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1.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0216266, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697679

RESUMO

Substance Use Disorder (SUD) is a major public health concern affecting an estimated 22.5 million individuals in the United States. The primary aim of this study was to characterize psychological pain in a cohort of patients participating in outpatient treatment for SUD. A secondary aim was to determine the relationships between pre-treatment assessments of psychological pain, depression, anxiety and hopelessness with treatment retention time and completion rates. Data was analyzed from 289 patients enrolled in an outpatient community drug treatment clinic in Southern California, U.S. A previously determined threshold score on the Mee-Bunney Psychological Pain Assessment Scale (MBP) was utilized to group patients into high and low-moderate scoring subgroups. The higher pain group scored higher on measures of anxiety, hopelessness and depression compared to those in the low-moderate pain group. Additionally, patients scoring in the higher psychological pain group exhibited reduced retention times in treatment and more than two-fold increased odds of dropout relative to patients with lower pre-treatment levels of psychological pain. Among all assessments, the correlation between psychological pain and treatment retention time was strongest. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that psychological pain is an important construct which correlates with relevant clinical outcomes in SUD. Furthermore, pre-treatment screening for psychological pain may help target higher-risk patients for clinical interventions aimed at improving treatment retention and completion rates.

2.
eNeuro ; 6(2)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119189

RESUMO

Neuronal cholinergic circuits have been implicated in cognitive function and neurological disease, but the role of cholinergic signaling in other cellular populations within the brain has not been as fully defined. Here, we show that cholinergic signaling mechanisms are involved in mediating the function of the choroid plexus, the brain structure responsible for generating CSF and releasing various factors into the brain. The choroid plexus was found to express markers of endogenous cholinergic signaling, including multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes in a region-specific manner, and application of nicotine was found to induce cellular activation, as evidenced by calcium influx in primary tissue. During intravenous nicotine self-administration in male rats, nicotine increased expression of transthyretin, a protein selectively produced and released by the choroid plexus, and microRNA-204 (mir-204), a transcript found in high levels in the choroid plexus and CSF. Finally, human choroid plexus tissue from both sexes was found to exhibit similar nAChR, transthyretin and mir-204 expression profiles, supporting the translational relevance of the findings. Together, these studies demonstrate functionally active cholinergic signaling mechanisms in the choroid plexus, the resulting effects on transthyretin and mir-204 expression, and reveal the direct mechanism by which nicotine modulates function of this tissue.

3.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 793-803, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043756

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 20,352 cases and 31,358 controls of European descent, with follow-up analysis of 822 variants with P < 1 × 10-4 in an additional 9,412 cases and 137,760 controls. Eight of the 19 variants that were genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery GWAS were not genome-wide significant in the combined analysis, consistent with small effect sizes and limited power but also with genetic heterogeneity. In the combined analysis, 30 loci were genome-wide significant, including 20 newly identified loci. The significant loci contain genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitter transporters and synaptic components. Pathway analysis revealed nine significantly enriched gene sets, including regulation of insulin secretion and endocannabinoid signaling. Bipolar I disorder is strongly genetically correlated with schizophrenia, driven by psychosis, whereas bipolar II disorder is more strongly correlated with major depressive disorder. These findings address key clinical questions and provide potential biological mechanisms for bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Loci Gênicos , Transtorno Bipolar/classificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Biologia de Sistemas
4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(10): e59, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869147

RESUMO

Deletions in the 16.6 kb mitochondrial genome have been implicated in numerous disorders that often display muscular and/or neurological symptoms due to the high-energy demands of these tissues. We describe a catalogue of 4489 putative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions, including their frequency and relative read rate, using a combinatorial approach of mitochondria-targeted PCR, next-generation sequencing, bioinformatics, post-hoc filtering, annotation, and validation steps. Our bioinformatics pipeline uses MapSplice, an RNA-seq splice junction detection algorithm, to detect and quantify mtDNA deletion breakpoints rather than mRNA splices. Analyses of 93 samples from postmortem brain and blood found (i) the 4977 bp 'common deletion' was neither the most frequent deletion nor the most abundant; (ii) brain contained significantly more deletions than blood; (iii) many high frequency deletions were previously reported in MitoBreak, suggesting they are present at low levels in metabolically active tissues and are not exclusive to individuals with diagnosed mitochondrial pathologies; (iv) many individual deletions (and cumulative metrics) had significant and positive correlations with age and (v) the highest deletion burdens were observed in major depressive disorder brain, at levels greater than Kearns-Sayre Syndrome muscle. Collectively, these data suggest the Splice-Break pipeline can detect and quantify mtDNA deletions at a high level of resolution.

