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1.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In cystic fibrosis (CF), the spectrum and frequency of CFTR variants differ by geography and race/ethnicity. CFTR variants in White patients are well-described compared with Latino patients. No studies of CFTR variants have been done in patients with CF in the Dominican Republic or Puerto Rico. METHODS: CFTR was sequenced in 61 Dominican Republican patients and 21 Puerto Rican patients with CF and greater than ​​​​60 mmol/L sweat chloride. The spectrum of CFTR variants was identified and the proportion of patients with 0, 1, or 2 CFTR variants identified was determined. The functional effects of identified CFTR variants were investigated using clinical annotation databases and computational prediction tools. RESULTS: Our study found 10% of Dominican patients had two CFTR variants identified compared with 81% of Puerto Rican patients. No CFTR variants were identified in 69% of Dominican patients and 10% of Puerto Rican patients. In Dominican patients, there were 19 identified CFTR variants, accounting for 25 out of 122 disease alleles (20%). In Puerto Rican patients, there were 16 identified CFTR variants, accounting for 36 out of 42 disease alleles (86%) in Puerto Rican patients. Thirty CFTR variants were identified overall. The most frequent variants for Dominican patients were p.Phe508del and p.Ala559Thr and for Puerto Rican patients were p.Phe508del, p.Arg1066Cys, p.Arg334Trp, and p.I507del. CONCLUSIONS: In this first description of the CFTR variants in patients with CF from the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, there was a low detection rate of two CFTR variants after full sequencing with the majority of patients from the Dominican Republic without identified variants.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 747-762, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543216

RESUMO

Runs of homozygosity (ROH) are important genomic features that manifest when an individual inherits two haplotypes that are identical by descent. Their length distributions are informative about population history, and their genomic locations are useful for mapping recessive loci contributing to both Mendelian and complex disease risk. We have previously shown that ROH, and especially long ROH that are likely the result of recent parental relatedness, are enriched for homozygous deleterious coding variation in a worldwide sample of outbred individuals. However, the distribution of ROH in admixed populations and their relationship to deleterious homozygous genotypes is understudied. Here we analyze whole-genome sequencing data from 1,441 unrelated individuals from self-identified African American, Puerto Rican, and Mexican American populations. These populations are three-way admixed between European, African, and Native American ancestries and provide an opportunity to study the distribution of deleterious alleles partitioned by local ancestry and ROH. We re-capitulate previous findings that long ROH are enriched for deleterious variation genome-wide. We then partition by local ancestry and show that deleterious homozygotes arise at a higher rate when ROH overlap African ancestry segments than when they overlap European or Native American ancestry segments of the genome. These results suggest that, while ROH on any haplotype background are associated with an inflation of deleterious homozygous variation, African haplotype backgrounds may play a particularly important role in the genetic architecture of complex diseases for admixed individuals, highlighting the need for further study of these populations.

3.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496123

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that the airways of asthma patients contain higher diversity of bacteria and are enriched in pathogenic species. However, sampling the airways in children is challenging. Here we aimed to identify differences in the salivary bacterial composition between African Americans children with and without asthma. Saliva samples from 57 asthma cases and 57 healthy controls were analyzed by means of 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon profiling. Measurements of bacterial diversity and genus relative abundance were compared between cases and controls using the nonparametric Wilcoxon test and multivariate regression models. A total of five phyla and a mean of 56 genera were identified. Among them, 15 genera had a relative abundance greater than 1%, being Prevotella, Haemophilus, Streptococcus, and Veillonella the most abundant genera. Differences between cases and controls were found in terms of diversity, as well as in relative abundance for Streptococcus genus (13.0% in cases vs 18.3% in controls; P = .003) and Veillonella genus (11.1% in cases vs 8.0% in controls; P = .002). These differences remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons and when potential confounders were taken into account in logistic regression models. In conclusion, we identified changes in the salivary microbiota associated with asthma among African Americans.

