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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5462, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526503

RESUMO

Salicylic acid is a phenolic phytohormone which controls plant growth and development. A methyl ester (MSA) derivative thereof is volatile and involved in plant-insect or plant-plant communication. Here we show that the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans uses a methyl-salicylic acid isomer, 6-MSA as morphogen for spatiotemporal control of trap formation and as chemoattractant to lure Caenorhabditis elegans into fungal colonies. 6-MSA is the product of a polyketide synthase and an intermediate in the biosynthesis of arthrosporols. The polyketide synthase (ArtA), produces 6-MSA in hyphal tips, and is uncoupled from other enzymes required for the conversion of 6-MSA to arthrosporols, which are produced in older hyphae. 6-MSA and arthrosporols both block trap formation. The presence of nematodes inhibits 6-MSA and arthrosporol biosyntheses and thereby enables trap formation. 6-MSA and arthrosporols are thus morphogens with some functions similar to quorum-sensing molecules. We show that 6-MSA is important in interkingdom communication between fungi and nematodes.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Hifas/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Animais , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia/fisiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Hifas/genética , Hifas/metabolismo , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/química , Esporos Fúngicos/genética , Esporos Fúngicos/metabolismo
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(31): 8838-8849, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339210

RESUMO

Xyloglucans are the dominant hemicelluloses in the primary cell wall of dicotyledonous plants, fulfilling numerous functions. However, routine methods of cell wall analytical chemistry such as methylation analysis are time-consuming and often not adequate to capture the structural diversity of xyloglucans. Here, a xyloglucan profiling method based on the enzymatic release of xyloglucan oligosaccharides by a xyloglucan-specific endo-ß-(1→4)-glucanase and subsequent analysis of these oligosaccharides by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with parallel pulsed amperometric and mass spectrometric detection was developed. For this purpose, a set of 23 authentic xyloglucan oligosaccharides was generated, structurally characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, and established as analytical standard compounds. Coupling of HPAEC with parallel electrochemical and MS detection was demonstrated to be an excellent tool to analyze xyloglucan-derived oligosaccharides. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by characterizing the xyloglucan architecture from a set of nine economically relevant food plants from the botanical orders Caryophyllales (rhubarb, buckwheat, amaranth, and quinoa), Cucurbitales (Hokkaido squash), Laurales (avocado), Myrtales (pomegranate), and Sapindales (mango and orange) for the first time. In future studies, this method can ideally be used to monitor structural alterations of xyloglucans as a result of genetic engineering, plant/tissue maturation, and processing of plant material.


Assuntos
Plantas Comestíveis , Xilanos , Ânions , Cromatografia , Glucanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Oligossacarídeos , Polissacarídeos
3.
Foods ; 10(8)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441483

RESUMO

Coffee silver skin is produced in large amounts as a by-product during the coffee roasting process. In this study, coffee silver skin of the species Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner as well as silver skin pellets produced in the coffee industry were characterized with respect to both nutritional value and potential heat-induced contaminants. Enzymatic-gravimetric/chromatographic determination of the dietary fiber content showed values ranging from 59 to 67 g/100 g with a comparably high portion of soluble fiber, whereas low molecular weight soluble fiber was not detected. Compositional and methylation analysis indicated the presence of cellulose and xylans in the insoluble dietary fiber fraction, whereas pectic polysaccharides dominate the soluble dietary fiber fraction. The protein content as determined by the Kjeldahl method was in the range of 18 to 22 g/100 g, and all essential amino acids were present in coffee silver skin; whereas fat contents were low, high ash contents were determined. Elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) showed the presence of macroelements in large amounts, whereas toxic mineral elements were only detected in trace amounts or being absent. Acrylamide was quantified with levels of 24-161 µg/kg. Although 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected, its concentration was below the limit of determination. Furfuryl alcohol was not detected.