6.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200003, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016334

RESUMO

Psychiatric illness is unlikely to arise from pathology occurring uniformly across all cell types in affected brain regions. Despite this, transcriptomic analyses of the human brain have typically been conducted using macro-dissected tissue due to the difficulty of performing single-cell type analyses with donated post-mortem brains. To address this issue statistically, we compiled a database of several thousand transcripts that were specifically-enriched in one of 10 primary cortical cell types in previous publications. Using this database, we predicted the relative cell type content for 833 human cortical samples using microarray or RNA-Seq data from the Pritzker Consortium (GSE92538) or publicly-available databases (GSE53987, GSE21935, GSE21138, CommonMind Consortium). These predictions were generated by averaging normalized expression levels across transcripts specific to each cell type using our R-package BrainInABlender (validated and publicly-released on github). Using this method, we found that the principal components of variation in the datasets strongly correlated with the predicted neuronal/glial content of the samples. This variability was not simply due to dissection-the relative balance of brain cell types appeared to be influenced by a variety of demographic, pre- and post-mortem variables. Prolonged hypoxia around the time of death predicted increased astrocytic and endothelial gene expression, illustrating vascular upregulation. Aging was associated with decreased neuronal gene expression. Red blood cell gene expression was reduced in individuals who died following systemic blood loss. Subjects with Major Depressive Disorder had decreased astrocytic gene expression, mirroring previous morphometric observations. Subjects with Schizophrenia had reduced red blood cell gene expression, resembling the hypofrontality detected in fMRI experiments. Finally, in datasets containing samples with especially variable cell content, we found that controlling for predicted sample cell content while evaluating differential expression improved the detection of previously-identified psychiatric effects. We conclude that accounting for cell type can greatly improve the interpretability of transcriptomic data.

7.
Biol Psychiatry ; 84(8): 555-562, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While downregulation of several growth factors in major depressive disorder is well established, less attention has been paid to the upregulation of other growth factors. Yet, upregulated growth factors may offer better therapeutic targets. We show that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) represents a target based on its upregulation in major depressive disorder and studies in animal models implicating it in negative affect. METHODS: CTGF gene expression was first evaluated in the postmortem human amygdala. The findings were followed up in outbred rats and in two rat lines that were selectively bred for differences in novelty-seeking and anxiety behavior (bred low responders and bred high responders). We studied the impact of social defeat and early-life treatment with fibroblast growth factor 2 on CTGF expression. Finally, we assessed the ability of an anti-CTGF antibody (FG-3019) to alter CTGF expression and emotionality. RESULTS: In the human amygdala, CTGF expression was significantly increased in major depressive disorder compared with control subjects. CTGF expression was also significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of adult bred low responders compared with bred high responders. Social defeat stress in bred low responders significantly increased CTGF expression in the dentate gyrus. Early-life fibroblast growth factor 2, a treatment that reduces anxiety-like behavior throughout life, decreased CTGF expression in the adult dentate gyrus. In outbred rats, CTGF administration increased depression-like behavior. Chronic treatment with FG-3019 decreased CTGF expression, and acute and chronic treatment was antidepressant. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to implicate CTGF as a prodepressant molecule that could serve as a target for the development of novel therapeutics.