4.
Chest ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common respiratory disorder with a highly heterogeneous nature that remains poorly understood. The objective was to use whole genome sequencing (WGS) data to identify regions of common genetic variation contributing to lung function in individuals with a diagnosis of asthma. METHODS: WGS data were generated for 1,053 individuals from trios and extended pedigrees participating in the family-based Genetic Epidemiology of Asthma in Costa Rica study. The degree to which participants were affected by asthma was defined through a physician's diagnosis of asthma, and most participants with asthma also had airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine. Family-based association tests for single variants were performed to assess the associations with lung function phenotypes. RESULTS: A plausible association was identified between baseline FEV1/FVC ratio and a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the top hit cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain-containing 2 (CRISPLD2) (rs12051168; P = 3.6 × 10-8 in the unadjusted model) that retained suggestive significance in the covariate-adjusted model (P = 5.6 × 10-6). Rs12051168 was also nominally associated with other related phenotypes: baseline FEV1 (P = 3.3 × 10-3), postbronchodilator (PB) FEV1 (7.3 × 10-3), and PB FEV1/FVC ratio (P = 2.7 × 10-3). The identified baseline FEV1/FVC ratio and rs12051168 association was meta-analyzed and replicated in three independent cohorts in which most participants with asthma also had confirmed AHR (combined weighted z-score P = .015) but not in cohorts without information about AHR. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that using specific asthma characteristics, such as AHR, can help identify more genetically homogeneous asthma subgroups with genotype-phenotype associations that may not be observed in all children with asthma. CRISPLD2 also may be important for baseline lung function in individuals with asthma who also may have AHR.

5.
BMC Genet ; 20(1): 59, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Association studies in recently admixed populations are extremely useful to identify the genetic architecture of pigmentation, due to their high genotypic and phenotypic variation. However, to date only four Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have been carried out in these populations. RESULTS: We present a GWAS of skin pigmentation in an admixed sample from Cuba (N = 762). Additionally, we conducted a meta-analysis including the Cuban sample, and admixed samples from Cape Verde, Puerto Rico and African-Americans from San Francisco. This meta-analysis is one of the largest efforts so far to characterize the genetic basis of skin pigmentation in admixed populations (N = 2,104). We identified five genome-wide significant regions in the meta-analysis, and explored if the markers observed in these regions are associated with the expression of relevant pigmentary genes in human melanocyte cultures. In three of the regions identified in the meta-analysis (SLC24A5, SLC45A2, and GRM5/TYR), the association seems to be driven by non-synonymous variants (rs1426654, rs16891982, and rs1042602, respectively). The rs16891982 polymorphism is strongly associated with the expression of the SLC45A2 gene. In the GRM5/TYR region, in addition to the rs1042602 non-synonymous SNP located on the TYR gene, variants located in the nearby GRM5 gene have an independent effect on pigmentation, possibly through regulation of gene expression of the TYR gene. We also replicated an association recently described near the MFSD12 gene on chromosome 19 (lead variant rs112332856). Additionally, our analyses support the presence of multiple signals in the OCA2/HERC2/APBA2 region on chromosome 15. A clear causal candidate is the HERC2 intronic variant rs12913832, which has a profound influence on OCA2 expression. This variant has pleiotropic effects on eye, hair, and skin pigmentation. However, conditional and haplotype-based analyses indicate the presence of other variants with independent effects on melanin levels in OCA2 and APBA2. Finally, a follow-up of genome-wide signals identified in a recent GWAS for tanning response indicates that there is a substantial overlap in the genetic factors influencing skin pigmentation and tanning response. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis of skin pigmentation GWAS in recently admixed populations provides new insights about the genetic architecture of this complex trait.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(3): 839-845.e10, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length (TL) can serve as a potential biomarker for conditions associated with chronic oxidative stress and inflammation, such as asthma. Air pollution can induce oxidative stress. Understanding the relationship between TL, asthma, and air pollution is important for identifying risk factors contributing to unhealthy aging in children. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate associations between exposures to ambient air pollutants and TL in African American children and adolescents and to examine whether African ancestry, asthma status, and steroid medication use alter the association. METHODS: Linear regression was used to examine associations between absolute telomere length (aTL) and estimated annual average residential ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) exposures in a cross-sectional analysis of 1072 children in an existing asthma case-control study. African ancestry, asthma status, and use of steroid medications were examined as effect modifiers. RESULTS: Participants' aTLs were measured by using quantitative PCR. A 1-ppb and 1 µg/m3 increase in annual average exposure to O3 and PM2.5 were associated with a decrease in aTL of 37.1 kilo-base pair (kb; 95% CI, -66.7 to -7.4 kb) and 57.1 kb (95% CI, -118.1 to 3.9 kb), respectively. African ancestry and asthma were not effect modifiers; however, exposure to steroid medications modified the relationships between TL and pollutants. Past-year exposure to O3 and PM2.5 was associated with shorter TLs in patients without steroid use. CONCLUSION: Exposure to air pollution was associated with shorter TLs in nonasthmatic children and adolescents. This was not the case for asthmatic children as a group, but those receiving steroid medication had less shortening than those not using steroids. Reduced exposure to air pollution in childhood might help to preserve TL.

