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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008171

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cerebral palsy and dental caries on dental plaque index, salivary parameters and oxidative stress in children and adolescents. METHODS: Seventy children and adolescents aged 2-20 years were divided into four groups: neurotypical controls-inactive caries (NCIC; n = 19); neurotypical controls-active caries (NCAC; n = 16); cerebral palsy-inactive caries (CPIC; n = 19); and cerebral palsy-active caries (CPAC; n = 16). The visible dental plaque index was determined after drying the tooth surfaces and without any mechanical or chemical disclosing methods. Salivary pH and buffer capacity were measured 1 hour after collection using a digital pH meter. Saliva was used to evaluate oxidative status based on the levels of reactive species, lipid peroxidation and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione and vitamin C). RESULTS: The CPIC and CPAC groups had lower salivary pH and a higher visible dental plaque index. CP was also associated with an increase in salivary levels of markers of oxidative stress and the modulation of salivary levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants. CONCLUSION: Cerebral palsy exerts an influence on the salivary profile, oral health and oxidative stress. The individuals with CP had more acidic saliva and a higher dental plaque index, which were positively correlated with caries activity. CP was associated with high salivary levels of reactive species and lipid peroxidation, demonstrating an imbalance in salivary redox that was particularly associated with caries activity. These factors facilitate the development of oral diseases in individuals with cerebral palsy.

2.
Anaesthesist ; 69(3): 162-169, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Besides public awareness and specialist knowledge and training of physicians, their self-confidence plays a key role for clinical decision-making in the respective area. OBJECTIVE: This exploratory study investigated the influence of the discipline on differences in self-confidence in dealing with antibiotics and in the self-rated knowledge. METHODS: In 2015 the multi-institutional reconnaissance of practice with multiresistant bacteria (MR2) questionnaire containing items on antibiotic prescription and multiresistant pathogens was sent out to 1061 physicians working in departments for internal medicine, general surgery, gynecology and obstetrics and urology. In 2017 a similar MR2 survey was sent to 1268 specialist and assistant physicians in anesthesiology in Germany. Besides demographic data 4 items on self-confidence in the use of antibiotic treatment and 11 items concerning self-rated knowledge about rational antibiotic therapy and multiresistant pathogens were included in the present analysis. Logistic regression analysis, the χ2-test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analysis of the influence of the discipline on these items. RESULTS: The response rates were 43% (456 out of 1061) from the non-anesthetists and 56% (705 out of 1268) from the anesthetists. Of the non-anesthetists 44% and 57% of the anesthetists had had no advanced training on antibiotic stewardship during the year before the study. In the overall analysis anesthetists (mean±SD: 2.53±0.54) were significantly less self-confident about antibiotics than colleagues from other departments (internal medicine: 3.10±0.50, general surgery: 2.97±0.44, gynecology and obstetrics: 3.12±0.42 and urology: 3.15±0.44) in the unadjusted (all p<0.001) and adjusted comparison. The analysis of self-rated knowledge about rational antibiotic prescription showed similar results. Senior consultant status and advanced training in infectiology were significantly associated with self-confidence and self-rated knowledge about antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Anesthetists showed significantly less self-confidence in dealing with antibiotics than colleagues from other disciplines. Advanced training on a rational prescription of antibiotics was associated with a greater self-confidence, so that the implementation of compulsory courses on rational antibiotic stewardship in the respective residency curriculum needs to be considered.

4.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 32: 25-35, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899030

RESUMO

Addiction is a devastating worldwide disorder that requires effective and innovative therapies. Physical exercise could be useful in addiction treatment because it shares a common neural circuit with addictive drugs. Based on this, molecular adaptations consequent to time of exercise in opioid exposed animals were evaluated. Rats were designed as sedentary (SED) or exercised (EXE). This last group was separated to perform three different periods of swimming: short-term (S-EXE), medium-term (M-EXE) and long-term (L-EXE) for 14, 28 and 42 days, respectively. On the last exercising week, one-half of the animals from SED and all animals from S-, M- and l-EXE were concomitantly exposed to morphine-conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and y-maze task for behavioral assessments followed by molecular assays in both Nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hippocampus. Between SED groups, morphine conditioning showed drug-CPP and increased dopamine transporter (DAT), dopamine receptor type-1 (D1R), type-2 (D2R) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in both brain areas in relation to saline group. Besides the small morphine-CPP in relation to SED group, all periods decreased DAT, D1R, and GR immunoreactivity in NAc, DAT and D1R in hippocampus, while D2R in both brain areas and GR in hippocampus were primarily decreased by L-EXE. Our findings show that even a short-term exercise modifies behaviors related to drug withdrawal, changing DA targets and GR, which are closely linked to addiction. Therefore, our outcomes involving physical exercise are interesting to perform a possible clinical trial, thus expanding the knowledge about drug addiction.

