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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is associated with symptomatic hemorrhagic cystitis after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Little is known about the host immune response, effectiveness of antiviral treatment, or impact of asymptomatic replication on long-term kidney function. METHODS: In children and young adults undergoing allogeneic HCT, we quantified BKPyV viruria and viremia (pre-HCT and at months 1-4, 8, 12, and 24 post-HCT) and tested associations of peak viremia ≥10 000 or viruria ≥109 copies/mL with estimated kidney function (eGFR) and overall survival for two years post-transplant. We examined factors associated with viral clearance by month 4 including BKPyV-specific T cells by enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot (ELISPOT) at month 3 and cidofovir use. RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled 193 participants (median age 10 years). 18% had viremia ≥10 000 copies/mL, and 45% had viruria ≥109 copies/mL in the first three months post-HCT. Among the 147 participants without cystitis (asymptomatic), 58 (40%) had any viremia. In the entire cohort and asymptomatic subset, viremia ≥10 000 copies/mL was associated with a lower creatinine/cystatin C eGFR two years post-HCT. Viremia ≥10 000 copies/mL was associated with a higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.2). Clearing viremia was associated with detectable BKPyV-specific T cells and viremia <10 000 copies/mL, but not cidofovir exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Screening for BKPyV viremia after HCT identifies asymptomatic patients at risk for kidney disease and reduced survival. These data suggest potential changes to clinical practice, including prospective monitoring for BKPyV viremia to test virus-specific T cells to prevent or treat BKPyV replication.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765697

RESUMO

Most children who may benefit from stem cell transplantation lack a matched related donor. Alternative donor transplantations with an unrelated donor (URD) or a partially matched related donor (PMRD) carry an increased risk of graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) and mortality compared with matched related donor transplantations. We hypothesized that a strategy of partial CD3+/CD19+ depletion for URD or PMRD peripheral stem cell transplantation (PSCT) would attenuate the risks of GVHD and mortality. We enrolled 84 pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin between April 2005 and February 2015. Two patients (2.4%) experienced primary graft failure. Relapse occurred in 23 patients (27.4%; cumulative incidence 26.3%), and 17 patients (20.2%) experienced nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Grade III-IV acute GVHD was observed in 18 patients (21.4%), and chronic GVHD was observed and graded as limited in 24 patients (35.3%) and extensive in 8 (11.7%). Three-year overall survival (OS) was 61.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.2% to 71.4%) and event-free survival (EFS) was 52.0% (95% CI, 40.3% to 62.4%). Age ≥15 years was associated with decreased OS (P= .05) and EFS (P= .05). Relapse was more common in children in second complete remission (P = .03). Partially CD3+-depleted alternative donor PSCT NRM, OS, and EFS compare favorably with previously published studies of T cell-replete PSCT. Historically, T cell-replete PSCT has been associated with a higher incidence of extensive chronic GVHD compared with limited chronic GVHD, which may explain the comparatively low relapse and NRM rates in our study cohort despite similar overall rates of chronic GVHD. Partial T cell depletion may expand donor options for children with malignant transplantation indications lacking a matched related donor by mitigating, but not eliminating, chronic GVHD.

3.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 170, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139601

RESUMO

We report outcomes after hematopoietic stem cell transplant for three patients with X-MAID, including 1 patient from the originally described cohort and two brothers with positive TREC newborn screening for SCID who were found to have a T-B-NK+ SCID phenotype attributable to X-linked moesin associated immunodeficiency (X-MAID). A c.511C>T variant in moesin was identified via exome sequencing in the older of these siblings in the setting of low lymphocyte counts and poor proliferative responses consistent with SCID. He received reduced intensity conditioning due to CMV, and was transplanted with a T-depleted haploidentical (maternal) donor. His post-transplant course was complicated by hemolytic anemia, neutropenia, and sepsis. He had poor engraftment, requiring a 2nd transplant. His younger brother presented with the same clinical phenotype and was treated with umbilical cord blood transplant following myeloablative conditioning, has engrafted and is doing well. The third case also presented with severe lymphopenia in infancy, received a matched related bone marrow transplant following myeloablative conditioning, has engrafted and is doing well. These cases represent a novel manifestation of non-radiosensitive X-linked form of T-B-NK+ SCID that is able to be detected by TREC based newborn screening and effectively treated with HCT.

