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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e049688, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266843

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mental disorders pose a huge burden to both individuals and health systems. Symptoms and syndromes often remain undetected and untreated, resulting in comorbidity and chronification. Besides limited resources in healthcare systems, the treatment-gap is-to a large extent-caused by within-person barriers impeding early treatment seeking. These barriers include a lack of trust in professionals, fear of stigmatisation, or the desire to cope with problems without professional help. While unguided self-management interventions are not designed to replace psychotherapy, they may support early symptom assessment and recognition by reducing within-person barriers. Digital self-management solutions may also reduce inequalities in access to care due to external factors such as regional unavailability of services. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Approximately 1100 patients suffering from mild to moderate depressive, anxiety, sleep, eating or somatisation-related mental disorders will be randomised to receive either a low-threshold unguided digital self-management tool in the form of a transdiagnostic mental health app or care as usual. The primary outcomes will be mental health literacy, patient empowerment and access to care while secondary outcomes will be symptom distress and quality of life. Additional moderator and predictor variables are negative life events, personality functioning, client satisfaction, mental healthcare service use and application of self-management strategies. Data will be collected at baseline as well as 8 weeks and 6 months after randomisation. Data will be analysed using multiple imputation and analysis of covariance employing the intention-to-treat principle, while sensitivity analyses will be based on different multiple imputation parameters and a per-protocol analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Educational Science and Psychology at the Freie Universität Berlin. The results will be submitted to peer-reviewed specialised journals and presented at national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTERATION: The trial has been registered in the DRKS trial register (DRKS00022531);Pre-results.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Aplicativos Móveis , Autogestão , Berlim , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Participação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
J Trauma Stress ; 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022094

RESUMO

Alterations in HPA-axis and autonomic nervous system activity have been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development and maintenance and are potentially associated with trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) outcomes. We examined the role of salivary cortisol (sCort) and alpha-amylase (sAA) in PTSD and TF-CBT outcomes in German Armed Forces service members (N = 100). Participants categorized as PTSD patients (n = 39), previously deployed healthy controls (n = 33), and nondeployed healthy controls (n = 28) provided diurnal profiles of sCort and sAA; PTSD patients provided samples before, immediately after, and 3 months after an internet-based TF-CBT intervention. No group differences emerged regarding total daily sCort and sAA output or daily slopes, ps = .224-.897, fs = 0.05-0.24. Participants with PTSD demonstrated a significantly attenuated sCort awakening response compared to deployed, p = .021, d = 0.59, but not nondeployed controls, p = .918, d = 0.08. Moreover, a significantly steeper sAA awakening response emerged in PTSD patients, p = .034, d = 0.67, and deployed controls, p = .014, d = 0.80, compared to nondeployed controls. From pretreatment to posttreatment (n = 21) and posttreatment to follow-up (n = 14), stable sCort, ps = .282-.628, fs = 0.34-0.49, and sAA concentrations, ps = .068-.758, fs = 0.24-1.13 paralleled a nonsignificant treatment effect. Both PTSD and trauma exposure were associated with alterations in awakening responses, but further investigation is needed to determine whether the observed correspondence remains when PTSD symptoms significantly decline.

3.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1886499, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968321

RESUMO

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by impairments in extinction learning and social behaviour, which are targeted by trauma-focused cognitive behavioural treatment (TF-CBT). The biological underpinnings of TF-CBT can be better understood by adding biomarkers to the clinical evaluation of interventions. Due to their involvement in social functioning and fear processing, oxytocin and arginine vasopressin might be informative biomarkers for TF-CBT, but to date, this has never been tested. Objective: To differentiate the impact of traumatic event exposure and PTSD symptoms on blood oxytocin and vasopressin concentrations. Further, to describe courses of PTSD symptoms, oxytocin and vasopressin during an internet-based TF-CBT and explore interactions between these parameters. Method: We compared oxytocin and vasopressin between three groups of active and former male service members of the German Armed Forces (n = 100): PTSD patients (n = 39), deployed healthy controls who experienced a deployment-related traumatic event (n = 33) and non-deployed healthy controls who never experienced a traumatic event (n = 28). PTSD patients underwent a 5-week internet-based TF-CBT. We correlated PTSD symptoms with oxytocin and vasopressin before treatment onset. Further, we analysed courses of PTSD symptoms, oxytocin and vasopressin from pre- to post-treatment and 3 months follow-up, as well as interactions between the three parameters. Results: Oxytocin and vasopressin did not differ between the groups and were unrelated to PTSD symptoms. PTSD symptoms were highly stable over time, whereas the endocrine parameters were not, and they also did not change in mean. Oxytocin and vasopressin were not associated with PTSD symptoms longitudinally. Conclusions: Mainly due to their insufficient intraindividual stability, single measurements of endogenous oxytocin and vasopressin concentrations are not informative biomarkers for TF-CBT. We discuss how the stability of these biomarkers might be increased and how they could be better related to the specific impairments targeted by TF-CBT.