5.
Int Orthop ; 44(3): 561-568, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980861

RESUMO

AIM: This study compared functional outcomes between anatomical shaped fibular plates and intramedullary nail fixation of adult patients who sustained unstable ankle fractures. METHODS: A prospective randomized control trial was conducted between November 2013 and December 2016 on patients that presented with an unstable ankle fractures. They were randomized into a plate-and-screw group and a fibula nail group. At each post-operative visit the wounds were reviewed, and specific outcome measures were recorded, which included (i) the patient reported outcome measure (PROM) Olerud and Molander functional score, (ii) the Grimby score, (iii) swelling around the malleoli, (iv) plantar flexion, (v) dorsiflexion, (vi) inversion, and (vi) eversion. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed in scar size (p < 0.001) and screening time (p < 0.001) whilst no differences were observed in functional and PROM measures. Although not statistically significant, of clinical value is one deep infection that occurred in the plate group, whilst no infections occurred in the nail group. CONCLUSION: Both fixation methods yielded very similar functional results with differences only in scar size, screening time and swelling. Although none of these warrant a change in surgical decision-making processes, taken together, these factors potentially influence the decisions made in terms of surgical modalities used.

6.
Neurosci Lett ; 714: 134560, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622649

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ketamine (KET) is an anesthetic agent widely used in human and veterinary medicine. According to studies, KET is associated to direct neutorotoxic damages due to its capacity to induce oxidative stress. Because of the free radical generation in the organism and its relation with diseases' development, there is a growing interest to study antioxidant molecules, such as gallic acid (GA), a natural phenolic compound. AIM: Evaluate the GA antioxidant potential for the prevention of oxidative damage in the brain and liver tissue of rats exposed to acute KET administration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 32 Wistar male rats received GA (by gavage, 13.5 mg/kg) for three consecutive days, 24 h after the last GA dose, animals were anesthetized with KET (50 mg/kg, i.m.). All animals were euthanized by decapitation 60 min after KET administration. The liver, brain cortex and hippocampus were removed and homogenized for biochemical analysis. RESULTS: In brain cortex, KET increased reactive species (RS) generation, protein carbonyls (PC) levels and reduced non-protein thiols (NPSH) levels, while GA pre-treatment reduced PC and increased NPSH levels. KET increased PC and decreased NPSH levels in the hippocampus, and GA reduced PC and NPSH levels. In the liver, no difference was observed in the RS generation, while KET induced and increase of PC levels and decreased NPSH levels, while GA pre-treatment prevented it. CONCLUSION: GA administration can prevent oxidative damage caused by acute KET administration and minimize its noxious effects. Further studies are needed to evidence GA antioxidant properties regarding KET chronic use.

7.
World J Urol ; 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To validate the adherence of urologists to chemotherapy recommendations given in the EAU guidelines on PeCa. The European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on penile cancer (PeCa) are predominantly based on retrospective studies with low level of evidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 14-item-survey addressing general issues of PeCa treatment was developed and sent to 45 European hospitals. 557 urologists participated in the survey of which 43.5%, 19.3%, and 37.2% were in-training, certified, and in leading positions, respectively. Median response rate among participating departments was 85.7% (IQR 75-94%). Three of 14 questions addressed clinical decisions on neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and palliative chemotherapy. Survey results were analyzed by bootstrap-adjusted multivariate logistic-regression-analysis to identify predictors for chemotherapy recommendations consistent with the guidelines. RESULTS: Neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and palliative chemotherapy was recommended according to EAU guidelines in 21%, 26%, and 48%, respectively. For neoadjuvant chemotherapy, urologists holding leading positions or performing chemotherapy were more likely to recommend guideline-consistent treatment (OR 1.85 and 1.92 with p(bootstrap) = 0.007 and 0.003, respectively). Supporting resources (i.e., guidelines, textbooks) were used by 23% of survey participants and significantly improved consistency between treatment recommendations and Guideline recommendations in all chemotherapy settings (p(bootstrap) = 0.010-0.001). Department size and university center status were no significant predictors for all three endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found a very low rate of adherence to the EAU guidelines on systemic treatment for PeCa. Further investigations are needed to clarify whether this missing adherence is a consequence of limited individual knowledge level or of the low grade of guideline recommendations.

