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2.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation between changes in working conditions and exit from paid employment among workers with a chronic disease. METHODS: Six waves from the longitudinal Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (2010-2016), enriched with tax-based employment information from Statistics Netherlands (2011-2017), were available for 4820 chronically ill workers aged 45-63 years (mean 55.3 years, SD 5.1). A change in working conditions (physical workload, psychological job demands, job autonomy, emotional job demands and social support) was defined as an increase or decrease between two consecutive waves of at least one SD. Discrete-time survival models with repeated measurements were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of a change in working conditions on exiting paid employment in the following year compared with no change and consecutive favourable working conditions. RESULTS: A favourable change in physical workload lowered the risk to exit paid employment (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.94). An adverse change in psychosocial working conditions, especially a decrease in social support (RR 2.07, 95% CI 1.52 to 2.81), increased the likelihood to exit paid employment. In contrast, a favourable change in psychological job demands increased the risk to exit paid employment (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.24). Multiple adverse changes increased the risk to exit paid employment up to six times (RR 6.06, 95% CI 2.83 to 12.98). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in working conditions among workers with chronic diseases influence exit from paid employment. Ensuring that working conditions can be adapted to the needs of workers with a chronic disease may help to extend working life.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230919, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was (I) to estimate the prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) and distribution of types of FGM/C among migrant girls and women in the Netherlands, and (II) to estimate the number of migrant girls at risk of being cut in the immediate future. METHODS: National population-based survey data regarding FGM/C prevalence were applied to female migrants in the Netherlands who migrated from 29 countries with available nationally representative data on FGM/C. RESULTS: As of January 1st 2018, there were 95,588 female migrants residing in the Netherlands, originating from 29 countries with available nationally representative data on FGM/C. Our findings suggest that about 41,000 women had undergone FGM/C, of which 37% had Type III (infibulation). In total 4,190 girls are estimated to be at risk of FGM/C in the next 20 years, of whom 394 were first-generation girls. CONCLUSION: These findings show the urgency to develop appropriate strategies and policies to prevent FGM/C, to protect girls and women at risk of the practice, and to provide adequate services and support for those affected by FGM/C in the Netherlands.

4.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217755

RESUMO

Decreasing socioeconomic health inequalities is considered an important policy priority in many countries. Workplace health promotion programmes (WHPPs) have shown modest improvements in health behaviour. This systematic review aims to determine the presence and magnitude of socioeconomic differences in effectiveness and the influence of programme characteristics on differential effectiveness of WHPPs. Three electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews published from 2013 onwards and for original studies published from 2015 onwards. We synthesised the reported socioeconomic differences in effectiveness of WHPPs on health behaviours, and calculated effectiveness ratios by dividing the programme effects in the lowest socioeconomic group by the programme effects in the highest socioeconomic group. Thirteen studies with 75 comparisons provided information on the effectiveness of WHPPs across socioeconomic groups. Ten studies with 54 comparisons reported equal effectiveness and one study with 3 comparisons reported higher effectiveness for lower socioeconomic groups. Quantitative information on programme effects was available for six studies with 18 comparisons, of which 13 comparisons showed equal effectiveness and 5 comparisons showed significantly higher effect sizes among workers in low socioeconomic position. The differential effectiveness of WHPPs did not vary across programme characteristics. In this study no indications are found that WHPPs increase socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviour. The limited quantitative information available suggests that WHPPs may contribute to reducing socioeconomic inequalities. Better insight is needed on socioeconomic differences in effectiveness of WHPPs to develop strategies to decrease socioeconomic inequalities in health in the workforce.

5.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e029484, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the factors that influence the hand hygiene compliance of final year medical students, using a theoretical behavioural framework. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey assessing self-reported compliance and its behavioural correlates. SETTING: Internships of medical students in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 322 medical students of the Erasmus Medical Center were recruited over a period of 12 months during the Public Health internship, which is the final compulsory internship after an 18-month rotation schedule in all major specialities. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Behavioural factors influencing compliance to hand hygiene guidelines were measured by means of a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Ecological Models. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the effect of including attitudes, social norms, self-efficacy, knowledge, risk perception and habit on hand hygiene compliance. RESULTS: We included 313 students in the analysis (response rate 97%). The behavioural model explained 40% of the variance in self-reported compliance (adjusted R2=0.40). Hand hygiene compliance was strongly influenced by attitudes (perceived outcomes of preventive actions), self-efficacy (perception of the ability to perform hand hygiene at the clinical ward) and habit, but was not associated with knowledge and risk perception. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting medical students' behaviour should focus on the empowerment of these juniors and provide them with evidence on the health benefits of prevention, rather than increasing their factual knowledge of procedures. Clinical teaching environments could help them form good patient safety habits during this vital phase of their career.

