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1.
Hum Genomics ; 16(1): 3, 2022 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35093177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The UK Biobank is a large prospective cohort, based in the UK, that has deep phenotypic and genomic data on roughly a half a million individuals. Included in this resource are data on approximately 78,000 individuals with "non-white British ancestry." While most epidemiology studies have focused predominantly on populations of European ancestry, there is an opportunity to contribute to the study of health and disease for a broader segment of the population by making use of the UK Biobank's "non-white British ancestry" samples. Here, we present an empirical description of the continental ancestry and population structure among the individuals in this UK Biobank subset. RESULTS: Reference populations from the 1000 Genomes Project for Africa, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia were used to estimate ancestry for each individual. Those with at least 80% ancestry in one of these four continental ancestry groups were taken forward (N = 62,484). Principal component and K-means clustering analyses were used to identify and characterize population structure within each ancestry group. Of the approximately 78,000 individuals in the UK Biobank that are of "non-white British" ancestry, 50,685, 6653, 2782, and 2364 individuals were associated to the European, African, South Asian, and East Asian continental ancestry groups, respectively. Each continental ancestry group exhibits prominent population structure that is consistent with self-reported country of birth data and geography. CONCLUSIONS: Methods outlined here provide an avenue to leverage UK Biobank's deeply phenotyped data allowing researchers to maximize its potential in the study of health and disease in individuals of non-white British ancestry.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , /genética , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , /genética
2.
Elife ; 112022 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074047