4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 267: 118232, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119184

RESUMO

Translational mobility of guest molecules such as water and glucose in gels that are based on feruloylated polysaccharides appears to be critical to understand their nutritional and functional properties. Here, the applicability of PFG-STE-NMR on feruloylated gels was proven, and relationships to rheological data were studied. Arabinoxylans and pectins were extracted from by-products using varying conditions. Laccase induced coupling of these chemically characterized polymers resulted for most of the feruloylated polysaccharides in homogeneous gels. Rheological studies confirmed that polysaccharide composition affects viscoelastic properties of the resulting gels. Generally, diffusion of water and glucose is hindered in gels. In the feruloylated polysaccharide gels, both polysaccharide concentration and extraction conditions affect the diffusion behavior of these molecules. A simple correlation between rheological data and mobility of guest molecules has not generally been found: although long time acid extracted pectins form highly elastic gels, water diffusion in these gels is less hindered.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Géis/química , Pectinas/química , Xilanos/química , Beta vulgaris/química , Difusão , Glucose/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Substâncias Viscoelásticas/química , Água/química , Zea mays/química
5.
Foods ; 10(3)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801434

RESUMO

The partial substitution of starch with dietary fiber (DF) in extruded ready-to-eat texturized (RTE) cereals has been suggested as a strategy to reduce the high glycemic index of these food products. Here, we study the impact of extrusion processing on pure chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) pomace powder (CPP) rich in DF and polyphenols (PP) focusing on the content and profile of the DF fractions, stability of PP, and techno-functional properties of the extrudates. Using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder, different screw speeds were applied to CPP with different water contents (cw), which resulted in specific mechanical energies (SME) in the range of 145-222 Whkg-1 and material temperatures (TM) in the range of 123-155 °C. High molecular weight soluble DF contents slightly increase with increasing thermomechanical stress up to 16.1 ± 0.8 g/100 g dm as compared to CPP (11.5 ± 1.2 g/100 g dm), but total DF (TDF) contents (58.6 ± 0.8 g/100 g dm) did not change. DF structural analysis revealed extrusion-based changes in the portions of pectic polysaccharides (type I rhamnogalacturonan) in the soluble and insoluble DF fractions. Contents of thermolabile anthocyanins decrease linearly with SME and temperature from 1.80 ± 0.09 g/100 g dm in CPP to 0.24 ± 0.06 g/100 g dm (222 Whkg-1, 155 °C), but phenolic acids and flavonoids appear to be largely unaffected. Resulting techno-functional (water absorption and water solubility) and physical properties related to the sensory characteristics (expansion, hardness, and color) of pure CPP extrudates support the expectation that granulated CPP extrudates may be a suitable food ingredient rich in DF and PP.

6.
Foods ; 10(3)2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668342

RESUMO

Food by-products can be used as natural and sustainable food ingredients. However, a modification is needed to improve the technofunctional properties according to the specific needs of designated applications. A lab-scale twin-screw extruder was used to process enzymatically treated apple pomace from commercial fruit juice production. To vary the range of the thermomechanical treatment, various screw speeds (200, 600, 1000 min-1), and screw configurations were applied to the raw material. Detailed chemical and functional analyses were performed to develop a comprehensive understanding of the impact of the extrusion processing on apple pomace composition and technofunctional properties as well as structures of individual polymers. Extrusion at moderate thermomechanical conditions increased the water absorption, swelling, and viscosity of the material. An increase in thermomechanical stress resulted in a higher water solubility index, but negatively affected the water absorption index, viscosity, and swelling. Scanning electron microscopy showed an extrusion-processing-related disruption of the cell wall. Dietary fiber analysis revealed an increase of soluble dietary fiber from 12.6 to 17.2 g/100 g dry matter at maximum thermo-mechanical treatment. Dietary fiber polysaccharide analysis demonstrated compositional changes, mainly in the insoluble dietary fiber fraction. In short, pectin polysaccharides seem to be susceptible to thermo-mechanical stress, especially arabinans as neutral side chains of rhamnogalacturonan I.