6.
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013152, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unemployment is associated with decreased health which may be a reason or a consequence of becoming unemployed. Decreased health can inhibit re-employment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of health-improving interventions for obtaining employment in unemployed job seekers. SEARCH METHODS: We searched (3 May 2018, updated 13 August 2019) the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SocINDEX, OSH Update, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO trials portal, and also reference lists of included studies and selected reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of the effectiveness of health-improving interventions for obtaining employment in unemployed job seekers. The primary outcome was re-employment reported as the number or percentage of participants who obtained employment. Our secondary outcomes were health and work ability. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently screened studies, extracted outcome data, and assessed risk of bias. We pooled study results with random-effect models and reported risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and assessed the overall quality of the evidence for each comparison using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 randomised controlled trials (16 interventions) with a total of 6397 unemployed participants. Eight studies evaluated therapeutic interventions such as cognitive behavioural therapy, physical exercise, and health-related advice and counselling and, in seven studies, interventions were combined using therapeutic methods and job-search training. Therapeutic interventions Therapeutic interventions compared to no intervention may increase employment at an average of 11 months follow-up but the evidence is very uncertain (RR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.87, n = 1142, 8 studies with 9 interventions, I² = 52%, very low-quality evidence). There is probably no difference in the effects of therapeutic interventions compared to no intervention on mental health (SMD 0.12, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.29, n = 530, 2 studies, low-quality evidence) and on general health (SMD 0.19, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.41, n = 318, 1 study, moderate-quality evidence). Combined interventions Combined interventions probably increase employment slightly compared to no intervention at an average of 10 months follow-up (RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.20, n = 4101, 6 studies, I² = 7%). There were no studies that measured work-ability, adverse events, or cost-effectiveness. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Interventions combining therapeutic methods and job-search training probably have a small beneficial effect in increasing employment. Therapeutic interventions may have an effect on re-employment, but we are very uncertain. Therapeutic interventions may not improve health in unemployed job seekers. Large high-quality RCTs targeting short-term or long-term unemployed people are needed to increase the quality of the evidence. A cost-effectiveness assessment is needed of the small beneficial effects.

8.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 46(1): 77-84, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419303

RESUMO

Objectives This study aims to provide insight into educational differences in duration of working life by working life expectancy (WLE) and working years lost (WYL) through disability benefits and other non-employment states in the Netherlands. Methods Monthly information on employment status of the Dutch population (N=4 999 947) between 16 and 66 years from 2001‒2015 was used to estimate working life courses and loss of working years for specific non-employment states. Across educational groups, bi-directional transitions between paid employment and non-employment states were calculated. Using a multistate model, the WLE and WYL at age 16, 30, 50 and up to 66 years as statutory retirement age were estimated for each educational group, stratified by gender. Results Low-educated men and women had a 7.3 (men) and 9.9 (women) years lower WLE at age 30 than high-educated men and women. Among low-educated men, 3.4 working years were lost due to disability benefit compared to 0.8 among high-educated men. Low-educated women lost 3.0 working years due to disability benefit compared to 1.4 among high-educated women. Conclusions There are large educational inequalities over the course of working life. Among low-educated workers, more working years are lost due to unemployment, no income, and especially disability benefits. The latter reflects large educational inequalities in health and working conditions. The metrics of WLE and WYL provide useful insights into the life-course perspective on working careers.

