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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the association and coaggregation of eating disorders and childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in families. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using population samples from national registers in Sweden (n = 2,517,277) and Demark (n = 1,825,920), we investigated the within-individual association between type 1 diabetes and eating disorders and their familial coaggregation among full siblings, half siblings, full cousins, and half cousins. On the basis of clinical diagnoses, we classified eating disorders into any eating disorder (AED), anorexia nervosa (AN) and atypical AN, and other eating disorder (OED). Associations were determined with hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs from Cox regressions. RESULTS: Swedish and Danish individuals with a type 1 diabetes diagnosis had a greater risk of receiving an eating disorder diagnosis (HR [95% CI] Sweden: AED 2.02 [1.80-2.27], AN 1.63 [1.36-1.96], OED 2.34 [2.07-2.63]; Denmark: AED 2.19 [1.84-2.61], AN 1.78 [1.36-2.33], OED 2.65 [2.20-3.21]). We also meta-analyzed the results: AED 2.07 (1.88-2.28), AN 1.68 (1.44-1.95), OED 2.44 (2.17-2.72). There was an increased risk of receiving an eating disorder diagnosis in full siblings in the Swedish cohort (AED 1.25 [1.07-1.46], AN 1.28 [1.04-1.57], OED 1.28 [1.07-1.52]); these results were nonsignificant in the Danish cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with type 1 diabetes are at a higher risk of subsequent eating disorders; however, there is conflicting support for the relationship between having a sibling with type 1 diabetes and an eating disorder diagnosis. Diabetes health care teams should be vigilant about disordered eating behaviors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

2.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-10, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Food-restricted alcohol consumption (FRAC) is a growing concern among college students. We investigated demographic and lifestyle characteristics and psychiatric symptoms associated with FRAC. Participants: College students (n = 561) at a large southeastern university in the United States. Methods: Participants completed online self-reported questionnaires assessing past-year FRAC, demographic and lifestyle characteristics, and psychiatric symptoms. Results: The past-year prevalence of FRAC was 23.89%. In the bivariate analyses, students engaging in FRAC had higher mean scores of multiple psychiatric symptoms, reported more harmful or hazardous drinking and suicidality, and were more likely to report a history of an eating disorder than their peers without FRAC. In a hierarchical regression model, binge eating, cognitive restraint, self-reported history of an eating disorder, and harmful or hazardous drinking were significantly associated with FRAC (ps < 0.05) after other psychiatric symptoms were included in the model. Conclusion: Our findings stress the importance of heightened awareness of FRAC in college.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247724, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with ADHD are at increased risk for poor occupational outcomes. Educational attainment and psychiatric comorbidity may be important contributing factors for these outcomes, but the role of these factors is not well characterized. This study aimed to investigate the associations between ADHD and occupational outcomes, and to examine the influence of educational attainment, comorbid developmental disorders and intellectual disability on these associations. METHODS: We linked the Swedish population graduating from compulsory school 1998-2008 (N = 1.2 millions) to population-wide register-based data on clinical psychiatric diagnoses and medications, objective annual measures of educational, and occupational outcomes. Individuals were followed for between 6 to 16 years after graduation. RESULTS: Individuals with ADHD had annually on average 17 percent lower income, ratio = 0.83 (95% CI 0.83-0.84), 12.19 (11.89-12.49) more days of unemployment, and a higher likelihood of receiving disability pension, odds-ratio = 19.0 (18.4-19.6), compared to controls. Comorbid diagnoses of intellectual disability and developmental disorder explained most of the association between ADHD and disability pension, while lifetime educational attainment partially explained associations between ADHD and all occupational outcomes. Analyses of occupational trajectories found that income was lower and unemployment elevated relative to controls with the same educational attainment. Higher educational attainment correlated with higher income similarly among individuals with ADHD and controls after accounting for individual background factors. CONCLUSIONS: The occupational burden associated with ADHD is substantial. Comorbid developmental disorders, intellectual disability and educational difficulties (e.g., failing grades) from childhood to adulthood are important factors to consider when designing interventions to improve occupational outcomes in individuals with ADHD.