7.
J AOAC Int ; 103(2): 306-314, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee is a popular beverage with two species, Coffea canephora and C. arabica, being commercially exploited. The quality and commercial value of coffee is dependent on species and processing. C. arabica typically obtains a higher price on the market compared to C. canephora. Coffee beans undergo roasting during processing, resulting in the formation of flavor compounds including furfuryl alcohol which has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify coffee species and other properties using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, specifically to conduct quantification of the roasting process contaminant furfuryl alcohol. METHOD: The quantification of furfuryl alcohol was performed from the NMR spectra using the pulse length-based concentration (PULCON) methodology. Prior to NMR analysis, samples were extracted using deuterated chloroform. RESULTS: Roasting experiments identified the maximum roasting temperature to be the most significant factor in the formation of furfuryl alcohol. Among the coffee species, C. canephora was found to contain a relatively lower amount of furfuryl alcohol compared to C. arabica. The roasting of wet processed coffee resulted in higher contents of furfuryl alcohol. Geographical origin and variety within species had no influence on the furfuryl alcohol content. CONCLUSION: Validation results show that NMR spectroscopy is fit-for-purpose to obtain targeted information of coffee samples. HIGHLIGHTS: The PULCON NMR methodology allows a simple, rapid and accurate determination of constituents of coffee.


Assuntos
Coffea , Café , Furanos , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Sementes
8.
Foods ; 9(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019534

RESUMO

By-products of fruit and vegetable processing are an inexpensive and sustainable source of dietary fiber, potentially offering valuable functional properties such as water binding and thickening. Due to these favorable properties, they can be utilized to reformulate widely-consumed foods, e.g., bakery products or beverages. In this study, apple pomace was used as a model system to study whether extrusion technology affects food by-product functionality and thus has the potential to broaden the application of by-products in foods. The effect of the process parameters and the extent of thermo-mechanical treatment on the structural and functional properties of apple pomace were analyzed after extrusion trials using various screw speeds, water contents, and barrel temperatures. Compared to the raw material, apple pomace extruded at Tbarrel = 100 °C, n = 700 min-1 and mH2O = 17% showed an increased water solubility up to 33%. The water absorption increased from 5 to 19 Pa·s and the paste viscosity from 5 to 339 Pa·s by extrusion processing. Analyses of dietary fiber contents and fiber polysaccharide structures revealed that thermo-mechanical stress (n = 700 min-1, mH2O = 22%) increased the content of soluble dietary fiber from 12.5 to 16.7 g/100 g dry matter, and that the harshest conditions even enabled the formation of low-molecular-weight dietary fiber. Arabinans (as neutral rhamnogalacturonan I side chains) appeared to be most sensitive to thermo-mechanical stress, whereas xylans (i.e., a group of minor polysaccharides) were an example of a more stable fiber polysaccharide. Also, the degree of methylation of the pectic polysaccharides was strongly reduced from 50% to 15% when thermo-mechanical stress was applied. Imaging and pore size analysis showed that extrusion processing could disrupt the rigid cell wall macromolecular structure.

9.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(6)2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503184

RESUMO

Thymus zygis subsp. zygis is an endemic Portuguese plant belonging to the Thymus zygis species. Although T. zygis is commonly used as a condiment and as a medicinal herb, a detailed description of the polyphenol composition of hydroethanolic (HE) and aqueous decoction (AD) extracts is not available. In this work, we describe for the first time a detailed phenolic composition of Thymus zygis subsp. zygis HE and AD extracts, together with their antioxidant, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. Unlike other Thymus species, T. zygis subsp. zygis extracts contain higher amounts of luteolin-(?)-O-hexoside. However, the major phenolic compound is rosmarinic acid, and high amounts of salvianolic acids K and I were also detected. T. zygis subsp. zygis extracts exhibited significant scavenging activity of ABTS+, hydroxyl (•OH), and nitric oxide (NO) radicals. Regarding the anti-proliferative/cytotoxic effect, tested against Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, the AD extract only slightly reduced cell viability at higher concentrations (IC50 > 600 µg/mL, 48 h exposure), denoting very low toxicity, while the HE extract showed a high anti-proliferative effect, especially at 48 h exposure (IC50 of 85.01 ± 15.10 µg/mL and 82.19 ± 2.46 µg/mL, for Caco-2 and HepG2, respectively). At non-cytotoxic concentrations, both extracts reduced the nitric oxide (NO) release by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells (at 50 µg/mL, HE and AD extracts inhibited NO release in ~89% and 48%, respectively). In conclusion, the results highlight the non-toxic effect of aqueous extracts, both resembling the consumption of antioxidants in foodstuff or in functional food. Furthermore, the HE extract of T. zygis subsp. zygis is a source of promising molecules with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, highlighting its potential as a source of bioactive ingredients for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