RESUMO

Background: Some individuals living with obesity may be relatively metabolically healthy, whilst others suffer from multiple conditions that may be linked to adverse metabolic effects or other factors. The extent to which the adverse metabolic component of obesity contributes to disease compared to the non-metabolic components is often uncertain. We aimed to use Mendelian randomisation (MR) and specific genetic variants to separately test the causal roles of higher adiposity with and without its adverse metabolic effects on diseases. Methods: We selected 37 chronic diseases associated with obesity and genetic variants associated with different aspects of excess weight. These genetic variants included those associated with metabolically 'favourable adiposity' (FA) and 'unfavourable adiposity' (UFA) that are both associated with higher adiposity but with opposite effects on metabolic risk. We used these variants and two sample MR to test the effects on the chronic diseases. Results: MR identified two sets of diseases. First, 11 conditions where the metabolic effect of higher adiposity is the likely primary cause of the disease. Here, MR with the FA and UFA genetics showed opposing effects on risk of disease: coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, hypertension, stroke, type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, renal cancer, and gout. Second, 9 conditions where the non-metabolic effects of excess weight (e.g. mechanical effect) are likely a cause. Here, MR with the FA genetics, despite leading to lower metabolic risk, and MR with the UFA genetics, both indicated higher disease risk: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, gallstones, adult-onset asthma, psoriasis, deep vein thrombosis, and venous thromboembolism. Conclusions: Our results assist in understanding the consequences of higher adiposity uncoupled from its adverse metabolic effects, including the risks to individuals with high body mass index who may be relatively metabolically healthy. Funding: Diabetes UK, UK Medical Research Council, World Cancer Research Fund, National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(5): 740-752, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycemic traits-such as hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and type 2 diabetes-have been associated with higher colorectal cancer risk in observational studies; however, causality of these associations is uncertain. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to estimate the causal effects of fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and type 2 diabetes with colorectal cancer. METHODS: Genome-wide association study summary data were used to identify genetic variants associated with circulating levels of fasting insulin (n = 34), 2-hour glucose (n = 13), fasting glucose (n = 70), HbA1c (n = 221), and type 2 diabetes (n = 268). Using 2-sample MR, we examined these variants in relation to colorectal cancer risk (48 214 case patient and 64 159 control patients). RESULTS: In inverse-variance models, higher fasting insulin levels increased colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] per 1-SD = 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15 to 2.36). We found no evidence of any effect of 2-hour glucose (OR per 1-SD = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.21) or fasting glucose (OR per 1-SD = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.23) concentrations on colorectal cancer risk. Genetic liability to type 2 diabetes (OR per 1-unit increase in log odds = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.07) and higher HbA1c levels (OR per 1-SD = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.19) increased colorectal cancer risk, although these findings may have been biased by pleiotropy. Higher HbA1c concentrations increased rectal cancer risk in men (OR per 1-SD = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.40), but not in women. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support a causal effect of higher fasting insulin, but not glucose traits or type 2 diabetes, on increased colorectal cancer risk. This suggests that pharmacological or lifestyle interventions that lower circulating insulin levels may be beneficial in preventing colorectal tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperinsulinismo , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/complicações , Hiperinsulinismo/genética , Insulina , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
4.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003786, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess bodyweight and related metabolic perturbations have been implicated in kidney cancer aetiology, but the specific molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly understood. In this study, we sought to identify circulating metabolites that predispose kidney cancer and to evaluate the extent to which they are influenced by body mass index (BMI). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the association between circulating levels of 1,416 metabolites and incident kidney cancer using pre-diagnostic blood samples from up to 1,305 kidney cancer case-control pairs from 5 prospective cohort studies. Cases were diagnosed on average 8 years after blood collection. We found 25 metabolites robustly associated with kidney cancer risk. In particular, 14 glycerophospholipids (GPLs) were inversely associated with risk, including 8 phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and 2 plasmalogens. The PC with the strongest association was PC ae C34:3 with an odds ratio (OR) for 1 standard deviation (SD) increment of 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68 to 0.83, p = 2.6 × 10-8). In contrast, 4 amino acids, including glutamate (OR for 1 SD = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.60, p = 1.6 × 10-5), were positively associated with risk. Adjusting for BMI partly attenuated the risk association for some-but not all-metabolites, whereas other known risk factors of kidney cancer, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, had minimal impact on the observed associations. A mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis of the influence of BMI on the blood metabolome highlighted that some metabolites associated with kidney cancer risk are influenced by BMI. Specifically, elevated BMI appeared to decrease levels of several GPLs that were also found inversely associated with kidney cancer risk (e.g., -0.17 SD change [ßBMI] in 1-(1-enyl-palmitoyl)-2-linoleoyl-GPC (P-16:0/18:2) levels per SD change in BMI, p = 3.4 × 10-5). BMI was also associated with increased levels of glutamate (ßBMI: 0.12, p = 1.5 × 10-3). While our results were robust across the participating studies, they were limited to study participants of European descent, and it will, therefore, be important to evaluate if our findings can be generalised to populations with different genetic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a potentially important role of the blood metabolome in kidney cancer aetiology by highlighting a wide range of metabolites associated with the risk of developing kidney cancer and the extent to which changes in levels of these metabolites are driven by BMI-the principal modifiable risk factor of kidney cancer.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Renais/sangue , Metaboloma , Obesidade/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Vitória/epidemiologia
5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(12): 2207-2216, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating lipids and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) have been reliably associated with breast cancer. Observational studies suggest an interplay between lipids and IGF-I, however, whether these relationships are causal and if pathways from these phenotypes to breast cancer overlap is unclear. METHODS: Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted to estimate the relationship between lipids or IGF-I and breast cancer risk using genetic summary statistics for lipids (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C; triglycerides, TGs), IGF-I and breast cancer from GLGC/UKBB (N = 239,119), CHARGE/UKBB (N = 252,547), and Breast Cancer Association Consortium (N = 247,173), respectively. Cross-sectional observational and MR analyses were conducted to assess the bi-directional relationship between lipids and IGF-I in SHIP (N = 3,812) and UKBB (N = 422,389), and using genetic summary statistics from GLGC (N = 188,577) and CHARGE/UKBB (N = 469,872). RESULTS: In multivariable MR (MVMR) analyses, the OR for breast cancer per 1-SD increase in HDL-C and TG was 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.13] and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.89-0.98), respectively. The OR for breast cancer per 1-SD increase in IGF-I was 1.09 (95% CI, 1.04-1.15). MR analyses suggested a bi-directional TG-IGF-I relationship (TG-IGF-I ß per 1-SD: -0.13; 95% CI, -0.23 to -0.04; and IGF-I-TG ß per 1-SD: -0.11; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.05). There was little evidence for a causal relationship between HDL-C and LDL-C with IGF-I. In MVMR analyses, associations of TG or IGF-I with breast cancer were robust to adjustment for IGF-I or TG, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a causal role of HDL-C, TG, and IGF-I in breast cancer. Observational and MR analyses support an interplay between IGF-I and TG; however, MVMR estimates suggest that TG and IGF-I may act independently to influence breast cancer. IMPACT: Our findings should be considered in the development of prevention strategies for breast cancer, where interventions are known to modify circulating lipids and IGF-I.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Causalidade , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
6.
Cancer Discov ; 11(12): 3106-3125, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244212