9.
Ann Emerg Med ; 75(3): 435-444, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439363

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: We conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to provide an overview of the different manners of providing discharge instructions in the emergency department (ED) and to assess their effects on comprehension and recall of the 4 domains of discharge instructions: diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and return instructions. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases for studies published before March 15, 2018. A quality assessment of included articles was performed. Pooled proportions of correct recall by manner of providing discharge instructions were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 1,842 articles were screened, and after selection, 51 articles were included. Of the 51 included studies, 12 used verbal discharge instructions only, 30 used written discharge instructions, and 7 used video. Correct recall of verbal, written, and video discharge instructions ranged from 8% to 94%, 23% to 92%, and 54% to 89%, respectively. Meta-analysis was performed on data of 1,460 patients who received verbal information only, 3,395 patients who received written information, and 459 patients who received video information. Pooled data showed differences in correct recall, with, on average, 47% for patients who received verbal information (95% confidence interval 32.2% to 61.7%), 58% for patients who received written information (95% confidence interval 44.2% to 71.2%), and 67% for patients who received video information (95% confidence interval 57.9% to 75.7%). CONCLUSION: Communicating discharge instructions verbally to patients in the ED may not be sufficient. Although overall correct recall was not significantly higher, adding video or written information to discharge instructions showed promising results for ED patients.

10.
Scand J Public Health ; : 1403494819884440, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820671

RESUMO

Aims: This study investigated mortality in disability pensions due to common mental disorder, and variation over time after first receiving disability pension. Methods: Objectives were explored in 301,863 construction workers (97.2% men) recruited through healthcare examinations from 1971-1993. By linking with the Swedish National Insurance Agency registers, disability pensions until 2014 were identified. Common mental disorder was defined as disability pension diagnosis due to anxiety, stress-related disorders or moderate depression. Mortality was calculated in all-psychiatric diagnosis and diagnostic sub-groups, and compared to persons without disability pensions, using Poisson regression. Additional analyses were stratified by age at follow-up. Results: In total 6030 subjects received disability pensions based on psychiatric diagnoses, and 2624 constituted common mental disorder. Analyses in an all-psychiatric diagnosis displayed increased mortality risks in men (relative risk 3.6; 95% confidence interval 3.3-3.9) and women (relative risk 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.6-2.6). Common mental disorder was associated with mortality, especially in men (relative risk 2.5; 95% confidence interval 2.2-2.8). Increased relative risks in alcohol and substance abuse were also observed. Results in analyses stratified by age at follow-up displayed persistent high relative risks for mortality in older ages (75-89 years) in men in all-psychiatric disability pensions diagnosis (relative risk 2.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-3.7) and common mental disorder diagnosis (relative risk 2.6; 95% confidence interval 1.8-3.6), compared to men without disability pensions. Similar results were found in women, but few cases lowered the precision of estimates. Conclusions: This study shows that disability pension based on common mental disorders, often regarded as a 'lighter' psychiatric diagnosis, is a risk for early mortality in construction workers, even several years after first receiving disability pension.

11.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 93, 2019 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous reviews have suggested that infrastructural interventions can be effective in promoting cycling. Given inherent methodological complexities in the evaluation of such changes, it is important to understand whether study results obtained depend on the study design and methods used, and to describe the implications of the methods used for causality. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize the effects obtained in studies that used a wide range of study designs to assess the effects of infrastructural interventions on cycling and physical activity, and whether the effects varied by study design, data collection methods, or statistical approaches. METHODS: Six databases were searched for studies that evaluated infrastructural interventions to promote cycling in adult populations, such as the opening of cycling lanes, or the expansion of a city-wide cycling network. Controlled and uncontrolled studies that presented data before and after the intervention were included. No language or date restrictions were applied. Data was extracted for any outcome presented (e.g. bikes counted on the new infrastructure, making a bike trip, cycling frequency, cycling duration), and for any purpose of cycling (e.g. total cycling, recreational cycling, cycling for commuting). Data for physical activity outcomes and equity effects was extracted, and quality assessment was conducted following previous methodologies and the UK Medical Research Council guidance on natural experiments. The PROGRESS-Plus framework was used to describe the impact on subgroups of the population. Studies were categorized by outcome, i.e. changes in cycling behavior, or usage of the cycling infrastructure. The relative change was calculated to derive a common outcome across various metrics and cycling purposes. The median relative change was presented to evaluate whether effects differed by methodological aspects. RESULTS: The review included 31 studies and all were conducted within urban areas in high-income countries. Most of the evaluations found changes in favor of the intervention, showing that the number of cyclists using the facilities increased (median relative change compared to baseline: 62%; range: 4 to 438%), and to a lesser extent that cycling behavior increased (median relative change compared to baseline: 22%; range: - 21 to 262%). Studies that tested for statistical significance and studies that used subjective measurement methods (such as surveys and direct observations of cyclists) found larger changes than those that did not perform statistical tests, and those that used objective measurement methods (such as GPS and accelerometers, and automatic counting stations). Seven studies provided information on changes of physical activity behaviors, and findings were mixed. Three studies tested for equity effects following the opening of cycling infrastructure. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings of natural experiments evaluating infrastructural interventions to promote cycling depended on the methods used and the approach to analysis. Studies measuring cycling behavior were more likely to assess actual behavioral change that is most relevant for population health, as compared to studies that measured the use of cycling infrastructure. Triangulation of methods is warranted to overcome potential issues that one may encounter when evaluating environmental changes within the built environment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol of this study was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42018091079).