10.
Food Res Int ; 134: 109232, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517902

RESUMO

Dietary fiber is a potential replacement for other ingredients such as starch in reformulated extruded breakfast cereals. Analysis of chokeberry pomace powder revealed a total dietary fiber content of 57.8 ± 2 g/100 g with 76% being insoluble, 20% high molecular soluble and 4% low molecular soluble dietary fiber. The fiber polysaccharide composition was analyzed in detail by using a variety of analytical approaches. Extrusion-like processing conditions were studies in a Closed Cavity Rheometer enabling the application of defined thermal (temperature range 100-160 °C) and mechanical treatments (shear rates between 0.1 s-1 and 50 s-1) to chokeberry pomace powder. Application of temperatures up to 140 °C irrespective of the mechanical treatment does not remarkably alter dietary fiber structure or content, but reduces the initial content of total polyphenols by about 40% to a final content of 3.3 ± 0.5 g/100 g including 0.63 ± 0.1 g/100 g of anthocyanins, 0.18 ± 0.02 g/100 g of phenolic acids and 0.090 ± 0.007 g/100 g of flavonols, respectively. The retained polyphenols are fully bioaccessible after in vitro digestion, and antioxidant capacity remains unchanged as compared to the untreated pomace powder. Glucose bioaccessibility remains unaffected, whereas glucose content is reduced. It is concluded that chokeberry pomace powder is a good source of dietary fiber with the potential to partially substitute starch in extruded breakfast cereals.


Assuntos
Photinia , Antioxidantes , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Frutas/química , Polifenóis/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 331: 127362, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590268

RESUMO

The polyphenol compositions of Thymus × citriodorus and Thymus vulgaris extracts as obtained by exhaustive hydroethanolic (HE) extraction and aqueous decoction (AD) were compared. In addition, their compositions and bioactivities were compared to those of Thymus pulegioides and Thymus mastichina, grown under the same edaphoclimatic conditions, and Thymus carnosus. Rosmarinic acid was the most abundant polyphenol followed by luteolin-hexuronide, salvianolic acids I and K. Cluster analysis suggests a similarity of the polyphenol composition of T. citriodorus and T. vulgaris. A significant antioxidant activity was observed and correlated with their polyphenol levels. The same being observed for the higher anti-proliferative activity/cytotoxicity of HE extracts on Caco-2 and HepG2 cells as compared to AD extracts. Significant association between the total phenolic compounds with the anti-proliferative activity, for both cell lines, was observed. These results support the importance of salvianolic acids levels in Thymus extracts and their in vitro anti-proliferative/cytotoxic activities.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Thymus (Planta)/química , Alcenos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinamatos/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , Depsídeos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
12.
Front Nutr ; 6: 127, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475151

RESUMO

Proteins are plant cell wall components but they are not included in the definition of dietary fiber. Therefore, dietary fiber preparations have to be corrected for their residual protein contents. This is commonly done by calculating the residual protein concentrations from the nitrogen contents after Kjeldahl digestion. Here, three different methods to determine nitrogen in Kjeldahl digests were compared: conventional titration with hydrochloric acid after steam distillation, a colorimetric assay (24-well microplates and cuvettes), and the determination by using an ammonia electrode. All assays gave similar results but detection using the ammonia electrode was found to be the most time-efficient approach. Also, an amino-acid profiling method, which is not based on commercial kits and which is suitable for routine analysis of dietary fiber preparations, was established. For this purpose, an HPLC-FLD method following amino acid derivatization using 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) was optimized for fiber samples. Although all commonly used dietary fiber preparation methods involve the application of proteases the amino acid profiles of fiber samples from different sources were shown to be quite diverse. Considering the amino acid composition of the residual protein in various dietary fiber preparations, residual protein is probably not only based on structural proteins.