4.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 49: 1-10, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743376

RESUMO

Our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying anorexia nervosa (AN) is incomplete. The aim was to conduct a metabolomics profiling of serum samples from women with AN (n = 65), women who have recovered from AN (AN-REC, n = 65), and age-matched healthy female controls (HC, n = 65). Serum concentrations of 21 metabolites were measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). We used orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) modeling to assign group classification based on the metabolites. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for metabolite concentration differences across groups. The OPLS-DA model could distinguish between the AN and HC groups (p = 9.05 × 10-11 R2Y = 0.36, Q2 = 0.37) and between the AN-REC and HC groups (p = 8.47 × 10-6, R2Y = 0.36, Q2 = 0.24,), but not between the AN and AN-REC groups (p = 0.63). Lower methanol concentration in the AN and AN-REC group explained most of the variance. Likewise, the strongest finding in the univariate analyses was lower serum methanol concentration in both AN and AN-REC compared with HC, which withstood adjustment for body mass index (BMI). We report for the first time lower serum concentrations of methanol in AN. The fact that low methanol was also found in recovered AN suggests that low serum concentration of methanol could either be trait marker or a scar effect of AN.

5.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The origin of sex differences in prevalence and presentation of neuropsychiatric and behavioral traits is largely unknown. Given established genetic contributions and correlations, we tested for a sex-differentiated genetic architecture within and between traits. METHODS: Using European ancestry genome-wide association summary statistics for 20 neuropsychiatric and behavioral traits, we tested for sex differences in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and genetic correlation (rg < 1). For each trait, we computed per-SNP z scores from sex-stratified regression coefficients and identified genes with sex-differentiated effects using a gene-based approach. We calculated correlation coefficients between z scores to test for shared sex-differentiated effects. Finally, we tested for sex differences in across-trait genetic correlations. RESULTS: We observed no consistent sex differences in SNP-based heritability. Between-sex, within-trait genetic correlations were high, although <1 for educational attainment and risk-taking behavior. We identified 4 genes with significant sex-differentiated effects across 3 traits. Several trait pairs shared sex-differentiated effects. The top genes with sex-differentiated effects were enriched for multiple gene sets, including neuron- and synapse-related sets. Most between-trait genetic correlation estimates were not significantly different between sexes, with exceptions (educational attainment and risk-taking behavior). CONCLUSIONS: Sex differences in the common autosomal genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric and behavioral phenotypes are small and polygenic and unlikely to fully account for observed sex-differentiated attributes. Larger sample sizes are needed to identify sex-differentiated effects for most traits. For well-powered studies, we identified genes with sex-differentiated effects that were enriched for neuron-related and other biological functions. This work motivates further investigation of genetic and environmental influences on sex differences.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672297

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe psychiatric condition associated with high mortality and chronicity. The hunt for state, trait, subtyping, and prognostic biomarkers is ongoing and the orexigenic hormone ghrelin and its different forms, acyl ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin, have been proposed to be increased in AN, especially in the restrictive subtype. A systematic literature search was performed using established databases up to 30 November 2020. Forty-nine studies met inclusion criteria for cross-sectional and longitudinal meta-analyses on total ghrelin, acyl ghrelin, and desacyl ghrelin. All forms of ghrelin were increased in the acute stage of anorexia nervosa during fasting compared to healthy controls. Previous notions on differences in ghrelin levels between AN subtypes were not supported by current data. In addition, a significant decrease in total ghrelin was observed pre-treatment to follow-up. However, total ghrelin levels at follow-up were still marginally elevated compared to healthy controls, whereas for acyl ghrelin, no overall effect of treatment was observed. Due to heterogeneity in follow-up designs and only few data on long-term recovered patients, longitudinal results should be interpreted with caution. While the first steps towards a biomarker in acute AN have been completed, the value of ghrelin as a potential indicator of treatment success or recovery status or its use in subtype differentiation are yet to be established.

