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1.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349549

RESUMO

To evaluate the effects of a patented Bacillus subtilis probiotic, weaned Holstein steers, not shedding Salmonella (n = 40; ∼90 kg), were supplemented (CLO) or not (CON) with CLOSTAT® (13 g/hd per day; Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA) in a starter ration for 35 d. The calves were assigned to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design with CLO and CON calves that were orally administered Salmonella (STM) or not (NoSTM). Calves were challenged with 1.6 × 106 colony-forming unit (CFU) Salmonella Typhimurium (resistant to 50 µg/mL nalidixic acid) in 1 L of milk replacer on day 0. Blood samples were collected through jugular catheters every 6 h for 96 h, and body temperature was measured every 5 min through indwelling rectal temperature recording devices. Five calves from each treatment were harvested 48 h postchallenge, and the remaining calves were harvested 96 h postchallenge. During necropsy, tissues were collected for the isolation and quantification of the inoculated STM from various tissues. The CLOSTM group had reduced STM concentrations in the jejunum, ileum, and transverse colon 48 h after the challenge (p ≤ 0.03), but were not different 96 h postchallenge (p > 0.05). Decreased (p < 0.01) pyrexia was observed after the challenge in CLOSTM calves when compared with CONSTM calves. White blood cells and lymphocyte counts were increased (p ≤ 0.05) in CLOSTM calves after the challenge in comparison with other treatments. In calves given STM, the CLO group had greater feed intake before and after the challenge (p < 0.01) compared with the CON group. Increased serum IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were observed in the CONSTM group compared with other treatments. Overall, CLO reduced Salmonella presence and concentrations in gastrointestinal tissues while simultaneously reducing the severity of the challenge as indicated by blood parameters and the reduced febrile response.

2.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366128

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine if immunosuppression through daily dexamethasone (DEX) infusion altered Salmonella translocation from the gastrointestinal tract. Weaned Holstein steers (n = 20; body weight [BW] = 102 ± 2.7 kg) received DEX (n = 10; 0.5 mg/kg BW) or saline (control [CON]; n = 10;) for 4 days (from day -1 to 2) before oral inoculation of naldixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (SAL; 3.4 × 106 colony-forming units [CFU]/animal) on day 0. Fecal swabs were obtained daily, and blood was collected daily for hematology. At harvest (day 5), ileum, cecal fluid, lymph nodes (ileocecal, mandibular, popliteal, and subscapular), and synovial (stifle, coxofemoral, and shoulder) samples were collected for isolation of the inoculated strain of SAL. White blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil concentrations were elevated (p < 0.01) in DEX calves following each administration event. Following inoculation, 100% of DEX calves shed the experimental strain of SAL for all 5 days, 90% of CON calves shed from day 1 to 3, and 100% of CON calves shed from day 4 to 5. Greater (p < 0.01) concentrations of SAL were quantified from the cecum of DEX calves (3.86 ± 0.37 log CFU/g) compared with CON calves (1.37 ± 0.37 log CFU/g). There was no difference in SAL concentrations between DEX and CON calves in ileal tissue (p = 0.07) or ileocecal (p = 0.57), mandibular (p = 0.12), popliteal (p = 0.99), or subscapular (p = 0.83) lymph nodes. Of the stifle samples collected, 3.3% were positive for SAL, highlighting a contamination opportunity during hindquarter breakdown. While more research is needed to elucidate the interactions of immunosuppression and pathogen migration patterns, these data confirm that orally inoculated SAL can translocate from the gastrointestinal tract and be harbored in atypical locations representing a food safety risk.

3.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(3): 243-253, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify acute immunologic and metabolic responses of beef heifers following topical administration of transdermal flunixin meglumine (TDFM) at various times relative to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) and Mannheimia haemolytica challenges. ANIMALS: 32 beef heifers (mean body weight, 170 kg). PROCEDURES: Heifers were assigned to 1 of 4 groups. Heifers in the control group did not receive TDFM, whereas 1 dose of TDFM (3.3 mg/kg) was topically applied to heifers of groups A, V, and B at -144, -72, and 0 hours. All heifers were inoculated with 1 × 108 plaque-forming units of BHV1 in each nostril at -72 hours and with 1.18 × 106 CFUs of M haemolytica intratracheally at 0 hours. Vaginal temperature was recorded and blood samples were collected for quantification of select immunologic and metabolic biomarkers at predetermined times from -144 to 360 hours. RESULTS: Mean vaginal temperature was similar between group A and the control group. Mean vaginal temperatures for groups V and B were generally lower than that for the control group following BHV1 and M haemolytica challenges, respectively. Mean neutrophil oxidative burst capacity and L-selectin expression at 0 hours were significantly decreased for group V relative to the other groups. Other biomarkers did not differ among the groups at any time. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that topical administration of TDFM to beef cattle effectively alleviated pyrexia without adverse effects on acute immunologic or metabolic responses when TDFM was administered at the same time as, but not before, respiratory pathogen challenge.