4.
Internet Interv ; 24: 100380, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747798

RESUMO

Background: E-mental health interventions may help to bridge the mental health treatment gap. Evidence on their effectiveness is compelling in high-income countries. Not enough evidence has been generated on their use with communities affected by adversity in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO), the National Mental Health Programme (NMMP) at Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) in Lebanon and other partners have adapted a WHO intervention called Step-by-Step for use with Lebanese and displaced people living in Lebanon. Step-by-Step is a minimally guided, internet-based intervention for adults with depression. In this study, a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) and a qualitative process evaluation were conducted to explore the feasibility and the acceptability of the research methods, and the intervention, in preparation for two fully powered trials to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Step-by-Step in Lebanon. Method: Participants were recruited through social media. Inclusion criteria were: being able to understand and speak Arabic or English; access to an internet connected device; aged over 18; living in Lebanon; scores above cut-off on the Patient Health Questionnaire and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or enhanced care as usual. They completed post-assessments eight weeks after baseline, and follow-up assessments another three months later. Primary outcomes were depression and level of functioning, secondary outcomes were anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and well-being. Qualitative interviews were conducted to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the research procedures and the intervention. Results: A total of N = 138 participants, including 33 Syrians, were recruited and randomised into two equal groups. The dropout rate was higher in the control group (73% post- and 82% follow-up assessment) than in the intervention group (63% post- and 72% follow-up assessment). The intervention was perceived as relevant, acceptable and beneficial to those who completed it. Suggestions were made to further adapt the content and to make the intervention more engaging. Statistical analyses were conducted despite the small sample size. Complete cases analysis showed a statistically significant symptom reduction in depression, anxiety, disability, and post-traumatic stress, and statistically significant improvement in well-being and functioning. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed non-significant effects. Conclusion: The research design, methods and procedures are feasible and acceptable in the context of Lebanon and can be applied in the RCTs. Preliminary findings suggest that Step-by-Step may be effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety and improving functioning and well-being.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244955, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406120

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Major depression affects over 300 million people worldwide, but cases are often detected late or remain undetected. This increases the risk of symptom deterioration and chronification. Consequently, there is a high demand for low threshold but clinically sound approaches to depression detection. Recent studies show a great willingness among users of mobile health apps to assess daily depression symptoms. In this pilot study, we present a provisional validation of the depression screening app Moodpath. The app offers a 14-day ambulatory assessment (AA) of depression symptoms based on the ICD-10 criteria as well as ecologically momentary mood ratings that allow the study of short-term mood dynamics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: N = 113 Moodpath users were selected through consecutive sampling and filled out the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) after completing 14 days of AA with 3 question blocks (morning, midday, and evening) per day. The psychometric properties (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy) of the ambulatory Moodpath screening were assessed based on the retrospective PHQ-9 screening result. In addition, several indicators of mood dynamics (e.g. average, inertia, instability), were calculated and investigated for their individual and incremental predictive value using regression models. RESULTS: We found a strong linear relationship between the PHQ-9 score and the AA Moodpath depression score (r = .76, p < .001). The app-based screening demonstrated a high sensitivity (.879) and acceptable specificity (.745). Different indicators of mood dynamics covered substantial amounts of PHQ-9 variance, depending on the number of days with mood data that were included in the analyses. DISCUSSION: AA and PHQ-9 shared a large proportion of variance but may not measure exactly the same construct. This may be due to the differences in the underlying diagnostic systems or due to differences in momentary and retrospective assessments. Further validation through structured clinical interviews is indicated. The results suggest that ambulatory assessed mood indicators are a promising addition to multimodal depression screening tools. Improving app-based AA screenings requires adapted screening algorithms and corresponding methods for the analysis of dynamic processes over time.