7.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic regions associated with anorexia nervosa. No genome-wide studies of other eating disorders, such as bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, have been performed, despite their substantial heritability. Exploratively, we aimed to identify traits that are genetically associated with binge-type eating disorders. METHOD: We calculated genome-wide polygenic scores for 269 trait and disease outcomes using PRSice v2.2 and their association with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder in up to 640 cases and 17,050 controls from the UK Biobank. Significant associations were tested for replication in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (up to 217 cases and 3,018 controls). RESULTS: Individuals with binge-type eating disorders had higher polygenic scores than controls for other psychiatric disorders, including depression, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and higher polygenic scores for body mass index. DISCUSSION: Our findings replicate some of the known comorbidities of eating disorders on a genomic level and motivate a deeper investigation of shared and unique genomic factors across the three primary eating disorders.

10.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 186(1): 40-49, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605055

RESUMO

Between April 20, 2020 and June 19, 2020 we conducted a survey of the membership of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) to explore the impact of COVID-19 on their research and academic careers. A total of 123 individuals responded representing academic ranks from trainee to full professor, tenured and fixed-term appointments, and all genders. The survey included both quantitative and free text responses. Results revealed considerable concern about the impact of COVID-19 on research with the greatest concern reported by individuals in nonpermanent positions and female researchers. Concerns about the availability of funding and the impact of the pandemic on career progression were commonly reported by early career researchers. Recommendations for institutions, organizations such as the PGC, as well as individual senior investigators have been provided to ensure that the futures of early career investigators, especially those underrepresented in academic medicine such as women and underrepresented minorities, are not disproportionately disadvantaged by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , /patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 6, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internationally, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) is commonly used to assess the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms. However, psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the PHQ-9 have only been assessed in adolescents. We present normative data for women and an evaluation of the psychometric properties (internal consistency, convergent validity, and factor structure) of the Norwegian PHQ-9 among women with and without eating disorders (ED). METHODS: In this case-control study, a total of 793 females aged 18-78 years (mean 30.39; SD 9.83) completed an online self-report assessment. Measures included the ED100K and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) to assess ED psychopathology, and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) scale and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale Short Form (DERS-SF) to assess symptoms of anxiety and emotion regulation deficits. Participants were categorized into three groups, i.e., previous ED (19.7%, n = 148), current ED (36.3%, n = 272), and no history of ED (44.0%, n = 330), based on self-reported scores on the ED 100 K and the EDE-Q. RESULTS: Mean PHQ-9 total score for those with a previous history of ED was 10.67 (SD 6.33), for those with a current ED 16.61 (SD 5.84), and for those with no lifetime history of ED 6.83 (SD 5.58). Excellent internal consistency was demonstrated by Cronbach's alpha's for individuals with a previous ED (.88), for individuals with a current ED (.86), and for individuals with no history of ED (.88). Acceptable convergent validity was indicated based on significant correlations between the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 and DERS-SF. Confirmatory Factor Analyses revealed a mediocre fit for a one-factor structure of the PHQ-9, regardless of diagnostic status. CONCLUSIONS: The psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the PHQ-9 are acceptable across females with and without ED, and the PHQ-9 can be recommended for use in clinical ED settings and for people without mental disorders.

12.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432183

RESUMO

Eating behaviours may be expressions of genetic risk for obesity and are potential antecedents of later eating disorders. However, childhood eating behaviours are heterogeneous and transient. Here we show associations between polygenic scores for body mass index (BMI-PGS) and anorexia nervosa (AN-PGS) with eating behaviour trajectories during the first 10 years of life using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), n = 7,825. Results indicated that 1 s.d. increase in the BMI-PGS was associated with a 30-37% increased risk for early- and mid-childhood overeating. In contrast, 1 s.d. increase in BMI-PGS was associated with a 20% decrease in risk of persistent high levels of undereating and a 15% decrease in risk of persistent fussy eating. There was no evidence for a significant association between AN-PGS and eating behaviour trajectories. Our results support the notion that child eating behaviours share common genetic variants associated with BMI.