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Promoção da Saúde , Adulto , Planejamento de Cidades , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos
12.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 68, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last decade academic stress and its mental health implications amongst university students has become a global topic. The use of valid and theoretically-grounded measures of academic stress in university settings is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the factorial structure, reliability and measurement invariance of the short student version of the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire (ERI-SQ). METHODS: A total of 6448 Italian university students participated in an online cross-sectional survey. The factorial structure was investigated using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Finally, the measurement invariance of the ERI-SQ was investigated. RESULTS: Results from explorative and confirmatory factor analyses showed acceptable fits for the Italian version of the ERI-SQ. A modified version of 12 items showed the best fit to the data confirming the 3-factor model. Moreover, multigroup analyses showed metric invariance across gender and university course (health vs other courses). CONCLUSIONS: In sum, our results suggest that the ERI-SQ is a valid, reliable and robust instrument for the measurement of stress among Italian university students.


Assuntos
Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Recompensa , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e031357, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of an urban perinatal health programme in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, on perinatal outcomes. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study with difference-in-differences analysis using individual-level perinatal outcome data from the Dutch Perinatal Registry 2003-2014 linked to Central Bureau of Statistics data of migration background and individual disposable household income. INTERVENTION: The programme consisted of perinatal health promotion, risk selection and risk-guided pregnancy care, and a new primary care child birth centre. The programme was implemented during 2009-2012. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We compared trends in perinatal mortality, preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age births between targeted urban neighbourhoods in Rotterdam (n=61 415) and all other urban neighbourhoods in the Netherlands (n=881 202). The effect of the programme was modelled as a change in trend of each perinatal outcome in the treatment group post intervention compared with the control population from January 2010 onwards. All analyses were adjusted for maternal age, parity, ethnicity and individual-level low socioeconomic status (SES). We also conducted a stratified analysis by SES. RESULTS: During 2003-2014, downward trends in perinatal mortality (adjusted OR (aOR) 0.9439 per year, 95% CI 0.9362 to 0.9517), preterm birth (aOR 0.9970 per year, 95% CI 0.9944 to 0.9997) and small-for-gestational-age births (aOR 0.9809 per year, 95% CI 0.9787 to 0.9831) in the entire study population were observed. No demonstrable changes in these trends were found in the intervention group after the programme had started. The stratified analyses by SES showed no changes in trends post intervention in both strata either. CONCLUSIONS: The programme had no demonstrable effects on perinatal outcomes. The intervention may not have reached a sufficient proportion of the population or has provided too little contrast to the widespread attention for inequalities in pregnancy outcomes occurring simultaneously in the Netherlands.