8.
Behav Sleep Med ; : 1-8, 2018 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic sleep deprivation (SD) is a nonpharmacological treatment that is used most often for depression. The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of use of SD in psychiatric hospitals in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. METHODS: A questionnaire about perceived usage of SD was sent by mail to all 511 psychiatric hospitals in the three countries. Nonresponders were asked to answer the questionnaire by phone. We achieved a response rate of 75.3%. RESULTS: SD was recommended by 61.3% of all hospitals. Despite this degree of recommendation, nearly two thirds of the psychiatric hospitals had not treated a patient with SD during the last 12 months. Of the respondents, 59.5% considered SD to be indicated for major depressive disorder, 17.7% for bipolar depression, and 7.8% for other indications. SD was administered most frequently in inpatient settings and in combination with other therapies. Total SD (patients kept awake entire night) and partial late SD (patients kept awake in second half of night) were judged equally effective. Of the hospitals, 53.0% reported having seen hypomania and 13.2% manic episodes as side effects (rates do not represent actual incident rates). CONCLUSION: The lack of large controlled studies for SD with its different forms of treatment probably still hinders a broader use of the therapy. Therefore, further efforts should be undertaken to provide high-quality scientific evidence for the usage of SD.

9.
Mol Neuropsychiatry ; 3(3): 157-169, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29594135

RESUMO

Subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) show decreased protein and transcript levels for mitochondrial complex I. In vitro results suggest antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs may be responsible. We measured complex I activity in BD, SZ, and controls and presence of antipsychotic and antidepressant medications, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, and the mtDNA "common deletion" in the brain. Complex I activity in the prefrontal cortex was decreased by 45% in SZ compared to controls (p = 0.02), while no significant difference was found in BD. Complex I activity was significantly decreased (p = 0.01) in pooled cases (SZ and BD) that had detectable psychotropic medications and drugs compared to pooled cases with no detectable levels. Subjects with age at onset in their teens and psychotropic medications showed decreased (p < 0.05) complex I activity compared to subjects with an adult age at onset. Both SZ and BD groups displayed significant increases (p < 0.05) in mtDNA copy number compared to controls; however, common deletion burden was not altered. Complex I deficiency is found in SZ brain tissue, and psychotropic medications may play a role in mitochondrial dysfunction. Studies of medication-free first-episode psychosis patients are needed to elucidate whether mitochondrial pathophysiology occurs independent of medication effects.

10.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 72, 2017 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders are multigenic diseases with complex etiology that contribute significantly to human morbidity and mortality. Although clinically distinct, several disorders share many symptoms, suggesting common underlying molecular changes exist that may implicate important regulators of pathogenesis and provide new therapeutic targets. METHODS: We performed RNA sequencing on tissue from the anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens from three groups of 24 patients each diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder, and from 24 control subjects. We identified differentially expressed genes and validated the results in an independent cohort. Anterior cingulate cortex samples were also subjected to metabolomic analysis. ChIP-seq data were used to characterize binding of the transcription factor EGR1. RESULTS: We compared molecular signatures across the three brain regions and disorders in the transcriptomes of post-mortem human brain samples. The most significant disease-related differences were in the anterior cingulate cortex of schizophrenia samples compared to controls. Transcriptional changes were assessed in an independent cohort, revealing the transcription factor EGR1 as significantly down-regulated in both cohorts and as a potential regulator of broader transcription changes observed in schizophrenia patients. Additionally, broad down-regulation of genes specific to neurons and concordant up-regulation of genes specific to astrocytes was observed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients relative to controls. Metabolomic profiling identified disruption of GABA levels in schizophrenia patients. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a comprehensive post-mortem transcriptome profile of three psychiatric disorders across three brain regions. We highlight a high-confidence set of independently validated genes differentially expressed between schizophrenia and control patients in the anterior cingulate cortex and integrate transcriptional changes with untargeted metabolite profiling.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Transcriptoma , Autopsia , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
11.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0177974, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28558020