13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483693

RESUMO

Although large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of major depressive disorder (MDD) have identified many significant loci, the SNP-based heritability remains notably low, which might be due to etiological heterogeneity in existing samples. Here, we test the utility of targeting the severe end of the MDD spectrum through genome-wide SNP genotyping of 2725 cases who received electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for a major depressive episode (MDE) and 4035 controls. A subset of cases (n = 1796) met a narrow case definition (MDE occurring in the context of MDD). Standard GWAS quality control procedures and imputation were conducted. SNP heritability and genetic correlations with other traits were estimated using linkage disequilibrium score regression. Results were compared with MDD cases of mild-moderate severity receiving internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) and summary results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). The SNP-based heritability was estimated at 29-34% (SE: 6%) for the narrow case definition, considerably higher than the 6.5-8.0% estimate in the most recent PGC MDD study. Our severe MDE cases had smaller genetic correlations with neurodevelopmental disorders and neuroticism than PGC MDD cases but higher genetic risk scores for bipolar disorder than iCBT MDD cases. One genome-wide significant locus was identified (rs114583506, P = 5e-8) in an intron of HLA-B in the major histocompatibility locus on chr6. These results indicate that individuals receiving ECT for an MDE have higher burden of common variant risk loci than individuals with mild-moderate MDD. Furthermore, severe MDE shows stronger relations with other severe adult-onset psychiatric disorders but weaker relations with personality and stress-related traits than mild-moderate MDD. These findings suggest a different genetic architecture at the severest end of the spectrum, and support further study of the severest MDD cases as an extreme phenotype approach to understand the etiology of MDD.

14.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349947

RESUMO

A complete understanding of the genetic architecture of eating disorders requires adequately large sample sizes from individuals of all ancestries. Failure to include representative samples truncates understanding and may even exacerbate health disparities. Several countries in Asia have made rich contributions in psychiatric genetics; however, the eating disorders field requires concerted global efforts to increase representation from Asian ancestry populations to ensure that our global efforts accurately reflect the true distribution of eating disorders around the world and across ancestries.

15.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We compared eating disorder (ED) characteristics and treatment seeking behaviors between self-identified competitive athletes and non-athletes in a large, community-based sample. METHOD: During the 2018 National Eating Disorders Awareness Week, 23,920 respondents, 14.7% of whom identified as competitive athletes, completed the National Eating Disorders Association online screen. Data were collected on demographics, disordered eating behaviors, probable ED diagnosis/risk, treatment history, and intent to seek treatment. RESULTS: The sample was predominantly White (81.8%), female (90.3%), and between 13 and 24 years (82.6%). Over 86% met criteria for an ED/subthreshold ED, and of those, only 2.5% were in treatment. Suicidal ideation was reported in over half of the sample. Athletes reported a significantly greater likelihood of engaging in and more frequent excessive exercise episodes than non-athletes. Athletes also reported a significantly lower likelihood of engaging in and less frequent binge-eating episodes compared with non-athletes. Athletes were more likely to screen positive for an ED/subthreshold ED than non-athletes, but percentages across all probable ED diagnoses were similar. No significant differences between athletes and non-athletes emerged on treatment history or intention to seek treatment post-screen (less than 30%). DISCUSSION: Although the distribution of probable ED diagnoses was similar in athletes and non-athletes, symptom profiles related to disordered eating behavior engagement and frequency may differ. Athletes may be less likely to seek treatment due to stigma, accessibility, and sport-specific barriers. Future work should directly connect survey respondents to tailored treatment tools and increase motivation to seek treatment.

16.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We describe the prevalence and sociodemographic factors associated with screen-detected disordered eating and related traits in a population-based sample of women in China. We also explored prevalence trends over time. METHOD: A total of 4,218 females aged 12-50 were sampled from 15 provinces as part of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 2015. The SCOFF questionnaire screened for disordered eating and the selected questions from the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire measured dietary restraint, shape concerns, and weight concerns. Body mass index (BMI) was measured and sociodemographic factors captured urban/rural residence, age, ethnicity, income, education, marital status, and occupational status. We calculated the prevalence of screen-detected disordered eating and related traits broadly and across several dimensions and compared prevalence estimates to 2009 and 2011 reports. RESULTS: We detected 296 individuals who screened positive for disordered eating on the SCOFF (prevalence = 7.04%). Positive screens were associated with urban residence (p = .002) and higher education levels (p < .001). Scores on restraint, shape concerns, and weight concerns were all higher for individuals in urban versus village locations (all p's < .001), and with higher BMI (p < .001) for shape and weight concerns. The prevalence of screen-detected disordered eating increased numerically across 2009, 2011, and 2015. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of screen-detected disordered eating in mainland China was comparable to other populations worldwide obtained from a recent meta-analysis. The distribution of disordered eating and related traits varied by several sociodemographic factors, which include age, BMI, urban/rural residence, education, and income, suggesting important directions for case detection and intervention in China.