7.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 106(5): 1133-1140, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209858

RESUMO

American Thoracic Society guidelines recommend inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy, plus a short-acting bronchodilator, in patients with persistent asthma. However, few prior studies have examined the efficacy of this combination in children of all racial/ethnic groups. We evaluated the association between ICS use and bronchodilator response (BDR) in three pediatric populations with persistent asthma (656 African American, 916 Puerto Rican, and 398 Mexican American children). The association was assessed using multivariable quantile regression. After adjusting for baseline forced expiratory volume in one second and use of controller medications, ICS use was significantly associated with increased BDR only among Mexican Americans (1.56%, P = 0.028) but not African Americans (0.49%, P = 0.426) or Puerto Ricans (0.16%, P = 0.813). Our results demonstrate that ICS augmentation is disproportionate across racial/ethnic groups, where improved BDR is observed in Mexican Americans only. This study highlights the complexities of treating asthma in children, and reinforces the importance of investigating the influence of race/ethnicity on pharmacological response.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(4): 962-971, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research in transformed immortalized cell lines indicates the cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3) protein serves as a receptor for human rhinovirus (HRV)-C. Similar experiments indicate that the CDHR3 coding variant rs6967330 increases CDHR3 protein surface expression. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether CDHR3 is necessary for HRV-C infection of primary airway epithelial cells (AECs) and to identify molecular mechanisms by which CDHR3 variants confer risk for asthma exacerbations. METHODS: CDHR3 function and influence on HRV-C infection were investigated by using single-cell transcriptomics, CRISPR-Cas9 gene knockout, and genotype-specific donor experiments performed in primary AECs. Nasal airway epithelium cis-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis of CDHR3 was performed, followed by association testing for asthma hospitalization in minority children. RESULTS: CDHR3 lung expression is exclusive to ciliated AECs and associated with basal bodies during and after motile ciliogenesis. Knockout of CDHR3 in human AECs did not prevent ciliated cell differentiation but was associated with a decrease in transepithelial resistance and an 80% decrease in HRV-C infection of the mucociliary epithelium. AECs from subjects homozygous for the risk-associated rs6967330 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) exhibited greater HRV-C infection compared with cells homozygous for the nonrisk allele. AEC cis-eQTL analysis indicated that rs6967330 and other SNPs are eQTLs for CDHR3. Only the eQTL block containing the rs6967330 SNP showed a significant association with childhood asthma hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic deletion and genotype-specific studies in primary AECs indicate CDHR3 is critical to HRV-C infection of ciliated cells. The rs6967330 SNP confers risk of severe childhood asthma exacerbations, likely through increasing HRV-C infection levels and protein surface localization.

9.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(6): 789-798, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most widely prescribed and effective medication to control asthma symptoms and exacerbations. However, many children still have asthma exacerbations despite treatment, particularly in admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans and African Americans. A few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed in European and Asian populations, and they have demonstrated the importance of the genetic component in ICS response. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with asthma exacerbations in admixed children treated with ICS and to validate previous GWAS findings. METHODS: A meta-analysis of two GWAS of asthma exacerbations was performed in 1347 admixed children treated with ICS (Hispanics/Latinos and African Americans), analysing 8.7 million genetic variants. Those with P ≤ 5 × 10-6 were followed up for replication in 1697 asthmatic patients from six European studies. Associations of ICS response described in published GWAS were followed up for replication in the admixed populations. RESULTS: A total of 15 independent variants were suggestively associated with asthma exacerbations in admixed populations (P ≤ 5 × 10-6 ). One of them, located in the intergenic region of APOBEC3B and APOBEC3C, showed evidence of replication in Europeans (rs5995653, P = 7.52 × 10-3 ) and was also associated with change in lung function after treatment with ICS (P = 4.91 × 10-3 ). Additionally, the reported association of the L3MBTL4-ARHGAP28 genomic region was confirmed in admixed populations, although a different variant was identified. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study revealed the novel association of APOBEC3B and APOBEC3C with asthma exacerbations in children treated with ICS and replicated previously identified genomic regions. This contributes to the current knowledge about the multiple genetic markers determining responsiveness to ICS which could lead in the future the clinical identification of those asthma patients who are not able to respond to such treatment.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(5): 1914-1922, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acculturation is an important predictor of asthma in Latino youth, specifically Mexican Americans. Less is known about acculturation and pulmonary function measures. OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the association of acculturation measures with asthma and pulmonary function in Latino youth and determine whether this association varies across Latino subgroups. METHODS: We included 1849 Latinos (302 Caribbean Spanish, 193 Central or South Americans, 1136 Mexican Americans, and 218 other Latino children) aged 8 to 21 years from 4 urban regions in the United States. Acculturation measures include nativity status, age of immigration, language of preference, and generation in the United States. We used multivariable logistic and linear regression models to quantify the association of acculturation factors with the presence of asthma (case-control study) and pulmonary function (case-only study), adjusting for demographic, socioenvironmental, and clinical variables. RESULTS: For all acculturation measures (nativity status, age of immigration, language of preference, and generation in the United States), greater levels of acculturation were associated with greater odds of asthma. Among cases, high (English preference) and medium (equal preference for Spanish and English) levels of language acculturation were associated with decreased bronchodilator response compared with low (Spanish preference) levels (P = .009 and .02, respectively). Similarly, high language acculturation was associated with increased FEV1 compared with low language acculturation (P = .02). There was insufficient evidence of heterogeneity for associations across Latino subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Acculturation was associated with diagnosed asthma and pulmonary function in Latino children and is an important factor to consider in the management of Latino youth with asthma.