13.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(20): 5047-5062, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172238

RESUMO

Diferulic (DFA) and triferulic acids (TriFA) acylate and cross-link plant cell wall polysaccharides, thereby being important structural elements within the cell wall, also affecting physicochemical properties of the isolated polysaccharides. Due to the large number of potential regio- and configurational isomers and due to the fact that oligoferulic acids are not commercially available as standard compounds, analysis of oligoferulic acids after alkaline hydrolysis is challenging. Eighteen di- and triferulic acids were synthesized both non-labeled as well as 13C-labeled. By using these standard compounds, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (electrospray ionization, negative mode)-based stable isotope dilution approach was developed, fully validated and applied to plant materials. Whereas this stable isotope dilution approach is most useful to analyze plant materials with complex matrices (especially lignified tissues), less complicated matrices may not require this approach. Therefore, an alternative LC-MS/MS-based method that is based on using a single internal standard compound only was developed, too, validated, and compared to the stable isotope dilution approach. Although the stable isotope dilution approach appears to be superior, plant samples with simple matrices can also be screened by using the single internal standard method developed here.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/análise , Parede Celular/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Plantas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Glob Change Biol Bioenergy ; 11(1): 191-205, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31007724

RESUMO

Efficient utilization of lignocellulosic Miscanthus biomass for the production of biochemicals, such as ethanol, is challenging due to its recalcitrance, which is influenced by the individual plant cell wall polymers and their interactions. Lignocellulosic biomass composition differs depending on several factors, such as plant age, harvest date, organ type, and genotype. Here, four selected Miscanthus genotypes (Miscanthus sinensis, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, Miscanthus × giganteus, Miscanthus sinensis × Miscanthus sacchariflorus hybrid) were grown and harvested, separated into stems and leaves, and characterized for their non-starch polysaccharide composition and structures, lignin contents and structures, and hydroxycinnamate profiles (monomers and ferulic acid dehydrodimers). Polysaccharides of all genotypes are mainly composed of cellulose and low-substituted arabinoxylans. Ratios of hemicelluloses to cellulose were comparable, with the exception of Miscanthus sinensis that showed a higher hemicellulose/cellulose ratio. Lignin contents of Miscanthus stems were higher than those of Miscanthus leaves. Considering the same organs, the four genotypes did not differ in their Klason lignin contents, but Miscanthus × giganteus showed the highest acetylbromide soluble lignin content. Lignin polymers isolated from stems varied in their S/G ratios and linkage type distributions across genotypes. p-Coumaric acid was the most abundant ester-bound hydroxycinnamte monomer in all samples. Ferulic acid dehydrodimers were analyzed as cell wall cross-links, with 8-5-coupled diferulic acid being the main dimer, followed by 8-O-4-, and 5-5-diferulic acid. Contents of p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and ferulic acid dimers varied depending on genotype and organ type. The largest amount of cell wall cross-links was analyzed for Miscanthus sinensis.

15.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(10): e1801177, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815965

RESUMO

SCOPE: Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are process-induced food contaminants with high mutagenic and/or carcinogenic potential. Although the human gut microbiota is known to affect the metabolism of dietary constituents, its impact on HAA metabolism and toxicity has been little studied. Here, the glycerol-dependent metabolism of seven foodborne HAAs (AαC, Trp-P-1, harman, norharman, PhIP, MeIQx, and MeIQ) by the human fecal microbiota is investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: As analyzed by HPLC-DAD/FLD, the extent of conversion is strongly dependent on glycerol supplementation and HAA structure. AαC (60-100%) and the 2-aminoimidazoazarenes (up to 58%) are especially prone to microbial conversion. Based on high-resolution MS and/or NMR spectroscopy data, 70 fecal metabolites are identified in total, mainly formed by chemical reactions with one or two molecules of microbially derived reuterin. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the human fecal microbiota can further transform reuterin adducts by reduction and/or hydroxylation reactions. Upon isolation, some reuterin-induced HAA metabolites appear to be partially unstable, complicating structural identification. CONCLUSION: The formation of microbial metabolites needs to be incorporated into risk assessment considerations for HAAs in human health. In this study, several HAA metabolites, mainly reuterin-dependent, are identified in vitro, providing the basis for future human studies investigating microbial HAA metabolism.