Assuntos
Afeto , Depressão/diagnóstico , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Smartphone , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(1): e21585, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of availability of evidence-based services for people exposed to adversity globally has led to the development of psychological interventions with features that will likely make them more scalable. The evidence for the efficacy of e-mental health from high-income countries is compelling, and the use of these interventions could be a way to increase the coverage of evidence-based psychological interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Step-by-Step is a brief (5-session) intervention proposed by the World Health Organization as an innovative approach to reducing the suffering and disability associated with depression. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a locally adapted version of Step-by-Step with Syrian nationals (trial 1) and Lebanese nationals and other populations residing in Lebanon (trial 2). METHODS: This Step-by-Step trial involves 2 parallel, two-armed, randomized controlled trials comparing the e-intervention Step-by-Step to enhanced care as usual in participants with depressive symptoms and impaired functioning. The randomized controlled trials are designed and powered to detect effectiveness in 2 populations: Syrians in Lebanon (n=568) and other people residing in Lebanon (n=568; Lebanese nationals and other populations resident in Lebanon). The primary outcomes are depressive symptomatology (measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and functioning (measured with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale 2.0). Secondary outcomes include anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, personalized measures of psychosocial problems, subjective well-being, and economic effectiveness. Participants are mainly recruited through online advertising. Additional outreach methods will be used if required, for example through dissemination of information through partner agencies and organizations. They can access the intervention on a computer, tablet, and mobile phone through a hybrid app. Step-by-Step has 5 sessions, and users are guided by trained nonspecialist "e-helpers" providing phone-based or message-based support for around 15 minutes a week. RESULTS: The trials were funded in 2018. The study protocol was last verified June 20, 2019 (WHO ERC.0002797) and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03720769). The trials started recruitment as of December 9, 2019, and all data collection was completed in December 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The Step-by-Step trials will provide evidence about the effectiveness of an e-mental health intervention in Lebanon. If the intervention proves to be effective, this will inform future scale-up of this and similar interventions in Lebanon and in other settings across the world. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03720769; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03720769. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/21585.

7.
Implement Sci Commun ; 1(1): 96, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) protocol will comprehensively describe the implementation of a culturally adapted Filipino version of the World Health Organization Step-by-Step (SbS-F) program, unguided online psychological intervention for people with depression based on behavioral activation, among overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) in Macao (Special Administrative Region). The main objective of this pilot study is to explore the preliminary effectiveness of the SbS-F program to decrease participant-reported depressive symptoms compared to enhanced care as usual (ECAU); and the secondary objectives are to explore the preliminary effectiveness of the SbS-F to decrease participant-reported anxiety symptoms and improve wellbeing, and to evaluate the potential for SbS-F implementation in real-world settings. METHODS: This trial will follow an effectiveness-implementation hybrid type 1 trial design and utilize the Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework to accelerate the translation of clinical research into more effective implementation strategies and policies. Participants will be randomized 1:1 to control and treatment groups. Control group participants will receive ECAU that consists of brief depression psychoeducation and referral to local community partners. Treatment group participants will receive a 5-session of digital intervention through a mobile phone application. The primary outcome (depression) and psychological secondary outcomes (anxiety symptoms and wellbeing) will be measured using validated instruments. To evaluate study implementation, an embedded mixed-methods design will be used to collect data from various stakeholders. Data then will be analyzed using intention to treat principle and reported following the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guideline. DISCUSSION: This study will provide important new knowledge about the preliminary effectiveness of SbS-F, a mobile application, as a digital mental health intervention and its scalability. If SbS-F shows positive results among OFWs in Macao, it has strong potential to be used by OFWs in other countries that may also experience depression and difficulty accessing mental health services. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospective registration, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( ChiCTR2000034959 ) on 26/07/2020.

8.
Implement Sci Commun ; 1: 96, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145495

RESUMO

Background: The current pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) protocol will comprehensively describe the implementation of a culturally adapted Filipino version of the World Health Organization Step-by-Step (SbS-F) program, unguided online psychological intervention for people with depression based on behavioral activation, among overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) in Macao (Special Administrative Region). The main objective of this pilot study is to explore the preliminary effectiveness of the SbS-F program to decrease participant-reported depressive symptoms compared to enhanced care as usual (ECAU); and the secondary objectives are to explore the preliminary effectiveness of the SbS-F to decrease participant-reported anxiety symptoms and improve wellbeing, and to evaluate the potential for SbS-F implementation in real-world settings. Methods: This trial will follow an effectiveness-implementation hybrid type 1 trial design and utilize the Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework to accelerate the translation of clinical research into more effective implementation strategies and policies. Participants will be randomized 1:1 to control and treatment groups. Control group participants will receive ECAU that consists of brief depression psychoeducation and referral to local community partners. Treatment group participants will receive a 5-session of digital intervention through a mobile phone application. The primary outcome (depression) and psychological secondary outcomes (anxiety symptoms and wellbeing) will be measured using validated instruments. To evaluate study implementation, an embedded mixed-methods design will be used to collect data from various stakeholders. Data then will be analyzed using intention to treat principle and reported following the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guideline. Discussion: This study will provide important new knowledge about the preliminary effectiveness of SbS-F, a mobile application, as a digital mental health intervention and its scalability. If SbS-F shows positive results among OFWs in Macao, it has strong potential to be used by OFWs in other countries that may also experience depression and difficulty accessing mental health services. Trial registration: Prospective registration, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2000034959) on 26/07/2020.