4.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4453-4463, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545382

RESUMO

Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are precursors for lipid metabolites that reduce inflammation. Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that enriching the sow diet in n-3 PUFA during late gestation and throughout lactation reduces stress and inflammation and promotes growth in weaned pigs. A protected fish oil product (PFO; Gromega) was used to enrich the diet in n-3 PUFA. In the initial experiment, time-bred gilts were fed a gestation and lactation diet supplemented with 0% (control; n = 5), 0.25% (n = 4), 0.5% (n = 4), or 1% (n = 5) PFO from 101 ± 2 d of gestation to day 16 of lactation. Adding 1% PFO to the diet increased the n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in colostrum and milk compared with controls (P = 0.05). A subsequent experiment was performed to determine whether supplementing the sow diet with 1% PFO improved growth and reduced circulating markers of acute inflammation and stress in the offspring. Plasma was harvested from piglets (16 per treatment group) on day 0 (d of weaning) and days 1 and 3 postweaning. Pigs from the 1% PFO treatment group weighed more (P = 0.03) on day 3 postweaning and had a greater (P ˂ 0.05) n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in plasma on each day sampled compared with 0% PFO controls. There was an overall treatment effect on plasma total cortisol (P = 0.03) and haptoglobin (P = 0.04), with lesser concentrations in pigs on the 1% PFO diet. Plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) concentrations were not different between treatment groups but were less (P ˂ 0.001) on days 1 and 3 when compared with day 0. The resultant free cortisol index [FCI (cortisol/CBG)] was less (P = 0.02) on days 1 and 3 for pigs from the 1% treatment group compared with the controls. An ex vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge of whole blood collected on days 0 and 1 was used to determine whether 1% PFO attenuated release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α). Blood from pigs within the 1% PFO treatment group tended (P = 0.098) to have a lesser mean concentration of TNF-α in response to LPS compared with blood from controls. These results suggest that providing a PFO supplement as 1% of the diet to sows beginning in late gestation and during lactation can increase the n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in their offspring, which may improve growth and reduce the acute physiological stress response in the pigs postweaning.


Assuntos
Colostro/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame
5.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 246, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396526

RESUMO

Stressors experienced by pigs at weaning may negatively impact health and productivity. Thus, supplements that enhance pig immunity during the early post-weaned period are of great interest to the swine industry. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the performance and hematological responses of weaned pigs supplemented with yeast cell wall (YCW) when challenged orally with Salmonella Typhimurium. Weaned pigs were assigned to one of three treatments for 22d (n = 13/treatment): Control diet, which was a non-medicated starter diet (Control); Control diet supplemented with YCW at 250 mg/kg BW (YCW250; Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA); and Control diet supplemented with YCW at 500 mg/kg BW (YCW500). On d19 blood samples were collected from -6 to 72 h relative to oral Salmonella Typhimurium (1 × 106 cfu/pig) challenge. Gain:feed was greater (P = 0.01) in YCW250 treatment compared to both Control and YCW500 pigs. Baseline intraperitoneal temperature was greater (P < 0.001) in YCW250 pigs than Control or YCW500 pigs. There was a treatment x time interaction for the change in intraperitoneal temperature (P < 0.01), post-challenge cortisol, white blood cell counts (WBC), neutrophils, and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (P ≤ 0.03). Control pigs had greater (P < 0.05) cortisol concentrations than both YCW-supplemented groups at 0 h, but Control pigs had reduced (P < 0.05) cortisol compared to YCW500 pigs at 24 and 30 h post-challenge. Control pigs had greater (P < 0.05) WBC counts than both YCW-supplemented groups 6 and 12 h post-challenge, and YCW250 pigs had reduced (P < 0.01) WBC counts than Control and YCW500 pigs 18 h post-challenge. Neutrophil counts were greater (P < 0.05) in Control pigs than both YCW-supplemented groups at 6 and 12 h post-challenge and were greater (P = 0.02) than YCW250 pigs at 18 h post-challenge. Lymphocytes were greater (P < 0.001) in Control and YCW500 pigs pre- and post-challenge compared to YCW250 pigs. Control pigs had the greatest (P < 0.001) monocyte counts compared to YCW treatments. There was no effect of yeast supplementation on fecal shedding or Salmonella counts in the rectum, colon or cecum (P ≥ 0.05). While some differences were observed in intraperitoneal temperature and some hematological variables, data suggests there were minimal effects of yeast supplementation on the acute immune response to Salmonella challenge.