RESUMO

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by large intracellular lipid droplets containing free and esterified cholesterol; however, the functional significance of cholesterol accumulation in ccRCC cells is unknown. We demonstrate that, surprisingly, genes encoding cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes are repressed in ccRCC, suggesting a dependency on exogenous cholesterol. Mendelian randomization analyses based on 31,000 individuals indicate a causal link between elevated circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ccRCC risk. Depriving ccRCC cells of either cholesterol or HDL compromises proliferation and survival in vitro and tumor growth in vivo; in contrast, elevated dietary cholesterol promotes tumor growth. Scavenger Receptor B1 (SCARB1) is uniquely required for cholesterol import, and inhibiting SCARB1 is sufficient to cause ccRCC cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, and decreased PI3K/AKT signaling. Collectively, we reveal a cholesterol dependency in ccRCC and implicate SCARB1 as a novel therapeutic target for treating kidney cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that ccRCC cells are auxotrophic for exogenous cholesterol to maintain PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and ROS homeostasis. Blocking cholesterol import through the HDL transporter SCARB1 compromises ccRCC cell survival and tumor growth, suggesting a novel pharmacologic target for this disease. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 2945.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Colesterol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1209, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619282

RESUMO

Fructose intake has increased substantially throughout the developed world and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Currently, our understanding of the metabolic and mechanistic implications for immune cells, such as monocytes and macrophages, exposed to elevated levels of dietary fructose is limited. Here, we show that fructose reprograms cellular metabolic pathways to favour glutaminolysis and oxidative metabolism, which are required to support increased inflammatory cytokine production in both LPS-treated human monocytes and mouse macrophages. A fructose-dependent increase in mTORC1 activity drives translation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to LPS. LPS-stimulated monocytes treated with fructose rely heavily on oxidative metabolism and have reduced flexibility in response to both glycolytic and mitochondrial inhibition, suggesting glycolysis and oxidative metabolism are inextricably coupled in these cells. The physiological implications of fructose exposure are demonstrated in a model of LPS-induced systemic inflammation, with mice exposed to fructose having increased levels of circulating IL-1ß after LPS challenge. Taken together, our work underpins a pro-inflammatory role for dietary fructose in LPS-stimulated mononuclear phagocytes which occurs at the expense of metabolic flexibility.


Assuntos
Frutose/farmacologia , Glutamina/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Ácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucose/farmacologia , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Marcação por Isótopo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Análise do Fluxo Metabólico , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
8.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 396, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood. METHODS: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models. RESULTS: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Metaboloma/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Relação Cintura-Quadril
10.
Diabetes Care ; 43(7): 1537-1545, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes develops for many years before diagnosis. We aimed to reveal early metabolic features characterizing liability to adult disease by examining genetic liability to adult type 2 diabetes in relation to metabolomic traits across early life. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Up to 4,761 offspring from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were studied. Linear models were used to examine effects of a genetic risk score (162 variants) for adult type 2 diabetes on 229 metabolomic traits (lipoprotein subclass-specific cholesterol and triglycerides, amino acids, glycoprotein acetyls, and others) measured at age 8 years, 16 years, 18 years, and 25 years. Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) was also conducted using genome-wide association study data on metabolomic traits in an independent sample of 24,925 adults. RESULTS: At age 8 years, associations were most evident for type 2 diabetes liability (per SD higher) with lower lipids in HDL subtypes (e.g., -0.03 SD [95% CI -0.06, -0.003] for total lipids in very large HDL). At 16 years, associations were stronger with preglycemic traits, including citrate and with glycoprotein acetyls (0.05 SD; 95% CI 0.01, 0.08), and at 18 years, associations were stronger with branched-chain amino acids. At 25 years, associations had strengthened with VLDL lipids and remained consistent with previously altered traits, including HDL lipids. Two-sample MR estimates among adults indicated persistent patterns of effect of disease liability. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support perturbed HDL lipid metabolism as one of the earliest features of type 2 diabetes liability, alongside higher branched-chain amino acid and inflammatory levels. Several features are apparent in childhood as early as age 8 years, decades before the clinical onset of disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Metaboloma/genética , Adiposidade/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Diagnóstico Precoce , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/genética , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/patologia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
11.
JAMA ; 323(7): 646-655, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068819