17.
Trends Neurosci ; 43(12): 951-959, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139082

RESUMO

Eating disorders are life-interrupting psychiatric conditions with high morbidity and mortality, yet the basic mechanisms underlying these conditions are understudied compared with other psychiatric disorders. In this opinion, we suggest that recent knowledge gleaned from genomic and neuroimaging investigations of eating disorders in humans presents a rich opportunity to sharpen animal models of eating disorders and to identify neural mechanisms that contribute to the risk and maintenance of these conditions. Our article reflects the state of the science, with a primary focus on anorexia nervosa (AN) and binge-eating behavior, and encourages further study of all conditions categorized under feeding and eating disorders.

18.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Suicidality in eating disorders (EDs) is high, and identification of therapeutically targetable traits associated with past, current, and future suicidality is of considerable clinical importance. We examined overall and ED subtype-specific associations among suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and general and specific aspects of emotion dysregulation in a large sample of individuals with ED, at presentation for treatment and 1-year follow-up. METHOD: Using registry data from 2,406 patients, scores on the Difficulties in Emotion Dysregulation Scale (DERS) at initial registration were examined as predictors of recent suicidal ideation and self-report lifetime suicide attempts. Associations were examined in the full sample and in each ED subtype. In 406 patients, initial DERS scores were examined as predictors of suicidality at 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: Overall DERS was associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, even when adjusting for ED psychopathology and current depression. Perceived lack of emotion regulation strategies showed unique associations with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, both in the full sample and in most ED subtypes. Initial DERS was also associated with follow-up suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, although this association did not remain when adjusting for past suicidality. DISCUSSION: Results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be a potential mechanism contributing to suicidality in EDs, beyond the effects of ED psychopathology and current depression. Although the prevalence of suicidality differs across ED subtypes, emotion dysregulation may represent a risk trait for future suicidality that applies transdiagnostically. Results support addressing emotion dysregulation in treatment in order to reduce suicidality.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064208

RESUMO

Deficits in social cognition and communication, the processes associated with human social behavior and interaction, have been described in individuals with eating disorder psychopathology. The current study examined whether social communication characteristics present in middle childhood (ages 8-14) were associated with eating disorder behaviors, cognitions, and diagnoses across adolescence (ages 14-18) in a large, population-based sample. Participants (N = 4864) were children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a population-based, prospective study of women and their children. Regression methods tested prospective associations between social functioning using a facial emotion recognition task and parentally reported social communication symptoms (or difficulties), measured by the Social Communication Disorder Checklist (SCDC), with eating disorder symptoms and diagnoses. Misattribution of faces as sad or angry at age 8.5 was associated with purging and anorexia nervosa diagnosis at age 14, respectively, among girls. Furthermore, autistic-like social communication difficulties during middle childhood were associated with bulimia nervosa symptoms during adolescence among both girls and boys. Results did not support global associations between measured social communication deficits and eating disorder risk in this sample, but specific difficulties with facial emotion recognition and social communication may enhance the risk for disordered eating behaviors.

20.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052336

RESUMO

Between April 20, 2020 and June 19, 2020 we conducted a survey of the membership of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) to explore the impact of COVID-19 on their research and academic careers. A total of 123 individuals responded representing academic ranks from trainee to full professor, tenured and fixed-term appointments, and all genders. The survey included both quantitative and free text responses. Results revealed considerable concern about the impact of COVID-19 on research with the greatest concern reported by individuals in non-permanent positions and female researchers. Concerns about the availability of funding and the impact of the pandemic on career progression were commonly reported by early career researchers. We provide recommendations for institutions, organizations such as the PGC, as well as individual senior investigators to ensure that the futures of early career investigators, especially those underrepresented in academic medicine such as women and underrepresented minorities, are not disproportionately disadvantaged by the COVID-19 pandemic.

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