6.
Stress ; 22(2): 236-247, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676166

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the influence of prenatal stress (PNS) on innate immune responses to an endotoxin challenge in weaned bull calves. Altered innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as characterized by changes in a range of variables was hypothesized in PNS bull calves. Brahman cows (n = 96; 48 stressed by transportation at five stages of gestation and 48 Controls) produced 85 calves, from which 16 uncastrated male (bull) calves from each PNS and Control treatment were selected for an LPS challenge period. Rectal temperature (RT), sickness behavior score (SBS), serum concentrations of cortisol, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and complete blood count (CBC) variables were assessed in response to intravenous LPS (0.25 µg/kg body weight) administration. Each reported variable increased or decreased following LPS administration. Prior to LPS, PNS bull calves exhibited increased TNF-α, IL-6, and monocyte counts, but decreased IFN-γ, eosinophils, and basophils (p < .05). Compared with Control, in response to LPS, PNS bull calves exhibited greater circulating concentrations of cortisol. PNS bull calves exhibited lower (p < .05) eosinophil and basophil counts at time 0 (time of LPS administration) but similar counts to Control bull calves 2 h after LPS. PNS bull calves exhibited a greater change from baseline for IFN-γ and monocytes in response to LPS administration. No other variables were influenced by prenatal treatment (p > .05). These findings suggest that PNS did not adversely affect basal or induced components of the innate immune response to an immunological challenge. Lay summary Our laboratory studied the influence of prenatal stress (i.e., transportation of pregnant cows) on immune function of bull calves at 8 months of age. This was accomplished by studying aspects of their innate immune response to an immunological challenge. Prenatal stress did not adversely affect basal or induced components of the innate immune response to an immunological challenge.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Transportes , Desmame , Animais , Bovinos , Endotoxinas , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
7.
Transl Anim Sci ; 1(1): 69-76, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372597

RESUMO

Sexually dimorphic innate immune responses have been observed in several species, but have not been studied in response to a live pathogen challenge in pigs. This study aimed to elucidate sexually dimorphic innate immune responses along with Salmonella translocation patterns in newly weaned pigs orally inoculated with Salmonella. Newly weaned pigs (n = 8 gilts and 12 barrows; 6.2 ± 0.2 kg BW) were obtained from a commercial swine facility and were maintained in an environmentally-controlled facility in individual pens equipped with feeders and nipple waterers. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to a commercial non-medicated starter ration and water throughout the study. On d 12 post-weaning, pigs were anesthetized to allow placement of a temperature measuring device in the abdominal cavity for measurement of intraperitoneal temperature (TEMP). On d 17, pigs were anesthetized and fitted with indwelling jugular vein catheters. On the following day (d 18), pigs were orally inoculated with 4.7×109 Salmonella typhimurium. Blood samples were collected at 0.5-h intervals from -2 to 8 h, and at 8-h intervals from 8 to 72 h post-challenge. Whole blood was analyzed for complete blood cell counts. Serum was isolated for measurement of cortisol. Following collection of the 72 h sample, pigs were humanely euthanized and tissues were collected for Salmonella isolation. There was a sex × time interaction (P < 0.001) for TEMP such that gilts had a greater TEMP response to the Salmonella challenge compared to barrows. There was also a sex × time interaction (P = 0.03) for serum cortisol with gilts having decreased cortisol at 16 h yet greater cortisol at 32 h than barrows. Barrows had greater total white blood cells (17.8 vs. 16.2 ± 0.4 103 cells/µL; P < 0.01; respectively) and neutrophils (7.8 vs. 6.1 ± 0.4 103 cells/µL; P < 0.01; respectively) than gilts. However, gilts had greater lymphocytes (9.6 vs. 9.0 ± 0.2 103 cells/µL; P = 0.05; respectively) than barrows. While immune parameters were influenced by sex, there was no effect of sex (P > 0.05) on Salmonella concentrations from fecal shedding 3 d post-inoculation in the cecum, mesenteric and subiliac lymph nodes, liver, spleen, gallbladder, or kidney tissues. These data demonstrate that weaned gilts appear to produce a stronger acute phase response to a Salmonella challenge compared to barrows, without affecting the tissue translocation or shedding of Salmonella.

