feedback was available. On the contrary, blindfolding and crossing their hands over the midline did not affect spatial time mapping, with 6-year-olds showing facilitation in associating words referring to the past/future with the left/right side of the external space irrespective of visual and proprioceptive feedback. This same effect was also present in 5-year-olds despite their difficulty in performing the Time Comparison task. Together, these findings show, for the first time, that-just like adults-young children (a) map temporal events onto space in a rightward direction as they do for numbers and (b) anchor their spatial representation of time and numbers to different spatial frames of reference.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
15.
Psychol Res ; 80(3): 360-7, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26898647

RESUMO

Recent evidence has shown that, like adults and children, 9-month-old infants manifest an operational momentum (OM) effect during non-symbolic arithmetic, whereby they overestimate the outcomes to addition problems, and underestimate the outcomes to subtraction problems. Here we provide the first evidence that OM occurs for transformations of non-numerical magnitudes (i.e., spatial extent) during ordering operations. Twelve-month-old infants were tested in an ordinal task in which they detected and represented ascension or descension in physical size, and then responded to ordinal sequences that exhibited greater or lesser sizes. Infants displayed longer looking time to the size change whose direction violated the operational momentum experienced during habituation (i.e., the smaller sequence in the ascension condition and the larger sequence in the descension condition). The presence of momentum for ordering size during infancy suggests that continuous quantities are represented spatially during the first year of life.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Formação de Conceito , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
16.
Dev Sci ; 19(3): 394-401, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26074348

RESUMO

Numbers are represented as ordered magnitudes along a spatially oriented number line. While culture and formal education modulate the direction of this number-space mapping, it is a matter of debate whether its emergence is entirely driven by cultural experience. By registering 8-9-month-old infants' eye movements, this study shows that numerical cues are critical in orienting infants' visual attention towards a peripheral region of space that is congruent with the number's relative position on a left-to-right oriented representational continuum. This finding provides the first direct evidence that, in humans, the association between numbers and oriented spatial codes occurs before the acquisition of symbols or exposure to formal education, suggesting that the number line is not merely a product of human invention.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Lactente , Matemática , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
17.
Front Psychol ; 6: 1595, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26539142

RESUMO

Rule learning is a mechanism that allows infants to recognize and generalize rule-like patterns, such as ABB or ABA. Although infants are better at learning rules from speech vs. non-speech, rule learning can be applied also to frequently experienced visual stimuli, suggesting that perceptual expertise with material to be learned is critical in enhancing rule learning abilities. Yet infants' rule learning has never been investigated using one of the most commonly experienced visual stimulus category available in infants' environment, i.e., faces. Here, we investigate 7-month-olds' ability to extract rule-like patterns from sequences composed of upright faces and compared their results to those of infants who viewed inverted faces, which presumably are encountered far less frequently than upright faces. Infants were habituated with face triads in either an ABA or ABB condition followed by a test phase with ABA and ABB triads composed of faces that differed from those showed during habituation. When upright faces were used, infants generalized the pattern presented during habituation to include the new face identities showed during testing, but when inverted faces were presented, infants failed to extract the rule. This finding supports the idea that perceptual expertise can modulate 7-month-olds' abilities to detect rule-like patterns.

18.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0136965, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26367122

RESUMO

Orienting visual attention allows us to properly select relevant visual information from a noisy environment. Despite extensive investigation of the orienting of visual attention in infancy, it is unknown whether and how stimulus characteristics modulate the deployment of attention from birth to 4 months of age, a period in which the efficiency in orienting of attention improves dramatically. The aim of the present study was to compare 4-month-old infants' and newborns' ability to orient attention from central to peripheral stimuli that have the same or different attributes. In Experiment 1, all the stimuli were dynamic and the only attribute of the central and peripheral stimuli to be manipulated was face orientation. In Experiment 2, both face orientation and motion of the central and peripheral stimuli were contrasted. The number of valid trials and saccadic latency were measured at both ages. Our results demonstrated that the deployment of attention is mainly influenced by motion at birth, while it is also influenced by face orientation at 4-month of age. These findings provide insight into the development of the orienting visual attention in the first few months of life and suggest that maturation may be not the only factor that determines the developmental change in orienting visual attention from birth to 4 months.


Assuntos
Atenção , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial , Percepção de Movimento , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
19.
Child Dev ; 86(2): 632-41, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25441119

RESUMO

The development of human body perception has long been investigated, but little is known about its early origins. This study focused on how a body part highly relevant to the human species, namely the hand, is perceived a few days after birth. Using a preferential-looking paradigm, 24- to 48-hr-old newborns watched biomechanically possible and impossible dynamic hand gestures (Experiment 1, N = 15) and static hand postures (Experiment 2, N = 15). In Experiment 1, newborns looked longer at the impossible, compared to the possible, hand movement, whereas in Experiment 2 no visual preference emerged. These findings suggest that early in life the representation of the human body may be shaped by sensory-motor experience.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Mãos , Movimento/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Gestos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Postura
20.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e99499, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24932753

RESUMO

A number of studies have shown strong relations between numbers and oriented spatial codes. For example, perceiving numbers causes spatial shifts of attention depending upon numbers' magnitude, in a way suggestive of a spatially oriented, mental representation of numbers. Here, we investigated whether this phenomenon extends to non-symbolic numbers, as well as to the processing of the continuous dimensions of size and brightness, exploring whether different quantitative dimensions are equally mapped onto space. After a numerical (symbolic Arabic digits or non-symbolic arrays of dots; Experiment 1) or a non-numerical cue (shapes of different size or brightness level; Experiment 2) was presented, participants' saccadic response to a target that could appear either on the left or the right side of the screen was registered using an automated eye-tracker system. Experiment 1 showed that, both in the case of Arabic digits and dot arrays, right targets were detected faster when preceded by large numbers, and left targets were detected faster when preceded by small numbers. Participants in Experiment 2 were faster at detecting right targets when cued by large-sized shapes and left targets when cued by small-sized shapes, whereas brightness cues did not modulate the detection of peripheral targets. These findings indicate that looking at a symbolic or a non-symbolic number induces attentional shifts to a peripheral region of space that is congruent with the numbers' relative position on a mental number line, and that a similar shift in visual attention is induced by looking at shapes of different size. More specifically, results suggest that, while the dimensions of number and size spontaneously map onto an oriented space, the dimension of brightness seems to be independent at a certain level of magnitude elaboration from the dimensions of spatial extent and number, indicating that not all continuous dimensions are equally mapped onto space.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial , Simbolismo , Adulto Jovem
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