Assuntos
Aminas/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Gliceraldeído/análogos & derivados , Compostos Heterocíclicos de Anéis Fundidos/metabolismo , Propano/metabolismo , Adulto , Aminas/farmacocinética , Animais , Carbolinas/metabolismo , Carbolinas/farmacocinética , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Gliceraldeído/metabolismo , Gliceraldeído/farmacocinética , Harmina/análogos & derivados , Harmina/metabolismo , Harmina/farmacocinética , Compostos Heterocíclicos de Anéis Fundidos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Masculino , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propano/farmacocinética , Quinolinas/metabolismo , Quinolinas/farmacocinética , Quinoxalinas/metabolismo , Quinoxalinas/farmacocinética , Ratos Wistar
16.
Magn Reson Chem ; 57(9): 579-588, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680787

RESUMO

Both the German and European organic food markets are growing fast, and there is also a rising demand for organic chicken eggs. Consumers are willing to pay higher prices for organic eggs produced in an animal-appropriate environment considering animal welfare. Strict labelling requirements do not prevent chicken eggs from being a subject of food fraud. Conventionally produced (barn/free-range) eggs can easily be mislabeled as organic eggs. Especially because the demand for organically produced chicken eggs is likely to exceed supply in the future, mislabeling appears to be a realistic scenario. Therefore, there is a need for analytical methods that are suitable to classify eggs as being either conventionally or organically produced. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis is a suitable tool to screen eggs according to the different systems of husbandry. Sample preparation is based on a fat extraction method, which was optimised for application to freeze-dried egg yolk. Samples were analysed using typical q-NMR parameters. A nontargeted approach was used for the analysis of the 1 H NMR data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied followed by a linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) and Monte Carlo cross-validation. In total, 344 chicken eggs (214 barn/free-range eggs and 130 eggs from organic farms), most of them originating from Germany, were used to build and validate the prediction model. The results showed that the prediction model allowed for the correct classification of about 93% of the organic eggs.


Assuntos
Ovos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Animais , Galinhas , Análise Discriminante , Gema de Ovo/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Alemanha , Método de Monte Carlo , Análise Multivariada , Agricultura Orgânica
17.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(1)2019 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906063

RESUMO

Thymus mastichina, also called mastic thyme or Spanish marjoram, is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, where it is widely used in folk medicine especially for treating digestive and respiratory systems disorders, and as a condiment to season olives. This work describes for the first time the detailed phenolic composition of exhaustive hydroethanolic extracts and aqueous decoctions of Thymus mastichina. Unlike other species of the Thymus genera, Thymus mastichina extracts contain high amounts of salvianolic acid derivatives, with salvianolic acid A isomer being the main derivative. This isomer was identified in extracts from Thymus mastichina for the first time. Also, an undescribed salvianolic acid derivative in Thymus mastichina was identified and its structure was tentatively described. Extracts from Thymus mastichina showed significant scavenging activity of 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical cation, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide radicals. The anti-proliferative effect of both T. mastichina extracts were tested against Caco-2 and HepG2 cells; the hydroethanolic extract showed a high anti-proliferative activity against Caco-2 cells compared to HepG2 cells (at 24 h exposure, the concentration that inhibits 50% of proliferation, IC50, was 71.18 ± 1.05 µg/mL and 264.60 ± 11.78 µg/mL for Caco-2 and HepG2, respectively). Thus, these results make this species a promising candidate for further investigation of its anti-tumoral potential. Therefore, Thymus mastichina can be potentially used as a functional food (used as a decoction or herbal tea) or as a source of bioactive ingredients with antioxidant and anti-proliferative properties.