RESUMO

Importance: Preclinical and epidemiological studies indicate a potential chemopreventive role of statins in epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Objective: To evaluate the association of genetically proxied inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (ie, genetic variants related to lower function of HMG-CoA reductase, target of statins) with epithelial ovarian cancer among the general population and in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HMGCR, NPC1L1, and PCSK9 associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis (N ≤196 475) were used to proxy therapeutic inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), respectively. Summary statistics were obtained for these SNPs from a GWAS meta-analysis of case-control analyses of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC; N = 63 347) and from a GWAS meta-analysis of retrospective cohort analyses of epithelial ovarian cancer among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA; N = 31 448). Across the 2 consortia, participants were enrolled between 1973 and 2014 and followed up through 2015. OCAC participants came from 14 countries and CIMBA participants came from 25 countries. SNPs were combined into multi-allelic models and mendelian randomization estimates representing lifelong inhibition of targets were generated using inverse-variance weighted random-effects models. Exposures: Primary exposure was genetically proxied inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and secondary exposures were genetically proxied inhibition of NPC1L1 and PCSK9 and genetically proxied circulating LDL cholesterol levels. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall and histotype-specific invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (general population) and epithelial ovarian cancer (BRCA1/2 mutation carriers), measured as ovarian cancer odds (general population) and hazard ratio (BRCA1/2 mutation carriers). Results: The OCAC sample included 22 406 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and 40 941 control individuals and the CIMBA sample included 3887 women with epithelial ovarian cancer and 27 561 control individuals. Median ages for the cohorts ranged from 41.5 to 59.0 years and all participants were of European ancestry. In the primary analysis, genetically proxied HMG-CoA reductase inhibition equivalent to a 1-mmol/L (38.7-mg/dL) reduction in LDL cholesterol was associated with lower odds of epithelial ovarian cancer (odds ratio [OR], 0.60 [95% CI, 0.43-0.83]; P = .002). In BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, genetically proxied HMG-CoA reductase inhibition was associated with lower ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.51-0.93]; P = .01). In secondary analyses, there were no significant associations of genetically proxied inhibition of NPC1L1 (OR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.53-1.75]; P = .91), PCSK9 (OR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.85-1.13]; P = .80), or circulating LDL cholesterol (OR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.91-1.05]; P = .55) with epithelial ovarian cancer. Conclusions and Relevance: Genetically proxied inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase was significantly associated with lower odds of epithelial ovarian cancer. However, these findings do not indicate risk reduction from medications that inhibit HMG-CoA reductase; further research is needed to understand whether there is a similar association with such medications.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/prevenção & controle , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/genética , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco
13.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 28(6): 569-575, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921005

RESUMO

Whether prostate cancer (PCa) may be preventable by dietary interventions can be assessed in randomized trials using intermediate biomarkers of cancer risk or progression. We investigated whether lycopene or green tea modify circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF) peptides in men at increased risk of PCa. Participants (aged 50-69 years) in one centre in the UK wide PCa testing and treatment trial (ProtecT) with prostate specific antigen between 2.0 and 2.95 ng/ml or negative biopsies, were randomized to daily lycopene (n = 44 assigned 15 mg capsules/day; 44 assigned a lycopene-rich diet; 45 assigned placebo) and green tea (n = 45 assigned 600 mg/day epigallocatechin gallate; 45 assigned green tea drink; 43 assigned placebo) for 6 months. The interventions significantly elevated the primary outcomes, serum epigallocatechin gallate and lycopene at 6 months of follow-up. We report here an exploratory analysis in which serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein (BP)-2 and IGFBP-3 were measured at baseline and 6 months of postintervention. A total of 133 men were randomized (34% of eligible men approached) and 130 had follow-up IGF peptides (98%). In intention-to-treat analyses, there was only weak evidence that lycopene or green tea influenced some aspects of serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2 or IGFBP-3. In men randomized to lycopene supplements, IGFBP-2 was nonsignificantly (50.9 ng/ml; 95% confidence interval: -51.2-152.9, P = 0.3) higher in comparison to placebo, whereas in men randomized to green tea supplements, IGFBP-3 was nonsignificantly (205.2 ng/ml; 95% confidence interval: -583.3-172.9, P = 0.3) lower than with placebo. In this small, pilot randomized controlled trial, there was little evidence that lycopene or green tea interventions influenced serum levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBBP-3 and IGFBP-2. However, the effects were imprecisely estimates and some observed trends may justify larger trials.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Licopeno/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/dietoterapia , Chá/química , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Licopeno/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(9): 995-1010, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941659