4.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(5): 955-964, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605731

RESUMO

Although donation of bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) from children to family members undergoing allogeneic transplantation are well-established procedures, studies detailing levels of pain, symptoms, and long-term recovery are lacking. To address this lack, we prospectively enrolled 294 donors age <18 years at 25 pediatric transplantation centers in North America, assessing them predonation, peridonation, and at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year postdonation. We noted that 71% of children reported pain and 59% reported other symptoms peridonation, with resolution to 14% and 12% at 1 month postdonation. Both older age (age 13 to 17 years versus younger) and female sex were associated with higher levels of pain peridonation, with the highest rates in older females (57% with grade 2-4 pain and 17% with grade 3-4 pain). Multivariate analyses showed a 4-fold increase in risk for older females compared with males age <13 years (P <.001). At 1 year, 11% of 13- to 17-year-old females reported grade 2-4 pain, compared with 3% of males age 13 to 17 years, 0% of females age <13 years, and 1% of males age <13 years (P = .01). Males and females age 13 to 17 years failed to return to predonation pain levels at 1 year 22% and 23% of the time, respectively, compared with 3% and 10% in males and females age <13 years (P = .002). Our data show that females age 13 to 17 years are at increased risk of grade 2-4 pain at 1 year and >20% of females and males age 13 to 17 years do not return to baseline pain levels by 1 year after BM donation. Studies aimed at decreasing symptoms and improving recovery in older children are warranted.

5.
Blood ; 133(7): 754-762, 2019 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545834

RESUMO

Despite improvements, mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for nonmalignant diseases remains a significant problem. We evaluated whether pre-HCT conditions defined by the HCT Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) predict probability of posttransplant survival. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database, we identified 4083 patients with nonmalignant diseases transplanted between 2007 and 2014. Primary outcome was overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by multivariable Cox regression models. Increasing HCT-CI scores translated to decreased 2-year OS of 82.7%, 80.3%, 74%, and 55.8% for patients with HCT-CI scores of 0, 1 to 2, 3 to 4, and ≥5, respectively, regardless of conditioning intensity. HCT-CI scores of 1 to 2 did not differ relative to scores of 0 (HR, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.93-1.34]), but HCT-CI of 3 to 4 and ≥5 posed significantly greater risks of mortality (HR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.09-1.63]; and HR, 2.31 [95% CI, 1.79-2.96], respectively). The effect of HCT-CI differed by disease indication. Patients with acquired aplastic anemia, primary immune deficiencies, and congenital bone marrow failure syndromes with scores ≥3 had increased risk of death after HCT. However, higher HCT-CI scores among hemoglobinopathy patients did not increase mortality risk. In conclusion, this is the largest study to date reporting on patients with nonmalignant diseases demonstrating HCT-CI scores ≥3 that had inferior survival after HCT, except for patients with hemoglobinopathies. Our findings suggest that using the HCT-CI score, in addition to disease-specific factors, could be useful when developing treatment plans for nonmalignant diseases.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/mortalidade , Doenças Autoimunes/mortalidade , Doenças da Medula Óssea/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/mortalidade , Doenças Metabólicas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Aplástica/patologia , Anemia Aplástica/terapia , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Doenças da Medula Óssea/patologia , Doenças da Medula Óssea/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/patologia , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(3): 549-555, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312755

RESUMO

Unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is increasingly being used to cure nonmalignant hematologic diseases (NMHD) in patients who lack HLA matched related donors. Both graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remain major barriers to safe and effective transplant for these patients requiring unrelated donors. Partial T cell depletion combined with peripheral stem cell transplantation (pTCD-PSCT) has the potential advantages of providing a high stem cell dose to facilitate rapid engraftment, maintaining cells that may facilitate engraftment, and decreasing GVHD risk compared with T cell-replete HSCT. Here, we report a single-institution, retrospective experience of unrelated donor pTCD-PSCT for pediatric patients with NMHD. From 2014 to 2017, 12 pediatric patients with transfusion-dependent NMHD underwent matched unrelated donor (MUD) or mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) pTCD HSCT in our center using disease-specific conditioning. Donor PSCs underwent CD3+ T cell and CD19+ B cell depletion using CliniMACS, followed by a targeted addback of 1 × 105 CD3+ T cells/kg to the graft before infusion. All 12 patients demonstrated rapid trilinear engraftment. At a median follow-up of 740days (range, 279 to 1466), all patients were alive with over 92% total peripheral blood donor chimerism and without transfusion dependence or recurrence of their underlying hematologic disease. Immune reconstitution was rapid and comparable with T cell-replete HSCT. No patients developed severe acute GVHD (grades III to IV) or chronic extensive GVHD, and all patients had discontinued systemic immune suppression. Viral reactivations were common, but no patient developed symptoms of life-threatening infectious disease. Our data indicate that MUD and MMUD pTCD-PSCTs are safe and effective approaches that enable rapid engraftment and immune reconstitution, prevent severe GVHD, and expand availability of HSCT to any patients with NMHD who have closely MUDs.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD19 , Complexo CD3 , Doenças Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Histocompatibilidade , Depleção Linfocítica/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Transfusão de Linfócitos/métodos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Doadores não Relacionados
8.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(4): 699-711, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423480