9.
Internet Interv ; 21: 100339, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983906

RESUMO

Background: Internet- and mobile-based mental health interventions have the potential to narrow the treatment gap in ethnic groups. Little evidence exists on the cultural adaptation of such interventions. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based interventions distinguishes between surface and deep structure adaptation. Surface refers to matching materials (e.g., illustrations, language) or methods of treatment delivery to the target population, whereas deep structure adaptation considers cultural concepts of distress (CCD). So far, CCD have only been considered to a limited extent in cultural adaptation of psychological interventions, and there is a lack of well documented adaptation procedures. Aims: With a cross-disciplinary and mixed-method approach, following a new conceptual framework for cultural adaptation of scalable psychological interventions, this study aimed to develop both surface and deep structure adaptations of an internet- and mobile-based intervention called Hap-pas-Hapi for the treatment of psychological distress among Albanian migrants in Switzerland and Germany. Methods: A qualitative ethnopsychological study was conducted to examine the target group's CCD. Focus group discussions, an online survey, and individual key informant interviews were utilised to evaluate the original intervention, adaptation drafts and the final adapted intervention. A reporting system was developed to support the decision-making process and to report all adaptations in a transparent and replicable way. Results: The ongoing involvement of target population key informants provided valuable feedback for the development of a more person-centred intervention, which might enhance treatment acceptance, motivation and adherence. Discussion: This study provides empirical and theory-based considerations and suggestions for future implementation that may foster acceptability and effectiveness of culturally adapted evidence-based interventions.

10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 205, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a therapist-guided internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (iCBT) intervention for service members of the German Armed Forces with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The iCBT was adapted from Interapy, a trauma-focused evidence-based treatment based on prolonged exposure and cognitive restructuring. It lasted for 5 weeks and included 10 writing assignments (twice a week). The program included a reminder function if assignments were overdue, but no multimedia elements. Therapeutic written feedback was provided asynchronously within one working day. METHODS: Male active and former military service members were recruited from the German Armed Forces. Diagnoses were assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Psychopathology was assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Severity of PTSD was the primary outcome and anxiety was the secondary outcome. Participants were randomly allocated to a treatment group that received iCBT immediately or to a waitlist group that received iCBT after 6 weeks. Due to the overall small sample size (n = 37), the two groups were collapsed for the statistical analyses. Change during the intervention period was investigated using latent-change score models. RESULTS: Improvements in the CAPS-5 were small and not statistically significant. For anxiety, small significant improvements were observed from pre- to follow-up assessment. The dropout rate was 32.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The low treatment utilization and the high dropout rate are in line with previous findings on treatment of service members. The interpretation of the current null results for the efficacy of iCBT is limited due to the small sample size, however for military samples effect estimates were also smaller in other recent studies. Our results demonstrate the need to identify factors influencing treatment engagement and efficacy in veterans. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616000956404.


Assuntos
Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Militares/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 11(1): 1694347, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32082506

RESUMO

Background: Syrian refugees face multiple hardships and adversities which put them at risk for the development of mental health problems. However, access to adequate mental health care in host countries is limited. The WHO has developed Problem Management Plus (PM+), a brief, scalable psychological intervention, delivered by non-specialist helpers, that addresses common mental disorders in people affected by adversity. This study is part of the STRENGTHS project, that aims to evaluate peer-refugee delivered psychological interventions for Syrian refugees in Europe and the Middle East. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the peer-refugee delivered PM+ intervention among Syrian refugees with elevated levels of psychological distress in the Netherlands. Methods: PM+ will be tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) among Arabic-speaking Syrian refugees in the Netherlands aged 18 years and above with self-reported psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale; K10 >15) and impaired daily functioning (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule; WHODAS 2.0 >16). Participants (N = 380) will be randomized into care as usual with PM+ (CAU/PM+, n = 190) or CAU only (CAU, n = 190). Baseline, 1-week post-intervention, and 3-month and 12-month follow-up assessments will be conducted. Primary outcomes are symptoms of depression and anxiety. Secondary outcomes are functional impairment, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, self-identified problems, anger, health and productivity costs, and hair cortisol concentrations. A process evaluation will be carried out to evaluate treatment dose, protocol fidelity and stakeholder views on barriers and facilitators to implementing PM+. Results and Conclusions: PM+ has proved effectiveness in other populations and settings. After positive evaluation, the adapted manual and training materials for individual PM+ will be made available through the WHO to encourage further replication and scaling up. Trial registration: Trial registration Dutch Trial Registry, NL7552, registered prospectively on March 1, 2019. Medical Ethics Review Committee VU Medical Center Protocol ID 2017.320, 7 September 2017.