RESUMO

Psychological pain is a relatively understudied and potentially important construct in the evaluation of suicidal risk. Psychological pain also referred to as 'mental pain' or 'psychache' can be defined as an adverse emotional reaction to a severe trauma (e.g., the loss of a child) or may be associated with an illness such as depression. When psychological pain levels reach intolerable levels, some individuals may view suicide as the only and final means of escape. To better understand psychological pain, we previously developed and validated a brief self-rating 10-item scale, Mee-Bunney Psychological Pain Assessment Scale [MBP] in depressed patients and non-psychiatric controls. Our results showed a significant increase in psychological pain in the depressed patients compared to controls. We also observed a significant linear correlation between psychological pain and suicidality in the depressed patient cohort. The current investigation extends our study of psychological pain to a diagnostically heterogeneous population of 57 US Veterans enrolled in a suicide prevention program. In addition to the MBP, we administered the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Suicidal patients scoring above a predetermined threshold for high psychological pain also had significantly elevated scores on all the other assessments. Among all of the evaluations, psychological pain accounted for the most shared variance for suicidality (C-SSRS). Stepwise regression analyses showed that impulsiveness (BIS) and psychological pain (MBP) contributed more to suicidality than any of the other combined assessments. We followed patients for 15 months and identified a subgroup (24/57) with serious suicide events. Within this subgroup, 29% (7/24) had a serious suicidal event (determined by the lethality subscale of the C-SSRS), including one completed suicide. Our results build upon our earlier findings and recent literature supporting psychological pain as a potentially important construct. Systematically evaluating psychological pain along with additional measures of suicidality could improve risk assessment and more effectively guide clinical resource allocation toward prevention.


Assuntos
Medição da Dor , Dor/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
12.
Biol Psychiatry ; 82(5): 351-360, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28395871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional antidepressants usually require several weeks to achieve a full clinical response in patients with major depressive disorder, an illness associated with dysregulated circadian rhythms and a high incidence of suicidality. Two rapid-acting antidepressant strategies, low-dose ketamine (KT) and sleep deprivation (SD) therapies, dramatically reduce depressive symptoms within 24 hours in a subset of major depressive disorder patients. However, it is unknown whether they exert their actions through shared regulatory mechanisms. To address this question, we performed comparative transcriptomics analyses to identify candidate genes and relevant pathways common to KT and SD. METHODS: We used the forced swim test, a standardized behavioral approach to measure antidepressant-like activity of KT and SD. We investigated gene expression changes using high-density microarrays and pathway analyses (Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis) in KT- and SD-treated mice compared with saline-treated control male mice. RESULTS: We show that KT and SD elicit common transcriptional responses implicating distinct elements of the circadian clock and processes involved in neuronal plasticity. There is an overlap of 64 genes whose expression is common in KT and SD. Specifically, there is downregulation of clock genes including Ciart, Per2, Npas4, Dbp, and Rorb in both KT- and SD-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a potential involvement of the circadian clock in rapid antidepressant responses. These findings could open new research avenues to help design chronopharmacological strategies to treat major depressive disorder.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização do Ritmo Circadiano/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Ketamina/farmacologia , Privação do Sono/metabolismo , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Transtorno Depressivo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Giro do Cíngulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise em Microsséries , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/fisiologia
13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 82: 58-67, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27468165

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs acting as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Though implicated in multiple CNS disorders, miRNAs have not been examined in any psychiatric disease state in anterior cingulate cortex (AnCg), a brain region centrally involved in regulating mood. We performed qPCR analyses of 29 miRNAs previously implicated in psychiatric illness (major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BP) and/or schizophrenia (SZ)) in AnCg of patients with MDD and BP versus controls. miR-132, miR-133a and miR-212 were initially identified as differentially expressed in BP, miR-184 in MDD and miR-34a in both MDD and BP (although none survived multiple correction testing and must be considered preliminary). In silico target prediction algorithms identified putative targets of differentially expressed miRNAs. Nuclear Co-Activator 1 (NCOA1), Nuclear Co-Repressor 2 (NCOR2) and Phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) were selected based upon predicted targeting by miR-34a (with NCOR2 and PDE4B both targeted by miR-184) and published relevance to psychiatric illness. Luciferase assays identified PDE4B as a target of miR-34a and miR-184, while NCOA1 and NCOR2 were targeted by miR-34a and 184, respectively. qPCR analyses were performed to determine whether changes in miRNA levels correlated with mRNA levels of validated targets. NCOA1 showed an inverse correlation with miR-34a in BP, while NCOR2 demonstrated a positive correlation. In sum, this is the first study to demonstrate miRNA changes in AnCg in psychiatric illness and validate miR-34a as differentially expressed in CNS in MDD. These findings support a mechanistic role for miRNAs in the regulation of stress-responsive genes disrupted in psychiatric illness.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/patologia , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 4/genética , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 4/metabolismo , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutagênese , Coativador 1 de Receptor Nuclear/genética , Coativador 1 de Receptor Nuclear/metabolismo , Coativador 2 de Receptor Nuclear/genética , Coativador 2 de Receptor Nuclear/metabolismo , Mudanças Depois da Morte , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Transfecção , Adulto Jovem
14.
Microarrays (Basel) ; 5(1)2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26998349