14.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(10): 718-725, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate the relative and absolute risks of early exit from paid employment among older workers with a chronic disease, and to assess whether these risks differ across educational groups. METHODS: Data on chronic diseases and demographics from 9160 Dutch workers aged 45-64 years were enriched with monthly information on employment status from Statistics Netherlands. Subdistribution hazard ratios (SHR) and 7-year probabilities among workers with a chronic disease of exit from paid employment through disability benefits, unemployment benefits, early retirement benefits or economic inactivity were estimated using competing risks regression analyses based on Fine and Gray's models. RESULTS: Workers with one chronic disease had a higher risk to exit paid employment through disability benefits (SHR 4.48 (95%CI 3.22 to 6.25)) compared with workers without chronic disease, and this risk further increased for multiple chronic diseases (SHR 8.91 (95%CI 6.33 to 12.55)). As occurrence of chronic diseases was highest among low educated workers, the 7-year probabilities to exit paid employment through disability benefits were highest among this group. Cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, psychological and respiratory diseases were associated with disability benefits (SHRs ranging from 2.11 (95%CI 1.45 to 3.07) to 3.26 (95%CI 2.08 to 5.12)), whereas psychological diseases were also related to unemployment (SHR 1.78 (95%CI 1.33 to 2.38)). CONCLUSIONS: Older workers with a chronic disease have a higher risk to exit paid employment through disability benefits. As multimorbidity has an additive effect, addressing multimorbidity as a risk factor for sustainable employment is needed.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434219

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine patterns of musculoskeletal pain episodes over time. We conducted a one-year follow-up study among 275 eldercare workers with measurements of musculoskeletal pain (low back pain (LBP) and neck/shoulder pain (NSP)) and pain-related work interference (PWI) reported via text message every four weeks. We found a constant, high four-weekly prevalence of LBP and NSP (between 61% and 72%). The distributions of pain episodes for LBP and NSP were similar with approximately 30% of the episodes being 7 days or less per four weeks. There was also a high recurrence of pain, with 33% reporting LBP or NSP every four weeks. In addition, 24% had pain at every measurement in both the low back and neck/shoulder regions combined throughout the year. On days with LBP or NSP, approximately 59% also reported interference with work, and 18% of the eldercare workers reported that pain interfered with their work all measurements throughout the year. A high proportion of eldercare workers reported pain every four weeks throughout the year and the four-weekly prevalence of pain remained high and constant on a group level. During most days with pain, eldercare workers were hampered in their regular work activities.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cervicalgia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Dor de Ombro/epidemiologia
16.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e024823, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study investigates the trends in health-related inequalities in paid employment among men and women in different educational groups in 26 countries in 5 European regions. DESIGN: Individual-level analysis of repeated cross-sectional annual data (2005-2014) from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. SETTING: 26 European countries in 5 European regions. PARTICIPANTS: 1 844 915 individuals aged 30-59 years were selected with information on work status, chronic illness, educational background, age and gender. OUTCOME MEASURES: Absolute differences were expressed by absolute differences in proportion in paid employment between participants with and without a chronic illness, using linear regression. Relative differences were expressed by prevalence ratios in paid employment, using a Cox proportional hazard model. Linear regression was used to examine the trends of inequalities. RESULTS: Participants with a chronic illness had consistently lower labour force participation than those without illnesses. Educational inequalities were substantial with absolute differences larger within lower educated (men 21%-35%, women 10%-31%) than within higher educated (men 5%-13%, women 6%-16%). Relative differences showed that low-educated men with a chronic illness were 1.4-1.9 times (women 1.3-1.8 times) more likely to be out of paid employment than low-educated persons without a chronic illness, whereas this was 1.1-1.2 among high-educated men and women. In the Nordic, Anglo-Saxon and Eastern regions, these health-related educational inequalities in paid employment were more pronounced than in the Continental and Southern region. For most regions, absolute health-related educational inequalities in paid employment were generally constant, whereas relative inequalities increased, especially among low-educated persons. CONCLUSIONS: Men and women with a chronic illness have considerable less access to the labour market than their healthy colleagues, especially among lower educated persons. This exclusion from paid employment will increase health inequalities.