12.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 663, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740065

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study is to describe the initial stages of the iterative and user-centered mobile mental health adaptation process of Step-by-Step (SbS), a modularized and originally web-based e-mental health intervention developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Given the great need for improving the responsiveness and accessibility of health systems in host countries, the EU-funded STRENGTHS consortium studies the adaptation, implementation and scaling-up of SbS for Syrian refugees in Germany, Sweden and Egypt. Using early prototyping, usability testing and identification of barriers to implementation, the study demonstrates a user-centered process of contextual adaptation to the needs and expectations of Syrian refugees. Materials and Methods: N = 128 adult Syrian refugees residing in Germany, Sweden and Egypt took part in qualitative assessments. Access, usage, and potential barriers regarding information and communication technologies (ICTs) were assessed in free list interviews. Interactive prototypes of the app were presented in key informant interviews and evaluated on usability, user experience and dissemination strategies. Focus groups were conducted to verify the results. The interview protocols were analyzed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis. Results: The use of digital technologies was found to be widespread among Syrian refugees. Technical literacy and problems with accessing the internet were common barriers. The majority of the respondents reacted positively to the presented app prototypes, stressing the potential health impact of the intervention (n = 28; 78%), its flexibility and customizability (n = 19; 53%) as well as the easy learnability of the app (n = 12; 33%). Aesthetic components (n = 12; 33%) and the overall length and pace of the intervention sessions (n = 9; 25%) were criticized in regard to their negative impact on user motivation. Acceptability, credibility, and technical requirements were identified as main barriers to implementation. Discussion: The study provided valuable guidance for adapting the app version of SbS and for mobile mental health adaptation in general. The findings underline the value of contextual adaptation with a focus on usability, user experience, and context specific dissemination strategies. Related factors such as access, acceptability and adherence have major implications for scaling-up digital interventions.

13.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 8(sup2): 1388102, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163867

RESUMO

The crisis in Syria has resulted in vast numbers of refugees seeking asylum in Syria's neighbouring countries as well as in Europe. Refugees are at considerable risk of developing common mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most refugees do not have access to mental health services for these problems because of multiple barriers in national and refugee specific health systems, including limited availability of mental health professionals. To counter some of challenges arising from limited mental health system capacity the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a range of scalable psychological interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving functioning in people living in communities affected by adversity. These interventions, including Problem Management Plus (PM+) and its variants, are intended to be delivered through individual or group face-to-face or smartphone formats by lay, non-professional people who have not received specialized mental health training, We provide an evidence-based rationale for the use of the scalable PM+ oriented programmes being adapted for Syrian refugees and provide information on the newly launched STRENGTHS programme for adapting, testing and scaling up of PM+ in various modalities in both neighbouring and European countries hosting Syrian refugees.

14.
Psychiatry Res ; 254: 151-157, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28460286

RESUMO

We assessed transgenerational effects of maternal traumatic exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder on trauma-related symptoms in Cambodian offspring born after the genocidal Khmer Rouge Regime. We conducted a randomized cross-sectional study. N=378 mothers from 4 provinces of the country and one of each of their grown-up children were interviewed. Lifetime traumatic exposure was determined using a context-adapted event list. Present posttraumatic stress symptoms and a potential posttraumatic stress disorder were assessed using the civilian version of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. We found no indication of transgenerational effects that were directly related to maternal traumatic exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms or posttraumatic stress disorder. Instead, a gender-specific moderating effect was found. Individual traumatic exposure had a stronger effect on posttraumatic stress symptoms in daughters, the higher the mother's lifetime traumatic exposure. There is evidence of an interaction between lifetime traumatic exposure of mothers and their offspring that can be interpreted as an increased vulnerability to symptoms of posttraumatic stress in daughters. The mechanisms of transgenerational trauma in the Cambodian context require further research, as learning from previous conflicts will be instructive when addressing the pressing humanitarian needs of today's world.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Crimes de Guerra/psicologia , Exposição à Guerra/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Camboja/etnologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etnologia , Crimes de Guerra/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
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