9.
Ann Oncol ; 30(11): 1697-1727, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although guidelines exist for advanced and variant bladder cancer management, evidence is limited/conflicting in some areas and the optimal approach remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To bring together a large multidisciplinary group of experts to develop consensus statements on controversial topics in bladder cancer management. DESIGN: A steering committee compiled proposed statements regarding advanced and variant bladder cancer management which were assessed by 113 experts in a Delphi survey. Statements not reaching consensus were reviewed; those prioritised were revised by a panel of 45 experts before voting during a consensus conference. SETTING: Online Delphi survey and consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: The European Association of Urology (EAU), the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), experts in bladder cancer management. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Statements were ranked by experts according to their level of agreement: 1-3 (disagree), 4-6 (equivocal), 7-9 (agree). A priori (level 1) consensus was defined as ≥70% agreement and ≤15% disagreement, or vice versa. In the Delphi survey, a second analysis was restricted to stakeholder group(s) considered to have adequate expertise relating to each statement (to achieve level 2 consensus). RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Overall, 116 statements were included in the Delphi survey. Of these, 33 (28%) statements achieved level 1 consensus and 49 (42%) statements achieved level 1 or 2 consensus. At the consensus conference, 22 of 27 (81%) statements achieved consensus. These consensus statements provide further guidance across a broad range of topics, including the management of variant histologies, the role/limitations of prognostic biomarkers in clinical decision making, bladder preservation strategies, modern radiotherapy techniques, the management of oligometastatic disease and the evolving role of checkpoint inhibitor therapy in metastatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: These consensus statements provide further guidance on controversial topics in advanced and variant bladder cancer management until a time where further evidence is available to guide our approach.

10.
World J Urol ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radical cystectomy (RC) is associated with substantial postoperative mortality. In this study, we analyzed early (30-day; 30 M) and late (30-90-day; 30-90 M) mortality after RC in a Dutch tertiary referral center and determined factors associated with 30 M, 30-90 M and 90-day mortality (90 M). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified 823 patients who underwent RC for bladder cancer in the Netherlands Cancer Institute between 1997 and 2017. Predictive factors for mortality were analyzed to identify patients with a higher mortality risk. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the influence of patient, surgical and histopathological variables on 30 M, 30-90 M and 90 M. RESULTS: Thirty-day mortality was 1.9% and 90 M was 6.0%. Multivariable analysis showed that age (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.1, p = 0.002) and ASA 3-4 (OR 3.57, 95% CI 1.25-10.16, p = 0.002) were significant predictors of 30 M while higher ASA score (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.31-6.5, p = 0.009) and higher pathological T stage (OR 8.8, 95% CI 1.9-40.4, p = 0.005) were associated with 30-90 M. Risk of 90 M was increased in patients with ASA 3-4 (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.9, p = 0.01), pT3-4 (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.27-7.57, p = 0.01) and positive LNs (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.25-4.98, p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Patient-related factors predicted 30 M whereas both patient-related and cancer-related factors predicted 30-90 M. This suggests that patient mix, i.e. patient- vs. cancer-related factors for 30 M and 30-90 M, should be taken into account if mortality rates are to be compared between hospitals.