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia encompassing the major histocompatibility locus (MHC) were highly significant following genome-wide correction. This broad region implicates many genes including the MHC complex class II. Within this interval we examined the expression of two MHC II genes (HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DRB1) in brain from individual subjects with schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and controls by differential gene expression methods. A third MHC II mRNA, CD74, was studied outside of the MHC II locus, as it interacts within the same immune complex. Exon microarrays were performed in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in BD compared to controls, and both HLA-DPA1 and CD74 were decreased in expression in BD. The expression of HLA-DPA1 and CD74 were both reduced in hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex regions in SZ and BD compared to controls by specific qPCR assay. We found several novel HLA-DPA1 mRNA variants spanning HLA-DPA1 exons 2-3-4 as suggested by exon microarrays. The intronic rs9277341 SNP was a significant cis expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) that was associated with the total expression of HLA-DPA1 in five brain regions. A biomarker study of MHC II mRNAs was conducted in SZ, BD, MDD, and control lymphoblastic cell lines (LCL) by qPCR assay of 87 subjects. There was significantly decreased expression of HLA-DPA1 and CD74 in BD, and trends for reductions in SZ in LCLs. The discovery of multiple splicing variants in brain for HLA-DPA1 is important as the HLA-DPA1 gene is highly conserved, there are no reported splicing variants, and the functions in brain are unknown. Future work on the function and localization of MHC Class II proteins in brain will help to understand the role of alterations in neuropsychiatric disorders. The HLA-DPA1 eQTL is located within a large linkage disequilibrium block that has an irrefutable association with schizophrenia. Future tests in a larger cohort are needed to determine the significance of this eQTL association with schizophrenia. Our findings support the long-held hypothesis that alterations in immune function are associated with the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders.

15.
J Psychiatr Res ; 72: 15-21, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26519765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glial cells are essential in maintaining synaptic function. In glutamatergic synapses astrocytes remove the products of neural activity, (i.e. potassium, glutamate and excess water) from the synaptic cleft and redistribute them across the glial network; these products of neural activity can then be recycled for neuronal use or released into the vascular compartment. This type of highly coupled cell network -or syncytium-maintains the balance of synaptic activity by restoring the basal levels of such molecules in the synaptic cleft. Previous studies have reported alterations of glia related genes in Major Depressive Disorder, including some genes related to syncytial function. METHODS: We used RNA isolated from hippocampal tissues of 13 MDD subjects and 10 healthy controls to broadly examine gene expression using microarrays. Hippocampal RNA samples were isolated by laser capture microdissection from human tissue sections carefully avoiding contamination from neighboring structures. Once RNA quality was validated RNA was labeled and hybridized to microarrays. RESULTS: Analysis of microarray data identified mRNA transcripts involved in glial syncytial function that were downregulated in MDD subjects compared to controls, including potassium and water channels (KCNJ10, AQP4), gap junction proteins (GJA1) and glutamate transporters (SLC1A2, SLC1A3). These gene expression differences were confirmed by qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: The downregulation of these genes related to the syncytial network activity of glial cells is consistent with the hypothesis that synaptic homeostasis is disrupted thereby disrupting hippocampal synaptic function in MDD patients. Such glial gene expression changes could contribute either to the onset or perpetuation of depressive symptoms and hence, represent targets for novel therapeutics.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Aquaporina 4/metabolismo , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Aminoácido Excitatório/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Transporte de Glutamato da Membrana Plasmática/metabolismo , Humanos , Microdissecção e Captura a Laser , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(38): 11953-8, 2015 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26351673