RESUMO

The development of reduced-intensity approaches for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation has resulted in growing numbers of older related donors (RDs) of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs). The effects of age on donation efficacy, toxicity, and long-term recovery in RDs are poorly understood. To address this we analyzed hematologic variables, pain, donation-related symptoms, and recovery in 1211 PBSC RDs aged 18 to 79 enrolled in the Related Donor Safety Study. RDs aged > 60 had a lower median CD34+ level before apheresis compared with younger RDs (age > 60, 59 × 106/L; age 41 to 60, 81 × 106/L; age 18 to 40, 121 × 106/L; P < .001). This resulted in older donors undergoing more apheresis procedures (49% versus 30% ≥ 2 collections, P < .001) and higher collection volumes (52% versus 32% > 24 L, P < .001), leading to high percentages of donors aged > 60 with postcollection thrombocytopenia <50 × 109/L (26% and 57% after 2 and 3days of collection, respectively). RDs aged 18 to 40 had a higher risk of grades 2 to 4 pain and symptoms pericollection, but donors over age 40 had more persistent pain at 1, 6, and 12 months (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; P = 0.02) and a higher rate of nonrecovery to predonation levels (OR, 1.7; P = .01). Donors reporting comorbidities increased significantly with age, and those with comorbidities that would have led to deferral by National Marrow Donor Program unrelated donor standards had an increased risk for persistent grades 2 to 4 pain (OR, 2.41; P < .001) and failure to recover to predonation baseline for other symptoms (OR, 2.34; P = .004). This information should be used in counseling RDs regarding risk and can assist in developing practice approaches aimed at improving the RD experience for high-risk individuals.

9.
Br J Haematol ; 181(6): 816-827, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767845

RESUMO

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a potentially life-threatening complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) conditioning and chemotherapy. Defibrotide is approved for treatment of hepatic VOD/SOS with pulmonary or renal dysfunction [i.e., multi-organ dysfunction (MOD)] after HSCT in the United States and severe VOD/SOS after HSCT in patients aged older than 1 month in the European Union. Defibrotide was available as an investigational drug by an expanded-access treatment programme (T-IND; NCT00628498). In the completed T-IND, the Kaplan-Meier estimated Day +100 survival for 1000 patients with documented defibrotide treatment after HSCT was 58·9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 55·7-61·9%]. Day +100 survival was also analysed by age and MOD status, and post hoc analyses were performed to determine Day +100 survival by transplant type, timing of VOD/SOS onset (≤21 or >21 days) and timing of defibrotide treatment initiation after VOD/SOS diagnosis. Day +100 survival in paediatric patients was 67·9% (95% CI, 63·8-71·6%) and 47·1% (95% CI, 42·3-51·8%) in adults. All patient subgroups without MOD had higher Day +100 survival than those with MOD; earlier defibrotide initiation was also associated with higher Day +100 survival. The safety profile of defibrotide in the completed T-IND study was similar to previous reports.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Polidesoxirribonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/etiologia , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/dietoterapia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 53(5): 535-555, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343837