11.
Urologe A ; 58(12): 1469-1480, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attending physicians (AP) in urology represent a very heterogeneous group covering various clinical priorities and career objectives. To date, there are no reliable data on professional, personal and position-linked aspects of AP in urology working in university centers (univ-AP) opposed to those working in non-university centers (n-univ-AP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The objective of this study was to analyze individual professional perspectives, professional and personal settings, specific job-related activities and individual professional goals of univ-AP opposed to n­univ-AP. Thus, a web-based survey containing 55 items was designed to perform a cross-sectional study that was then forwarded using a link which was sent via a mailing list of the German Society of Urology. The survey was available for completion by AP at German urological centers from February to April 2019. Group-specific differences were evaluated using bootstrap-adjusted multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of the 192 evaluable surveys, 61 (31.8%) and 131 (68.2%) were part of the univ-AP and n­univ-AP study group, respectively. Participating n­univ-AP compared to univ-AP held the position of AP (p = 0.022) significantly longer and were on call significantly more frequently (p < 0.001). AP in urology (self)-assessed themselves as autonomously confident in performing robotic, laparoscopic, open, endo-urologic, and plastic-reconstructive surgery in 12.4%, 25%, 59.6%, 92.1%, and 25.7%, respectively, with no significant differences between the two groups among all above mentioned surgical subdomains based on multivariate analysis. AP in urology were (very) content in 92% concerning the choice of their discipline, in 73.9% concerning their actual working circumstances, and in 60.2% concerning their level of surgical expertise. Only 27.1% and 19.9% were (very) content with the amount of available time for their personal professional development and for private affairs, respectively. As opposed to n­univ-AP, univ-AP would choose a career in clinical centers once again significantly more frequently (OR 2.87; p(BS) = 0.041), but assess the position of AP as their definitive career goal significantly less frequently (OR 0.42; p(BS) = 0.40). Univ-AP state significantly more frequently that they were running for the position of head of department or full professor (OR 5.64; p(BS) = 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this first survey study world-wide on AP in urology divided according to their academic background, similarities and variances were analyzed, baring the potential to further improve identification of AP for a career in clinical centers.


Assuntos
Mão de Obra em Saúde , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar , Urologia , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais , Humanos , Internet , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(29): 16161-16169, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294428

RESUMO

We investigate the oxidation of uranium (U) species, the physical conditions leading to uranium monoxide (UO) formation and the interplay between plume hydrodynamics and plasma chemistry in a laser-produced U plasma. Plasmas are produced by ablation of metallic U using nanosecond laser pulses. An ambient gas environment with varying oxygen partial pressures in 100 Torr inert Ar gas is used for controlling the plasma oxidation chemistry. Optical emission spectroscopic analysis of U atomic and monoxide species shows a reduction in the emission intensity and persistence with increasing oxygen partial pressure. Spectral modelling is used for identifying the physical conditions in the plasma that favor UO formation. The optimal temperature for UO formation is found to be in the temperature range of ∼1500-5000 K. The spectrally integrated and spectrally filtered (monochromatic) imaging of U atomic and molecular species reveals the evolutionary paths of various species in the plasma. Our results also highlight that oxidation in U plasmas predominantly occurs at the cooler periphery and is delayed with respect to plasma formation, and the dissipation of molecular species strongly depends on oxygen partial pressure.