RESUMO

Observational epidemiologic studies are prone to confounding, measurement error, and reverse causation, undermining robust causal inference. Mendelian randomization (MR) uses genetic variants to proxy modifiable exposures to generate more reliable estimates of the causal effects of these exposures on diseases and their outcomes. MR has seen widespread adoption within cardio-metabolic epidemiology, but also holds much promise for identifying possible interventions for cancer prevention and treatment. However, some methodologic challenges in the implementation of MR are particularly pertinent when applying this method to cancer etiology and prognosis, including reverse causation arising from disease latency and selection bias in studies of cancer progression. These issues must be carefully considered to ensure appropriate design, analysis, and interpretation of such studies. In this review, we provide an overview of the key principles and assumptions of MR, focusing on applications of this method to the study of cancer etiology and prognosis. We summarize recent studies in the cancer literature that have adopted a MR framework to highlight strengths of this approach compared with conventional epidemiological studies. Finally, limitations of MR and recent methodologic developments to address them are discussed, along with the translational opportunities they present to inform public health and clinical interventions in cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(9); 995-1010. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Causalidade , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Prognóstico
16.
Public Health Nutr ; 19(18): 3369-3377, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27339189

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prospective associations between dietary patterns in childhood and CVD risk in adolescence. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Exposures were dietary patterns at age 7, 10 and 13 years derived by cluster analysis. Outcomes were physiological and biochemical cardiovascular risk markers. SETTING: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), UK. SUBJECTS: Children (n 2311, 44.1 % male) with complete data available. RESULTS: After adjustment for known confounders, we observed an association between being in the 'Processed' and 'Packed lunch' dietary pattern clusters at age 7 and BMI at age 17. Compared with the 'healthy' cluster, the OR (95 % CI) for being in the top 10 % for BMI was 1·60 (1·01, 2·55; P=0·05) for the 'Processed' cluster and 1·96 (1·22, 3·13; P=0·005) for the 'Packed lunch' cluster. However, no association was observed between BMI and dietary patterns at age 10 and 13. Longitudinal analyses showed that being in either the 'Processed' or 'Packed lunch' cluster at age 7 was associated with increased risk of being in the top 10 % for BMI regardless of subsequent cluster membership. No associations between other cardiovascular risk measures and dietary patterns were robust to adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find any consistent evidence to support an association between dietary patterns in childhood and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence, with the exception of BMI and dietary pattern at age 7 only. However, the importance of dietary intake in childhood upon health later in life requires further investigation and we would encourage the adoption of a healthy diet as early in life as possible.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido
17.
Cancer Med ; 5(6): 1125-36, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26992435

RESUMO

Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL consortium were analyzed. Allele scores based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously reported to be uniquely associated with each of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) levels, were first validated in an independent dataset, and then entered into logistic regression models to estimate the presence (and direction) of any causal effect of each lipid trait on prostate cancer risk. There was weak evidence for an association between the LDL genetic score and cancer grade: the odds ratio (OR) per genetically instrumented standard deviation (SD) in LDL, comparing high- (≥7 Gleason score) versus low-grade (<7 Gleason score) cancers was 1.50 (95% CI: 0.92, 2.46; P = 0.11). A genetically instrumented SD increase in TGs was weakly associated with stage: the OR for advanced versus localized cancer per unit increase in genetic risk score was 1.68 (95% CI: 0.95, 3.00; P = 0.08). The rs12916-T variant in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) was inversely associated with prostate cancer (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.00; P = 0.03). In conclusion, circulating lipids, instrumented by our genetic risk scores, did not appear to alter prostate cancer risk. We found weak evidence that higher LDL and TG levels increase aggressive prostate cancer risk, and that a variant in HMGCR (that mimics the LDL lowering effect of statin drugs) reduces risk. However, inferences are limited by sample size and evidence of pleiotropy.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigilância da População , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
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