18.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1451, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333848

RESUMO

Physiological and textural properties of apples are greatly influenced by both cultivar and structural composition of their pectic polysaccharides. In previous studies, it was demonstrated that neutral pectic side chains (arabinans and galactans) play a major role during fruit development and postharvest processes. However, these complex polymers have a high structural heterogeneity, and some structural elements such as side chain substituents and substitution of neighboring residues cannot be analyzed by using conventional analytical methods. Therefore, fine structures of arabinans and galactans were analyzed in 14 apple cultivars before and after storage. Besides conventional methods such as methylation analysis, profiling approaches based on enzymatic cleavage were applied to obtain detailed information on the neutral side chains of pectins. Structurally different, highly branched arabinans and linear ß-1,4-linked galactans were detected in all cultivars. By using enzymatic profiling approaches, rare structural elements such as ß-arabinofuranose and α-arabinopyranose residues were detected. In addition, the combination of all methods indicated structural differences with regard to ramification position or patterns. Cold storage resulted in decreased portions of branched arabinans. It was demonstrated that arabinan decomposition is independent of previously detected structural variations. In addition, analysis of endo-arabinanase hydrolysates demonstrated that ß-arabinofuranose containing side chains are enriched after storage and may play a major role in postharvest processes. Analysis of endo-galactanase hydrolysates showed decreased portions of galactan-bound, terminal α-arabinopyranose units after storage. Therefore, these residues are most likely removed during postharvest galactan decomposition. The results of this study demonstrate the high complexity of neutral pectin side chains in apples and that pectic structural elements are differently prone to postharvest modifications.

19.
Front Chem ; 6: 190, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29951478

RESUMO

Ferulate-mediated cross-linking of plant cell wall polymers has various implications on the quality of plant based food products, forage digestibility, and biomass utilization. Besides dehydrodiferulic acids (DFA), dehydrotriferulic acids (TriFA) gained increasing interest over the past two decades, because they potentially cross-link up to three polymers. Here, we describe a separation strategy to obtain several TriFA as analytical standard compounds from a reaction mixture after radical coupling of ethyl ferulate. By using silica flash chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, and reversed phase HPLC, six known TriFA as well as three previously unidentified ferulic acid trimers were obtained, and their structures were characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy (1H, HSQC, COSY, HMBC, and NOESY). The novel trimers were identified as 5-5/8-8(cyclic)-, 8-8(noncyclic)/8-O-4-, and, tentatively, 5-5/8-8(noncyclic)-TriFA. Natural occurrence of these TriFA in plant cell walls was demonstrated by LC-MS/MS analyses of alkaline cell wall hydrolyzates.

20.
Food Funct ; 9(7): 3617-3629, 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29956711

RESUMO

The potential of Thymus pulegioides L. as an alternative and valuable source of functional ingredients has been assessed. For this purpose, the phenolic constituent profiles and the antioxidant, anti-proliferative, neuroprotective, anti-aging and anti-diabetic activities of both T. pulegioides aqueous decoctions (AD) and hydro-ethanolic extracts (HE) were studied and compared for the first time. Rosmarinic acid was the main phenolic compound, accounting for 35.2% or 47.8% of total identified phenols in AD or HE, respectively (58.5 and 151.9 mg g-1 extract). Furthermore, large amounts of luteolin-O-hexuronide (AD: 39.9 ± 2.5 mg g-1, HE: 60.8 ± 7.0 mg g-1), eriodictyol-O-hexuronide (AD: 19.9 ± 2.5 mg g-1, HE: 26.8 ± 7.0 mg g-1) and chrysoeriol hexoside (AD: 23.5 ± 0.7 mg g-1, HE: 16.0 ± 0.7 mg g-1) were found. Both extracts showed significant in vitro antioxidant activity and anti-proliferative activity against Caco-2 cells (IC50 82.25 µg mL-1 and 105.44 µg mL-1, AD and HE, respectively), and reduced hepatotoxicity (HepG2 cells). In general, both T. pulegioides extracts showed poor anti-diabetic activity, moderate anti-aging effects and high neuroprotective activity with both AD and HE extracts, at 0.5 mg mL-1, showing 80% inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase activity and 94% inhibition of the tyrosinase activity. The present study highlights the important potential of this herb as a functional food ingredient.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Thymus (Planta)/química , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Células CACO-2 , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
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