14.
Urologe A ; 58(6): 634-639, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) has been used in the treatment of refractory overactive bladder syndrome, nonobstructive urinary retention and faecal incontinence for almost 40 years now. It is not to be confused with the sacral anterior root stimulation which is exclusively used for bladder dysfunction due to spinal paraplegia. MECHANISM OF ACTION: The principles of SNM are yet to be fully understood. Nevertheless, there is proof of modulating the activity of several micturition-associated, afferent neurons in the spine, brainstem and cerebrum. Thus, premature detrusor contractions are suppressed, the desire to void is delayed and detrusor-sphincter coordination improves. TECHNIQUES OF IMPLANTATION AND STIMULATION: Motor reactions are an important indicator of correct electrode placement. The implantation procedure consists of two stages with an initial trial phase to determine the best possible treatment response through an external generator before implanting the whole stimulating device. Yearly check-up examinations are recommended; wireless adjustments allow for long-lasting symptom reduction. INDICATION AND OUTCOME: Success rates in the treatment of the refractory overactive bladder syndrome and the non-obstructive urinary retention lie above 70% and can still be perceived as sufficient after 5 years of ongoing SNM therapy. There is also profound evidence of SNM being an effective option for patients with faecal incontinence or chronic obstipation. CONTRAINDICATIONS AND RISKS: Children, pregnant women and patients in need of frequent MRI examinations are usually not eligible for SNM therapy. Infection of the implant, technical failure (including lead displacement and battery depletion) and pain in the implantation site are important adverse effects which might require surgical revision. CONCLUSIONS: The indications for SNM in the German health care system can be expected to be expanded upon the chronic pelvic pain syndrome, erectile dysfunction and additional gastrointestinal conditions. Technical progress will continue to improve the risk-benefit ratio of SNM.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Incontinência Fecal/terapia , Neuroestimuladores Implantáveis , Plexo Lombossacral/fisiopatologia , Dor Pélvica/terapia , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa , Bexiga Urinária/inervação , Retenção Urinária/terapia , Criança , Incontinência Fecal/etiologia , Incontinência Fecal/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor Pélvica/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Sacro , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/terapia , Bexiga Inativa , Retenção Urinária/etiologia , Retenção Urinária/fisiopatologia
15.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 69(2): 118-125, 2019 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Health and Safety Executive's new Health and Work Strategy is based on an up-to-date assessment of workplace health priorities. Rather than replicating traditional prioritization approaches, a broader assessment of health and work priorities was carried out using a range of stakeholders. AIMS: To develop a set of health priorities for further research and intervention activity. METHODS: Four exercises were carried out, including internal prioritization, two external web-hosted questionnaire studies of younger workers and occupational health professionals, focus groups and tele-depth interviews with workplace health and safety professionals. RESULTS: The highest rated internal priorities (weighted priority scores) were identified as mesothelioma (70), lung cancer (69.25), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; 69), musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs; 66.25), hearing loss (65.75), stress (65.5), asthma (64.5) and hand-arm vibration syndrome (61.5). Using the three highest ranked criteria developed by occupational health professionals ((i) the preventability of the condition, (ii) the impact of the condition and (iii) the number of workers affected), mesothelioma, lung cancer, COPD, MSDs, hearing loss, stress and asthma were identified as the top seven priorities. Generic issues identified included ageing and work, obesity, newer technologies, and ethnicity and cultures of workforces. Apprentices identified stress, depression, anxiety, musculoskeletal and respiratory disorders, fatigue and workload as important workplace health considerations. CONCLUSIONS: This process identified a number of expected and new areas of health research interest. We believe the findings reflect the real world requirements of work as assessed by occupational health and safety practitioners and workers.

17.
Urologe A ; 58(2): 139-142, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762076

RESUMO

The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie (DGU) has set itself the task of supporting medical assistants on their way to becoming specialists in urology. At the same time, urological junior researchers have been given the opportunity to become part of the urological community at an early stage through the so-called junior membership of the DGU. The working group "Young Urologists" of the DGU addresses in particular topics such as the development of concepts for the promotion of young talent, improvement of further education, models for better compatibility of leisure/family and work as well as the compatibility of clinical and scientific work. As part of the DGU Congress, urological assistants can actively contribute by submitting abstracts for lecture or poster sessions. On the other hand, seminars and forums also address topics relevant to further education. To ensure this, representatives of the assistants are members of the scientific program commission of the DGU congress. The aim of the Junior Academy is to accompany young urologists on their way to becoming a specialist with high-quality seminars. In addition, the Junior Academy offers personal support on the way to their targeted career goal. The Junior Academy has a large network that makes it possible to learn from the best. The established Ferdinand-Eisenberger Research Fellowships allow young researchers in urology to be exempted from their clinical routine for one year in order to intensify independent scientific work at a renowned research institution in Germany. AuF-Symposia (working group urological research) and workshops are also aimed at young scientists. Further funding projects, such as support for DFG applications, are unique to the society.