RESUMO

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a potentially curative treatment for children and adults with malignant and non-malignant diseases. Despite increasing survival rates, long-term morbidity following HCT is substantial. Neurocognitive dysfunction is a serious cause of morbidity, yet little is known about neurocognitive dysfunction following HCT. To address this gap, collaborative efforts of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation undertook an expert review of neurocognitive dysfunction following HCT. In this review, we define what constitutes neurocognitive dysfunction, characterize its risk factors and sequelae, describe tools and methods to assess neurocognitive function in HCT recipients, and discuss possible interventions for HCT patients with this condition. This review aims to help clinicians understand the scope of this health-related problem, highlight its impact on well-being of survivors, and to help determine factors that may improve identification of patients at risk for declines in cognitive functioning after HCT. In particular, we review strategies for preventing and treating neurocognitive dysfunction in HCT patients. Lastly, we highlight the need for well-designed studies to develop and test interventions aimed at preventing and improving neurocognitive dysfunction and its sequelae following HCT.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Humanos , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Transplantados
12.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(2)2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29080380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a pro-inflammatory state, yet data on nutritional risk factors and development of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) are extremely limited. PROCEDURE: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of pediatric patients up to age 21 years who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from January 2011 to September 2014 to determine whether malnutrition was associated with development of aGVHD and early mortality. We identified body mass index (BMI) percentile and serum albumin levels as potential markers of malnutrition and defined two composite nutritional risk variables as any of the following: albumin < 2.8 g/dl, weight loss ≥10% from baseline, and low BMI [<25th (NUT25) or <5th percentile (NUT5)]. Nutritional markers and GVHD grade were assessed at baseline, 30, 60, and 90 days post-HSCT, and patients were censored upon development of GVHD. RESULTS: BMI <25th or <5th percentile, NUT25, and NUT5 at the beginning of any 30-day period predicted a three- to fourfold risk of developing of severe (grade III-IV) aGVHD in the subsequent 30 days in models adjusted for age, sex, donor source, and degree of human leukocyte antigen matching. Mortality at day 100 was low, but NUT25 risk at baseline conferred an increased risk of death (7.9% vs. 1%, P = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition is a targetable risk factor in pediatric HSCT; prospective trials are needed to investigate this relationship further and identify effective nutritional interventions.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(2): 228-241, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28939455

RESUMO

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a potentially curative treatment for children and adults with malignant and nonmalignant diseases. Despite increasing survival rates, long-term morbidity after HCT is substantial. Neurocognitive dysfunction is a serious cause of morbidity, yet little is known about neurocognitive dysfunction after HCT. To address this gap, collaborative efforts of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation undertook an expert review of neurocognitive dysfunction after HCT. In this review we define what constitutes neurocognitive dysfunction, characterize its risk factors and sequelae, describe tools and methods to assess neurocognitive function in HCT recipients, and discuss possible interventions for HCT patients with this condition. This review aims to help clinicians understand the scope of this health-related problem, highlight its impact on well-being of survivors, and help determine factors that may improve identification of patients at risk for declines in cognitive functioning after HCT. In particular, we review strategies for preventing and treating neurocognitive dysfunction in HCT patients. Finally, we highlight the need for well-designed studies to develop and test interventions aimed at preventing and improving neurocognitive dysfunction and its sequelae after HCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/etiologia , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/terapia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(2): 704-717.e5, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28601685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) cause susceptibility to a range of infections, autoimmunity, immune dysregulation, and combined immunodeficiency. Disease manifestations can be mild or severe and life-threatening. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used in some patients with more severe symptoms to treat and cure the disorder. However, the outcome of HSCT for this disorder is not well established. OBJECTIVE: We sought to aggregate the worldwide experience of HSCT in patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations and to assess outcomes, including donor engraftment, overall survival, graft-versus-host disease, and transplant-related complications. METHODS: Data were collected from an international cohort of 15 patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations who had undergone HSCT using a variety of conditioning regimens and donor sources. Retrospective data collection allowed the outcome of transplantation to be assessed. In vitro functional testing was performed to confirm that each of the identified STAT1 variants was in fact a GOF mutation. RESULTS: Primary donor engraftment in this cohort of 15 patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations was 74%, and overall survival was only 40%. Secondary graft failure was common (50%), and posttransplantation event-free survival was poor (10% by 100 days). A subset of patients had hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis before transplant, contributing to their poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that HSCT for patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations is curative but has significant risk of secondary graft failure and death.