12.
Blood ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510082

RESUMO

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in children. Characterized by high levels of Native American ancestry, Hispanics are disproportionally affected by this cancer with high incidence and inferior survival, but the genetic basis for this disparity remains poorly understood because of a paucity of genome-wide investigation of ALL in Hispanics. Performing a genome-wide association study in 940 Hispanic children with ALL and 681 ancestry-matched non-ALL controls, we identified a novel susceptibility locus in the ERG gene (rs2836365; P = 3.76 × 10-8, odds ratio [OR] = 1.56), with independent validation (P = 0.01, OR = 1.43). Imputation analyses pointed to a single causal variant driving the association signal at this locus overlapping with putative regulatory DNA elements. The effect size of the ERG risk variant rose sharply with increasing Native American genetic ancestry. The ERG risk genotype was under-represented in ALL with the ETV6-RUNX1 fusion (P < 0.0005) but enriched in the TCF3-PBX1 subtype (P < 0.05). Interestingly, ALL cases with germline ERG risk alleles were significantly less likely to have somatic ERG deletion (P < 0.05). Our results provide novel insights to genetic predisposition to ALL and its contribution to racial disparity in this cancer.

13.
JAMA ; 320(22): 2354-2364, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535219

RESUMO

Importance: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia affecting 1% of the population. Young individuals with AF have a strong genetic association with the disease, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Objective: To perform large-scale whole-genome sequencing to identify genetic variants related to AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program includes longitudinal and cohort studies that underwent high-depth whole-genome sequencing between 2014 and 2017 in 18 526 individuals from the United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Barbados, and Samoa. This case-control study included 2781 patients with early-onset AF from 9 studies and identified 4959 controls of European ancestry from the remaining participants. Results were replicated in the UK Biobank (346 546 participants) and the MyCode Study (42 782 participants). Exposures: Loss-of-function (LOF) variants in genes at AF loci and common genetic variation across the whole genome. Main Outcomes and Measures: Early-onset AF (defined as AF onset in persons <66 years of age). Due to multiple testing, the significance threshold for the rare variant analysis was P = 4.55 × 10-3. Results: Among 2781 participants with early-onset AF (the case group), 72.1% were men, and the mean (SD) age of AF onset was 48.7 (10.2) years. Participants underwent whole-genome sequencing at a mean depth of 37.8 fold and mean genome coverage of 99.1%. At least 1 LOF variant in TTN, the gene encoding the sarcomeric protein titin, was present in 2.1% of case participants compared with 1.1% in control participants (odds ratio [OR], 1.76 [95% CI, 1.04-2.97]). The proportion of individuals with early-onset AF who carried a LOF variant in TTN increased with an earlier age of AF onset (P value for trend, 4.92 × 10-4), and 6.5% of individuals with AF onset prior to age 30 carried a TTN LOF variant (OR, 5.94 [95% CI, 2.64-13.35]; P = 1.65 × 10-5). The association between TTN LOF variants and AF was replicated in an independent study of 1582 patients with early-onset AF (cases) and 41 200 control participants (OR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.19-3.92]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: In a case-control study, there was a statistically significant association between an LOF variant in the TTN gene and early-onset AF, with the variant present in a small percentage of participants with early-onset AF (the case group). Further research is necessary to understand whether this is a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Conectina/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Adulto , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Qualidade
15.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455414