Assuntos
Urologistas , Urologia , Academias e Institutos , Alemanha , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas , Urologia/educação
18.
Int J Impot Res ; 31(4): 256-262, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194372

RESUMO

Advanced Peyronie's disease (PD) with severe penile curvature requires grafting following plaque incision or partial plaque excision. So far, the ideal graft material has not been identified although various grafts have been studied. In this first matched pair analysis we compared the outcome after grafting with small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and self-adhesive collagen fleece (CF). We retrospectively identified 43 patients after SIS grafting with complete follow-up data sets to be eligible for the present study. A total of 43 patients after CF grafting were matched case by case to the SIS group using the degree of preoperative penile curvature as the primary matching factor. Postoperative outcome was compared with the focus on penile straightening, penile length, potency, relapse rates and long-term complications. Median degree of curvature was 80° in each group. Mean follow-up periods were 31 months after SIS and 39 months after CF grafting. The CF grafting procedure was significantly faster than SIS grafting (80 vs. 104 min, p < 0.001). No major short-term complications were observed. Both techniques gained good long-term penile straightening rates. Relapse of penile curvature was observed after SIS grafting only. Postoperative penile shortening occurred more often after SIS grafting (28% vs. 5%, p = 0.007). With a mean preoperative IIEF-5 score of 16, the SIS cohort significantly differed from the CF cohort with a mean IIEF-5 score of 19 (p = 0.016). The median IIEF-5 score improvement was higher after SIS grafting (+4.5 vs. +1, p = 0.002). Diminished penile sensation was the main long-term side effect with low rates after both procedures (9% and 7% in the SIS and CF group respectively, p = 0.100). In this first matched pair analysis both techniques showed promising long-term results. CF seems to have advantages regarding duration of surgery and preserving penile length. More comparative studies with larger collectives are desirable.


Assuntos
Colágeno , Mucosa Intestinal/transplante , Intestino Delgado/transplante , Induração Peniana/cirurgia , Pênis/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Análise por Pareamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Ereção Peniana , Pênis/anatomia & histologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/psicologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensação , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(1): 14, 2018 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539377

RESUMO

Depression wetlands (colloquially referred to in South Africa (SA) as pans) are found worldwide and primarily occur in arid regions including North and South America, southern and central Africa and southern and western Australia. Surface water resources in SA, and specifically in Gauteng, are under pressure from urbanisation, poor agricultural practices and untreated mining and industrial effluent. Research of these wetlands will benefit the development of health assessment tools for these unique aquatic resources. The aim of this project was to determine the water quality and macroinvertebrate community structure for each perennial pan during consecutive dry and wet seasons and to establish a possible comparison between these pans that can be used as a baseline for future research on pans. The sampled pans in Gauteng presented higher TDS, Cl and Mg results compared to other South African studies, and similar SO4 results to pans in the Mpumalanga province. Ammonia, Al and Zn results of all pans through all sampling events exceed the Target Water Quality Range (TWQR) for aquatic ecosystems of the Water Quality Guidelines (WQG) from the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS). The water quality from selected systems is suitable for livestock watering based on the DWS TWQR. Macroinvertebrate species of all sampled pans were mostly low water quality tolerant species with a predator dominant community structure. Seasonal variation of species was evident. Macroinvertebrate families found in the wet season include Hydrophilidae, Aeshnidae, Pleiidae, Ephemeroptera, Belostomatidae and Notonectidae. Families found in the dry season include Planaridae, Dysticidae, Hirudinidae and Daphnidae. Graphical representation of ordination analyses with Canoco version 5 (Ter Braak and Smilauer 2012) indicated that TDS, temperature, pH, sulphates and hardness are strong drivers of the existing macroinvertebrate community in most of the pans.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Qualidade da Água , Áreas Alagadas , Agricultura , Animais , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Mineração , Estações do Ano , África do Sul , Urbanização
20.
Opt Lett ; 43(22): 5520-5523, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439885

RESUMO

Electrical conductive properties of femtosecond laser filaments are of significant interest for applications such as remote arc suppression and discharge guiding. We transmitted electrical current through a DC-biased air plasma channel formed in the wake of an energetic femtosecond laser pulse and observed an increased rate of change of the charge transmitted through the ionized channel with laser energy when crossing from the single- to multi-filament regimes. This behavior is attributed to the confluent effects of greater electron density and an increased cross-sectional area of the multi-filament plasma structures. As the laser energy is increased, the formation of additional conductive channels in the multi-filamentation regime becomes a significant contributor to the rapid increase of conductivity. These observations suggest a potential path to attractive applications such as efficient energy transfer in air mediated by femtosecond laser-produced filaments.

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