Assuntos
Mutação com Ganho de Função , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/genética , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Aloenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/imunologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(1)2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis prevents severe manifestations without excess immunosuppression. Standard prophylaxis includes a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) with low-dose methotrexate. However, single-agent CNI may be sufficient prophylaxis for a defined group of patients. Single-agent CNI has been used for GVHD prophylaxis for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor (MSD) bone marrow transplants (BMTs) in young patients at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia for over 20 years. Here, we describe outcomes using this prophylactic strategy in a recent cohort. PROCEDURE: We performed a single-institution chart review and retrospective analysis of consecutive children undergoing MSD BMT who received single-agent CNI for GVHD prophylaxis between January 2002 and December 2014. RESULTS: Fifty-two children with a median age of 6.1 years (interquartile range [IQR] 2.5-8.3) and donor age of 6 years (IQR 3-10), with malignant and nonmalignant diseases (n = 35 and 17, respectively) were evaluated. Forty-three (82.6%) received oral prophylaxis with single-agent tacrolimus after initial intravenous therapy. Rates of GVHD were consistent with reported rates on dual prophylaxis: the overall incidence of grades 2-4 acute GVHD was 25.5%, grades 3-4 GVHD 9.8%, and chronic GVHD 10.4%. The cumulative incidence of relapse among children with malignancy was 20% at a median of 237 days (IQR 194-318) post-transplant. Two-year overall survival was 82.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69.4-90.6%) and event-free survival was 78.9% (95% CI: 65.1-87.7%). No patient experienced graft failure. CONCLUSIONS: Single-agent CNI is a safe, effective approach to GVHD prophylaxis in young patients undergoing HLA-identical sibling BMT. Additionally, single-agent oral tacrolimus is a reasonable alternative to cyclosporine in this population.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Inibidores de Calcineurina/administração & dosagem , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/terapia , Irmãos , Doadores de Tecidos , Adolescente , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1282-1292, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIGM) is a primary immunodeficiency with high morbidity and mortality compared with those seen in healthy subjects. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been considered a curative therapy, but the procedure has inherent complications and might not be available for all patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to collect data on the clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of a large sample of patients with XHIGM to (1) compare long-term overall survival and general well-being of patients treated with or without HCT along with clinical factors associated with mortality and (2) summarize clinical practice and risk factors in the subgroup of patients treated with HCT. METHODS: Physicians caring for patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases were identified through the Jeffrey Modell Foundation, United States Immunodeficiency Network, Latin American Society for Immunodeficiency, and Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium. Data were collected with a Research Electronic Data Capture Web application. Survival from time of diagnosis or transplantation was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method compared with log-rank tests and modeled by using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Twenty-eight clinical sites provided data on 189 patients given a diagnosis of XHIGM between 1964 and 2013; 176 had valid follow-up and vital status information. Sixty-seven (38%) patients received HCT. The average follow-up time was 8.5 ± 7.2 years (range, 0.1-36.2 years). No difference in overall survival was observed between patients treated with or without HCT (P = .671). However, risk associated with HCT decreased for diagnosis years 1987-1995; the hazard ratio was significantly less than 1 for diagnosis years 1995-1999. Liver disease was a significant predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio, 4.9; 95% confidence limits, 2.2-10.8; P < .001). Among survivors, those treated with HCT had higher median Karnofsky/Lansky scores than those treated without HCT (P < .001). Among patients receiving HCT, 27 (40%) had graft-versus-host disease, and most deaths occurred within 1 year of transplantation. CONCLUSION: No difference in survival was observed between patients treated with or without HCT across all diagnosis years (1964-2013). However, survivors treated with HCT experienced somewhat greater well-being, and hazards associated with HCT decreased, reaching levels of significantly less risk in the late 1990s. Among patients treated with HCT, treatment at an early age is associated with improved survival. Optimism remains guarded as additional evidence accumulates.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Transplantation ; 100(10): e81-7, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26895217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), polyoma-BK virus is associated with hemorrhagic cystitis and also with polyomavirus nephropathy (PVN). However, the true burden of post-HCT PVN is unknown because kidney biopsies are avoided due to their bleeding risk. The novel, noninvasive urinary PV-Haufen test detects PVN in kidney transplant recipients with greater than 95% positive/negative predictive values. We hypothesized that the detection of PV-Haufen in voided urine samples-a positive PV-Haufen test-was also clinically significant after HCT. METHODS: We examined 21 suitable urine samples from 14 patients (median age, 15 years; 71.4% male) who were selected from repositories for having varying degrees of BK viremia (range, 0-1.0 × 10 copies/mL), hemorrhagic cystitis (present/absent), and data on kidney function. Urine samples were obtained at a median of 88 days post-HCT. RESULTS: The PV-Haufen were detected in 5 of 14 patients (35.7%) and 7 of 21 (33.3%) urine samples, with histologic confirmation of PVN in 1 autopsy specimen. After a median of 285 days post-HCT, patients with PV-Haufen had an increased risk of dialysis-dependent renal failure (P < 0.05). All 3 dialysis-dependent patients had PV-Haufen and died. The presence of urinary PV-Haufen was not significantly correlated with hemorrhagic cystitis. From the 16 urines collected during BK viremia, 43.8% were PV-Haufen-positive, and 56.2% were negative. The PV-Haufen were not present in the 5 urines from patients without concomitant BK-viremia. CONCLUSIONS: In this proof-of-concept study, a positive PV-Haufen test was only seen in some patients with BK viremia and was not associated with hemorrhagic cystitis. The detection of PV-Haufen suggests underlying PVN with an increased risk of kidney failure and dialysis.