RESUMO

Both gene expression profiling in postmortem human brain and studies using animal models have implicated the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in affect regulation and suggest a potential role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). FGF2, the most widely characterized family member, is down-regulated in the depressed brain and plays a protective role in rodent models of affective disorders. By contrast, using three microarray analyses followed by quantitative RT-PCR confirmation, we show that FGF9 expression is up-regulated in the hippocampus of individuals with MDD, and that FGF9 expression is inversely related to the expression of FGF2. Because little is known about FGF9's function in emotion regulation, we used animal models to shed light on its potential role in affective function. We found that chronic social defeat stress, an animal model recapitulating some aspects of MDD, leads to a significant increase in hippocampal FGF9 expression, paralleling the elevations seen in postmortem human brain tissue. Chronic intracerebroventricular administration of FGF9 increased both anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. In contrast, knocking down FGF9 expression in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus using a lentiviral vector produced a decrease in FGF9 expression and ameliorated anxiety-like behavior. Collectively, these results suggest that high levels of hippocampal FGF9 play an important role in the development or expression of mood and anxiety disorders. We propose that the relative levels of FGF9 in relation to other members of the FGF family may prove key to understanding vulnerability or resilience in affective disorders.


Assuntos
Afeto , Fator 9 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Adulto , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Demografia , Giro Denteado/efeitos dos fármacos , Giro Denteado/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Feminino , Fator 9 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/administração & dosagem , Fator 9 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fator 9 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Lentivirus/metabolismo , Masculino , Microinjeções , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mudanças Depois da Morte , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 10(5): e0127280, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26011537

RESUMO

A considerable body of evidence supports the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric disorders and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are known to alter brain energy metabolism, neurotransmission, and cause neurodegenerative disorders. Genetic studies focusing on common nuclear genome variants associated with these disorders have produced genome wide significant results but those studies have not directly studied mtDNA variants. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using next generation sequencing, the involvement of mtDNA variation in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and methamphetamine use. MtDNA extracted from multiple brain regions and blood were sequenced (121 mtDNA samples with an average of 8,800x coverage) and compared to an electronic database containing 26,850 mtDNA genomes. We confirmed novel and rare variants, and confirmed next generation sequencing error hotspots by traditional sequencing and genotyping methods. We observed a significant increase of non-synonymous mutations found in individuals with schizophrenia. Novel and rare non-synonymous mutations were found in psychiatric cases in mtDNA genes: ND6, ATP6, CYTB, and ND2. We also observed mtDNA heteroplasmy in brain at a locus previously associated with schizophrenia (T16519C). Large differences in heteroplasmy levels across brain regions within subjects suggest that somatic mutations accumulate differentially in brain regions. Finally, multiplasmy, a heteroplasmic measure of repeat length, was observed in brain from selective cases at a higher frequency than controls. These results offer support for increased rates of mtDNA substitutions in schizophrenia shown in our prior results. The variable levels of heteroplasmic/multiplasmic somatic mutations that occur in brain may be indicators of genetic instability in mtDNA.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia
18.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 8: 238, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24795602