RESUMO

We used a deeply sequenced dataset of 910 individuals, all of African descent, to construct a set of DNA sequences that is present in these individuals but missing from the reference human genome. We aligned 1.19 trillion reads from the 910 individuals to the reference genome (GRCh38), collected all reads that failed to align, and assembled these reads into contiguous sequences (contigs). We then compared all contigs to one another to identify a set of unique sequences representing regions of the African pan-genome missing from the reference genome. Our analysis revealed 296,485,284 bp in 125,715 distinct contigs present in the populations of African descent, demonstrating that the African pan-genome contains ~10% more DNA than the current human reference genome. Although the functional significance of nearly all of this sequence is unknown, 387 of the novel contigs fall within 315 distinct protein-coding genes, and the rest appear to be intergenic.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) medication is considered the cornerstone treatment for patients with persistent asthma, few ICS pharmacogenomic studies have involved nonwhite populations. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify genetic predictors of ICS response in multiple population groups with asthma. METHODS: The discovery group comprised African American participants from the Study of Asthma Phenotypes and Pharmacogenomic Interactions by Race-Ethnicity (SAPPHIRE) who underwent 6 weeks of monitored ICS therapy (n = 244). A genome-wide scan was performed to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants jointly associated (ie, the combined effect of the SNP and SNP × ICS treatment interaction) with changes in asthma control. Top associations were validated by assessing the joint association with asthma exacerbations in 3 additional groups: African Americans (n = 803 and n = 563) and Latinos (n = 1461). RNA sequencing data from 408 asthmatic patients and 405 control subjects were used to examine whether genotype was associated with gene expression. RESULTS: One variant, rs3827907, was significantly associated with ICS-mediated changes in asthma control in the discovery set (P = 7.79 × 10-8) and was jointly associated with asthma exacerbations in 3 validation cohorts (P = .023, P = .029, and P = .041). RNA sequencing analysis found the rs3827907 C-allele to be associated with lower RNASE2 expression (P = 6.10 × 10-4). RNASE2 encodes eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, and the rs3827907 C-allele appeared to particularly influence ICS treatment response in the presence of eosinophilic inflammation (ie, high pretreatment eosinophil-derived neurotoxin levels or blood eosinophil counts). CONCLUSION: We identified a variant, rs3827907, that appears to influence response to ICS treatment in multiple population groups and likely mediates its effect through eosinophils.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13265, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185882

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) is associated with numerous disease states and is affected by genetic and environmental factors. However, TL has been mostly studied in adult populations of European or Asian ancestry. These studies have identified 34 TL-associated genetic variants recently used as genetic proxies for TL. The generalizability of these associations to pediatric populations and racially diverse populations, specifically of African ancestry, remains unclear. Furthermore, six novel variants associated with TL in a population of European children have been identified but not validated. We measured TL from whole blood samples of 492 healthy African American youth (children and adolescents between 8 and 20 years old) and performed the first genome-wide association study of TL in this population. We were unable to replicate neither the 34 reported genetic associations found in adults nor the six genetic associations found in European children. However, we discovered a novel genome-wide significant association between TL and rs1483898 on chromosome 14. Our results underscore the importance of examining genetic associations with TL in diverse pediatric populations such as African Americans.

19.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206298

RESUMO

Short-acting ß2-adrenergic receptor agonists (SABAs) are the most commonly prescribed asthma medications worldwide. Response to SABAs is measured as bronchodilator drug response (BDR), which varies among racial/ethnic groups in the United States. However, the genetic variation that contributes to BDR is largely undefined in African Americans with asthma. To identify genetic variants that may contribute to differences in BDR in African Americans with asthma, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BDR in 949 African-American children with asthma, genotyped with the Axiom World Array 4 (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) followed by imputation using 1000 Genomes phase III genotypes. We used linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and genetic ancestry to test for an association between BDR and genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To increase power and distinguish between shared vs. population-specific associations with BDR in children with asthma, we performed a meta-analysis across 949 African Americans and 1830 Latinos (total = 2779). Finally, we performed genome-wide admixture mapping to identify regions whereby local African or European ancestry is associated with BDR in African Americans. We identified a population-specific association with an intergenic SNP on chromosome 9q21 that was significantly associated with BDR (rs73650726, p = 7.69 × 10-9). A trans-ethnic meta-analysis across African Americans and Latinos identified three additional SNPs within the intron of PRKG1 that were significantly associated with BDR (rs7903366, rs7070958 and rs7081864, p ≤ 5 × 10-8). Our results failed to replicate in three additional populations of 416 Latinos and 1615 African Americans. Our findings indicate that both population-specific and shared genetic variation contributes to differences in BDR in minority children with asthma, and that the genetic underpinnings of BDR may differ between racial/ethnic groups.

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