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Reprod Health ; 17(1): 127, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819394


DESIGN: This a cluster-randomized parallel arm pragmatic trial to observe the association of home-based postpartum contraceptive provision, including the contraceptive implant, with implant utilization rates at 3 months post-enrollment. METHODS: In a region of rural Guatemala referred to as the Southwest Trifinio, twelve communities are served by a community-based antenatal and postnatal care program. The communities were combined into eight clusters based on 2017 birth rates and randomized to receive the home-based contraceptive delivery (condoms, pills, injection, implant) during the routine 40-day postpartum visit. All participants receive comprehensive contraceptive counseling beginning at the first antenatal visit, so control clusters received this as part of routine care; this education preceded the study intervention. RESULTS: Once the 12 communities were combined into 8 clusters by expected birth volume and nurse team, which we expected to translate to eventual postpartum visits, the allocation sequence was generated in SAS. Of 208 women enrolled in the study, 108 were in four intervention and 100 in four control clusters. We used descriptive statistics to produce counts and percentages of characteristics of the study population overall and by intervention arm followed by univariate modeling using a mixed effects regression adjusted for cluster. Three-month contraceptive initiation rates were 56.0% in the control clusters compared to 76.8% in the intervention clusters, p < 0.001. Women in control clusters overwhelmingly opted for the injectable contraceptive (94.6%) while women in intervention clusters chose both the injection (61.5%) and the implant (33.7%), p < 0.001. Implant use by 3 months, the primary outcome of the study, was significantly higher in the intervention arm (25.9%) compared to the control arm (3.6%), p < 0.001, RR 1.3 CI [1.2, 1.4]. CONCLUSION: Our study was designed to respond to previously identified barriers to contraceptive uptake, and it was successful. Not only did it increase overall use of contraception by 3 months, but it shifted that contraceptive use away from short-acting methods in favor of longer-acting methods, with high continuation and satisfaction rates and no adverse outcomes reported. TRIAL REGISTRATION: , NCT04005391 ; Retrospectively Registered 7/2/2019.

Int Health ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867673


BACKGROUND: Few cluster-randomized trials have been performed in rural Guatemala. Our objective was to describe the feasibility, recruitment and retention in our cluster-randomized trial. METHODS: In our cluster-randomized trial, a range of contraceptives were brought to mothers' homes in rural Guatemala. RESULTS: Of 173 women approached, 33 were excluded. Of the 140 eligible women, 127 (91%) consented to participate. Of the 87 women who should have been assessed for the primary outcome, three were lost to follow-up, which represents a retention rate of 97%. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses who are both clinical providers and study staff can feasibly conduct research, which leads to high enrollment and retention rates.

Trials ; 20(1): 639, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752969


BACKGROUND: Postpartum contraception is important to prevent unintended and closely spaced pregnancies following childbirth. METHODS: This study is a cluster-randomized trial of communities in rural Guatemala where women receive ante- and postnatal care through a community-based nursing program. When nurses visit women for their postpartum visit in the intervention clusters, instead of providing only routine care that includes postpartum contraceptive education and counseling, the nurses will also bring a range of barrier, short-acting, and long-acting contraceptives that will be offered and administered in the home setting, after routine clinical care is provided. DISCUSSION: A barrier to postpartum contraception is access to medications and devices. Our study removes some access barriers (distance, time, cost) by providing contraception in the home. We also trained community nurses to place implants, which are a type of long-acting reversible contraceptive method that was previously only available in the closest town which is about an hour away by vehicular travel. Therefore, our study examines how home-based delivery of routinely available contraceptives and the less routinely available implant may be associated with increased uptake of postpartum contraception within 3 months of childbirth. The potential implications of this study include that nurses may be able to be trained to safely provide contraceptives, including placing implants, in the home setting, and provision of home-based contraception may be an effective way of delivering an evidence-based intervention for preventing unintended and closely spaced pregnancies in the postpartum period. TRIAL REGISTRATION:, NCT04005391. Retrospectively registered on 1 July 2019.

Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Anticoncepção , Assistência à Saúde , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Guatemala , Enfermagem Domiciliar , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Saúde Reprodutiva , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto Jovem
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(2): 438-444, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594262


The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in Latin America presented a unique opportunity to develop a neurodevelopmental assessment protocol for children in a lower middle-income country. Although studies of neurodevelopment in young children have taken place in many diverse global settings, we are not aware of any study that has provided a high level of detail about how a measure was selected and then specifically translated and adapted in a low-resource setting. Here, we describe considerations in measurement selection and then the process of translation and adaptation to assess neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants and young children with postnatal exposure to ZIKV in rural Guatemala. We provide a framework to other research teams seeking to develop similar assessment models across the globe.

Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/fisiopatologia , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , População Rural , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Zika virus/fisiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/psicologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
Matern Child Health J ; 23(4): 435-442, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542986


Purpose To evaluate trends and factors associated with mode of delivery in the rural Southwest Trifinio region of Guatemala. Description We conducted a retrospective analysis of self-reported antepartum factors and postpartum outcomes recorded in a quality improvement database among 430 women enrolled in a home-based maternal healthcare program between June 1, 2015 and August 1, 2017. Assessment Over the study period, the rates of cesarean delivery (CD) increased (from 30 to 45%) and rates of vaginal delivery (VD) decreased (70-55%) while facility-based delivery attendance remained stable around 70%. Younger age (23.5 years for VD vs. 21.6 years for CD, p < 0.001), nulliparity (25.1% for VD vs. 45.0% for CD, p < 0.001), prolonged/obstructed labor (2.4% for VD vs. 55.6% for CD, p < 0.001), and fetal malpresentation (0% for VD vs. 16.3% CD, p < 0.001) significantly influenced mode of delivery in univariate analysis. The leading indications for CD were labor dysfunction (47.5%), malpresentation (14.5%), and prior cesarean delivery (19.8%). The CD rate among the subpopulation of term, nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies in vertex presentation also increased from 20% of all CD in 2015, to 38% in 2017. Conclusion Among low-income women from rural Guatemala, the CD rate has increased above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations in a period of 3 years. Additional research on the factors affecting this trend are essential to guide interventions that might improve the appropriateness of CD, and to determine if reducing or stabilizing rates is necessary.

Parto Obstétrico/tendências , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Cesárea/métodos , Cesárea/tendências , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Comportamento de Escolha , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Gravidez , Melhoria de Qualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural/tendências
Front Public Health ; 5: 60, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405582


Telehealth education has the potential to serve as an important, low-cost method of expanding healthcare worker education and support, especially in rural settings of low- and middle-income countries. We describe an innovative educational strategy to strengthen a long-term health professional capacity building partnership between Guatemalan and US-based partners. In this pilot evaluation, community health nurses in rural Guatemala received customized, interactive education via telehealth from faculty at the supporting US-based institution. Program evaluation of this 10 lecture series demonstrated high levels of satisfaction among learners and instructors as well as knowledge gain by learners. An average of 5.5 learners and 2 instructors attended the 10 lectures and completed surveys using a Likert scale to rate statements regarding lecture content, technology, and personal connection. Positive statements about lecture content and the applicability to daily work had 98% or greater agreement as did statements regarding ease of technology and convenience. The learners agreed with feeling connected to the instructors 100% of the time, while instructors had 86.4% agreement with connection related statements. Instructors, joining at their respective work locations, rated convenience statements at 100% agreement. This evaluation also demonstrated effectiveness with an average 10.7% increase in pre- to posttest knowledge scores by learners. As the global health community considers efficiency in time, money, and our environment, telehealth education is a critical method to consider and develop for health worker education. Our pilot program evaluation shows that telehealth may be an effective method of delivering education to frontline health workers in rural Guatemala. While larger studies are needed to quantify the duration and benefits of specific knowledge gains and to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the program, our initial pilot results are encouraging and show that a telehealth program between a US-based university and a rural community health program in a low- and middle-income country is both feasible and acceptable.