Assuntos
Vírus BK/isolamento & purificação , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Infecções por Polyomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/diagnóstico , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 137(5): 1498-1505.e1, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26920464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral infections are a leading fatal complication for patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) who require hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Use of virus-specific T lymphocytes (VSTs) has been successful for the treatment and prevention of viral infections after HSCT for malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Here we describe the clinical use of VSTs in patients with PIDs at 4 centers. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of VSTs for treatment of viral infections in patients with PIDs. METHODS: Patients with PIDs who have received VST therapy on previous or current protocols were reviewed in aggregate. Clinical information, including transplantation details, viral infections, and use of antiviral and immunosuppressive pharmacotherapy, were evaluated. Data regarding VST production, infusions, and adverse reactions were compared. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients with 12 classes of PID diagnoses received 37 VST products before or after HSCT. Twenty-six (72%) patients had received a diagnosis of infection with cytomegalovirus, EBV, adenovirus, BK virus, and/or human herpesvirus 6. Two patients were treated before HSCT because of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease. Partial or complete responses against targeted viruses occurred in 81% of patients overall. Time to response varied from 2 weeks to 3 months (median, 28 days). Overall survival at 6 months after therapy was 80%. Four patients had graft-versus-host disease in the 45 days after VST infusion, which in most cases was therapy responsive. CONCLUSION: VSTs derived from either stem cell donors or third-party donors are likely safe and effective for the treatment of viral infections in patients with PIDs.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Linfócitos T/transplante , Viroses/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/virologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/virologia , Lactente , Carga Viral , Viroses/virologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Hematol ; 90(12): 1093-8, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26348869

RESUMO

Fifty-two children with symptomatic sickle cell disease sickle cell disease (SCD) (N = 43) or transfusion-dependent thalassemia (N = 9) received matched sibling donor marrow (46), marrow and cord product (5), or cord blood (1) allografts following reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) with alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan between March 2003 and May 2014*. The Kaplan-Meier probabilities of overall and event-free survival at a median of 3.42 (range, 0.75-11.83) years were 94.2% and 92.3% for the group, 93% and 90.7% for SCD, and 100% and 100% for thalassemia, respectively. Treatment-related mortality (all related to graft versus host disease, GVHD) was noted in three (5.7%) recipients, all 17-18 years of age. Acute and chronic GVHD was noted in 23% and 13%, respectively, with 81% of recipients off immunosuppression by 1 year. Graft rejection was limited to the single umbilical cord blood recipient who had prompt autologous hematopoietic recovery. Fourteen (27%) had mixed chimerism at 1 year and beyond; all had discontinued immunosuppression between 4 and 12 months from transplant with no subsequent consequence on GVHD or rejection. Infectious complications included predominantly bacteremia (48% were staphylococcus) and CMV reactivation (43%) necessitating preemptive therapy. Lymphocyte recovery beyond 6 months was associated with subsidence of infectious complications. All patients who engrafted were transfusion independent; no strokes or pulmonary complications of SCD were noted, and pain symptoms subsided within 6 months posttransplant. These findings support using RIC for patients with hemoglobinopathy undergoing matched sibling marrow transplantation (*www.Clinical Trials.gov: NCT00920972, NCT01050855, NCT02435901).


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Hemoglobinopatias/cirurgia , Hemoglobinopatias/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Irmãos , Doadores de Tecidos
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