8.
Innate Immun ; 23(1): 97-108, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27872382

RESUMO

The potential effect of prenatal LPS exposure on the postnatal acute phase response (APR) to an LPS challenge in heifers was determined. Pregnant crossbred cows were separated into prenatal immune stimulation (PIS) and saline groups (Control). From these treatments, heifer calves were identified at weaning to subsequently receive an exogenous LPS challenge. Sickness behavior scores (SBS) were recorded and blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals from -2 to 8 h and again at 24 h relative to the LPS challenge. There was a treatment × time interaction for the change in vaginal temperature (VT) such that the change in VT was greater in Control than PIS from 150 to 250 min, yet it was greater in PIS than Control from 355 to 440 min and from 570 to 1145 min. There was also a treatment × time interaction for SBS such that scores were greater in Control than PIS at 0.5 h, yet were greater in PIS than Control from 2.5 to 4 h post-LPS. There was a tendency for a treatment × time interaction for serum concentrations of IL-6, which were greater in PIS than Control heifers from 5.5 to 6 h and from 7 to 8 h post-challenge. Thus, a single exposure to LPS during gestation can alter the postnatal APR to LPS in heifer calves.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/veterinária , Feto/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/veterinária , Útero/imunologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Feminino , Imunidade , Interleucina-6/sangue , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Desmame
9.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 166(3-4): 108-15, 2015 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26144890

RESUMO

This study was designed to characterize potential sexually dimorphic immunological responses following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in beef cattle. Six female (heifers) and five male (bulls) Brahman calves (average age=253 ± 19.9 and 288 ± 47.9 days; average body weight=194 ± 11 kg and 247 ± 19 kg for heifers and bulls, respectively) were challenged with LPS (0.25 µg LPS/kg body weight). Following administration of LPS, all cattle displayed increased sickness behavior beginning at 0.5h, with heifers on average displaying less sickness behavior than bulls. A febrile response was observed in all animals following LPS administration, with a maximum response observed from 4 to 5.5h. The average rectal temperature response was greater in heifers than bulls. In all cattle there were elevated serum concentrations of cortisol from 0.5 to 8h, TNF-α from 1 to 2.5h, IL-6 from 2 to 8h, and IFN-γ from 2.5 to 7h after LPS challenge. Additionally, serum concentrations of TNF-α were greater in heifers than bulls from 1.5 to 2h after the LPS challenge. Concentrations of IFN-γ were also greater on average in bulls than heifers. Leukopenia occurred from 1 to 8h, with a decreased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio for the first 5h among all calves. These data demonstrate the existence of a sexually dimorphic acute-phase response in pre-pubertal Brahman calves. Specifically, heifers may have a more robust acute response to LPS challenge, even though bulls display more signs of sickness.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Administração Intravenosa/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
10.
Innate Immun ; 20(8): 888-96, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24217218

RESUMO

Activation of the innate immune system and acute phase response (APR) results in several responses that include fever, metabolic adaptations and changes in behavior. The APR can be modulated by many factors, with stress being the most common. An elevation of stress hormones for a short duration of time can be beneficial. However, elevation of stress hormones repeatedly or for an extended duration of time can be detrimental to the overall health and well-being of animals. The stress and APR responses can also be modulated by naturally-occurring variations, such as breed, gender, and temperament. These three natural variations modulate both of these responses, and can therefore modulate the ability of an animal to recover from a stressor or infection. Understanding that cattle have different immunological responses, based on naturally occurring variations such as these, may be the foundation of new studies on how to effectively manage cattle so that health is optimized and production is benefited.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/fisiopatologia , Bovinos/imunologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/genética , Reação de Fase Aguda/psicologia , Animais , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Temperamento
11.
Innate Immun ; 19(4): 411-9, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23288885

RESUMO

A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred, newly-received feedlot heifers to an endotoxin challenge. Heifers (n = 24; 219 ± 2.4 kg) were separated into treatment groups receiving either a control diet (n = 8), YCW-A (2.5 g/heifer/d; n = 8) or YCW-C (2.5 g/heifer/d; n = 8) and were fed for 52 d. On d 37 heifers were challenged i.v. with LPS (0.5 µg/kg body mass) and blood samples were collected from -2 h to 8 h and again at 24 h relative to LPS challenge. There was an increase in vaginal temperature in all heifers post-LPS, with YCW-C maintaining a lower vaginal temperature post-LPS than control and YCW-A heifers. Sickness behavior scores increased post-LPS in all heifers, but were not affected by treatment. Cortisol concentrations were greatest in control heifers post-LPS compared with YCW-A or YCW-C heifers. Concentrations of IFN-γ and TNF-α increased post-LPS, but were not affected by treatment. Serum IL-6 concentrations increased post-LPS and were greater in control heifers than YCW-A and YCW-C heifers. These data indicate that YCW supplementation can decrease the physiological and acute phase responses of newly-received heifers following an endotoxin challenge.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Parede Celular/imunologia , Endotoxinas/imunologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/imunologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/prevenção & controle , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Interleucina-6/genética
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