17.
Lancet Public Health ; 4(7): e316-e317, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204285
18.
Health Place ; 58: 102151, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We used the introduction of dedicated physical activity (PA) spaces in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, to study the impact of reducing distance to dedicated PA spaces on outdoor play and sedentary behavior, and to evaluate if these effects were similar between population subgroups. METHODS: We included 1841 Dutch children from the Generation R Study who participated at two subsequent measurement waves when the children were, on average, 6.0 and 9.7 years old. None of these children lived within 600 m of a dedicated PA space at baseline, and during follow-up 171 children became exposed to 13 new PA spaces within 600 m from home. Individual-level fixed-effects models were used to evaluate changes in distances (determined by Geographical Information Systems (GIS)) from home to the nearest new dedicated PA space, to parent-reported outdoor play and sedentary behavior. RESULTS: The introduction of a dedicated PA space within 600 m from home, and the reduction of the distance per 100 m, did not affect outdoor play or sedentary behaviors. At p < 0.1, significant interaction terms were found between the introduction of the PA spaces and indicators of family socioeconomic position. Although not statistically significant, stratified analyses showed a consistent pattern, suggesting that reducing the distance to the nearest PA space increased outdoor play for children from parents with lower levels of education. However, they also showed a non-significant increase in sedentary behaviors for children from families with net household income below average Dutch income, and for children from a non-Dutch ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Introducing dedicated PA spaces may be a promising approach to increase outdoor play for children from more socioeconomically disadvantaged families, but larger studies are needed to contribute to the evidence.

19.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 45(5): 514-519, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069395

RESUMO

Objective This opinion paper summarizes the main findings and recommendations of an advisory report on health and prolonging working life, which was requested by the Dutch Minister of Social Affairs and Employment. Methods The advisory report was compiled by a multidisciplinary committee of ten scientists appointed by the Health Council of The Netherlands. The committee`s aims were to (i) describe the health of the ageing population, (ii) describe how prolonging working life influences health, (iii) describe determinants, besides health, for prolonging working lives, and (iv) review the literature on interventions aimed at retaining or improving employability of older workers. Results The report was presented to the Minister on 26 June 2018. As the likelihood of health problems increases with age, prolonging working life may be difficult. In general, life expectancy increases and gains in life years and health seem mainly attributable to people aged >75 years. Work is good for mental health. However, it may be beneficial for mental health to stop working around the retirement age. Besides health, financial factors, lifestyle, motivation to work, and working conditions play a role in prolonging working life. A systematic review of the evidence indicated that interventions such as worksite health promotion or career development workshops can support older workers in this matter. Conclusions The Health Council advised the Dutch Government to focus on worksite health promotion and career development interventions as well as the improvement of their implementation. This requires a tailored approach as there is a large diversity in health among older workers and particularly between low- and high-educated people. With this in mind, it was further recommended to explore whether flexible pension schemes might better suit this diversity.

20.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 63(6): 666-678, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050711

RESUMO

High daytime light levels may reduce the risk of affective disorders. Outdoor workers are during daytime exposed to much higher light intensities than indoor workers. A way to study daytime light exposure and disease on a large scale is by use of a general population job exposure matrix (JEM) combined with national employment and health data. The objective of this study was to develop a JEM applicable for epidemiological studies of exposure response between daytime light exposure, affective disorders, and other health effects by combining expert scores and light measurements. We measured light intensity during daytime work hours 06:00-17:59 for 1-7 days with Philips Actiwatch Spectrum® light recorders (Actiwatch) among 695 workers representing 71 different jobs. Jobs were coded into DISCO-88, the Danish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Daytime light measurements were collected all year round in Denmark (55-56°N). Arithmetic mean white light intensity (lux) was calculated for each hour of observation (n = 15,272), natural log-transformed, and used as the dependent variable in mixed effects linear regression models. Three experts rated probability and duration of outdoor work for all 372 jobs within DISCO-88. Their ratings were used to construct an expert score that was included together with month of the year and hour of the day as fixed effects in the model. Job, industry nested within job, and worker were included as random effects. The model estimated daytime light intensity levels specific for hour of the day and month of the year for all jobs with a DISCO-88 code in Denmark. The fixed effects explained 37% of the total variance: 83% of the between-jobs variance, 57% of the between industries nested in jobs variance, 43% of the between-workers variance, and 15% of the within-worker variance. Modeled daytime light intensity showed a monotonic increase with increasing expert score and a 30-fold ratio between the highest and lowest exposed jobs. Building construction laborers were based on the JEM estimates among the highest and medical equipment operators among the lowest exposed. This is the first quantitative JEM of daytime light exposure and will be used in epidemiological studies of affective disorders and other health effects potentially associated with light exposure.

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