RESUMO

Given the emergent interest in biomarkers for mood disorders, we assessed gene expression in the choroid plexus (CP), the region that produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Genes that are expressed in the CP can be secreted into the CSF and may be potential biomarker candidates. Given that we have previously shown that fibroblast growth factor family members are differentially expressed in post-mortem brain of subjects with MDD and the CP is a known source of growth factors in the brain, we posed the question whether growth factor dysregulation would be found in the CP of subjects with MDD. We performed laser capture microscopy of the CP at the level of the hippocampus in subjects with MDD and psychiatrically normal controls. We then extracted, amplified, labeled, and hybridized the cRNA to Illumina BeadChips to assess gene expression. In controls, the most highly abundant known transcript was transthyretin. Moreover, half of the 14 most highly expressed transcripts in controls encode ribosomal proteins. Using BeadStudio software, we identified 169 transcripts differentially expressed (p < 0.05) between control and MDD samples. Using pathway analysis we noted that the top network altered in subjects with MDD included multiple members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFß) pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed downregulation of several transcripts that interact with the extracellular matrix in subjects with MDD. These results suggest that there may be an altered cytoskeleton in the CP in MDD subjects that may lead to a disrupted blood-CSF-brain barrier.

19.
Schizophr Res ; 152(1): 111-6, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24315717

RESUMO

The rs1344706, an intronic SNP within the zinc-finger protein 804A gene (ZNF804A), was identified as one of the most compelling risk SNPs for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). It is however not clear by which molecular mechanisms ZNF804A increases disease risk. We evaluated the role of ZNF804A in SZ and BD by genotyping the originally associated rs1344706 SNP and an exonic SNP (rs12476147) located in exon four of ZNF804A in a sample of 422 SZ, 382 BD, and 507 controls from the isolated population of the Costa Rica Central Valley. We also investigated the rs1344706 SNP for allelic specific expression (ASE) imbalance in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of 46 heterozygous postmortem brains. While no significant association between rs1344706 and SZ or BD was observed in the Costa Rica sample, we observed an increased risk of SZ for the minor allele (A) of the exonic rs12476147 SNP (p=0.026). Our ASE assay detected a significant over-expression of the rs12476147 A allele in DLPFC of rs1344706 heterozygous subjects. Interestingly, cDNA allele ratios were significantly different according to the intronic rs1344706 genotypes (p-value=0.03), with the rs1344706 A allele associated with increased ZNF804A rs12476147 A allele expression (average 1.06, p-value=0.02, for heterozygous subjects vs. genomic DNA). In conclusion, we have demonstrated a significant association of rs12476147 with SZ, and using a powerful within-subject design, an allelic expression imbalance of ZNF804A exonic SNP rs12476147 in the DLPFC. Although this data does not preclude the possibility of other functional variants in ZNF804A, it provides evidence that the rs1344706 SZ risk allele is the cis-regulatory variant directly responsible for this allelic expression imbalance in adult cortex.


Assuntos
Desequilíbrio Alélico , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Costa Rica , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Mudanças Depois da Morte
20.
J Neurosci ; 33(33): 13441-8, 2013 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23946402

RESUMO

Multiple lines of evidence suggest that disturbances in excitatory transmission contribute to depression. Whether these defects involve the number, size, or composition of glutamatergic contacts is unclear. This study used recently introduced procedures for fluorescence deconvolution tomography in a well-studied rat model of congenital depression to characterize excitatory synapses in layer I of infralimbic cortex, a region involved in mood disorders, and of primary somatosensory cortex. Three groups were studied: (1) rats bred for learned helplessness (cLH); (2) rats resistant to learned helplessness (cNLH); and (3) control Sprague Dawley rats. In fields within infralimbic cortex, cLH rats had the same numerical density of synapses, immunolabeled for either the postsynaptic density (PSD) marker PSD95 or the presynaptic protein synaptophysin, as controls. However, PSD95 immunolabeling intensities were substantially lower in cLH rats, as were numerical densities of synapse-sized clusters of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA1. Similar but less pronounced differences (comparable numerical densities but reduced immunolabeling intensity for PSD95) were found in the somatosensory cortex. In contrast, non-helpless rats had 25% more PSDs than either cLH or control rats without any increase in synaptophysin-labeled terminal frequency. Compared with controls, both cLH and cNLH rats had fewer GABAergic contacts. These results indicate that congenital tendencies that increase or decrease depression-like behavior differentially affect excitatory synapses.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/patologia , Sinapses/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Desamparo Aprendido , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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