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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767286

RESUMO

Adrenal insufficiency (AI) requires life-long treatment with glucocorticoid replacement therapy. Over- or under-substitution carries the risk of increased morbidity in the form of side effects or adrenal crises. Glucocorticoid replacement therapy needs to be flexible with dose adaptation in special situations. This could not be managed by medical personnel on a daily basis, but requires an educated patient who has a good knowledge of the disease, understands his medical therapy and is able to perform situational dose adaptation. The rarity of the disease in combination with the need to respond to stressful situations with rapid glucocorticoid dose adjustment underlines that a well-trained patient is crucial for optimal management of the disease.In this literature review we provide background information further clarifying the need of education in patients with AI including the current shortcomings of medical therapy and of the treatment of patients with AI. We outline the aims of therapeutic patient education, present the concept of structured patient education in Germany, and discuss available results of patient group education programs. Furthermore, we propose strategies how therapeutic patient education for adrenal insufficiency can be organized under COVID-19 pandemic conditions.

2.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(9): 773-781, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/urina , Metabolômica/métodos , Esteroides/urina , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478671

RESUMO

Summary: Standard treatment of hypoparathyroidism consists of supplementation of calcium and vitamin D analogues, which does not fully restore calcium homeostasis. In some patients, hypoparathyroidism is refractory to standard treatment with persistent low serum calcium levels and associated clinical complications. Here, we report on three patients (58-year-old male, 52-year-old female, and 48-year-old female) suffering from severe treatment-refractory postsurgical hypoparathyroidism. Two patients had persistent hypocalcemia despite oral treatment with up to 4 µg calcitriol and up to 4 g calcium per day necessitating additional i.v. administration of calcium gluconate 2-3 times per week, whereas the third patient presented with high frequencies of hypocalcemic and treatment-associated hypercalcemic episodes. S.c. administration of rhPTH (1-34) twice daily (40 µg/day) or rhPTH (1-84) (100 µg/day) only temporarily increased serum calcium levels but did not lead to long-term stabilization. In all three cases, treatment with rhPTH (1-34) as continuous s.c. infusion via insulin pump was initiated. Normalization of serum calcium and serum phosphate levels was observed within 1 week at daily 1-34 parathyroid hormone doses of 15 µg to 29.4 µg. Oral vitamin D and calcium treatment could be stopped or reduced and regular i.v. calcium administration was no more necessary. Ongoing efficacy of this treatment has been documented for up to 7 years so far. Therefore, we conclude that hypoparathyroidism that is refractory to both conventional treatment and s.c. parathyroid hormone (single or twice daily) may be successfully treated with continuous parathyroid hormone administration via insulin pump. Learning points: Standard treatment of hypoparathyroidism still consists of administration of calcium and active vitamin D. Very few patients with hypoparathyroidism also do not respond sufficiently to standard treatment or administration of s.c. parathyroid hormone once or twice daily. In those cases, continuous s.c. administration of parathyroid hormone via insulin pump may represent a successful treatment alternative.

4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(2): 119-127, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580144

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) suffer from impaired quality of life and are at risk of adrenal crisis (AC) despite established replacement therapy. Patient education is regarded an important measure for prevention of AC and improvement of AI management. A standardized education programme was elaborated for patients with chronic AI in Germany. Design: Longitudinal, prospective, questionnaire-based, multi-centre study. Methods: During 2-h sessions, patients (n = 526) were provided with basic knowledge on AI, equipped with emergency cards and sets and trained in self-injection of hydrocortisone. To evaluate the education programme, patients from eight certified centres completed questionnaires before, immediately after and 6-9 months after training. Results: 399 completed data sets were available for analysis. Questionnaire score-values were significantly higher after patient education, indicating successful knowledge transfer (baseline: 17 ± 7.1 of a maximum score of 29; after training: 23 ± 4.2; P < 0.001), and remained stable over 6-9 months. Female sex, younger age and primary cause of AI were associated with higher baseline scores; after education, age, cause of AI and previous adrenal crisis had a significant main effect on scores. 91% of patients would dare performing self-injection after training, compared to 68% at baseline. An improvement of subjective well-being through participation in the education programme was indicated by 95% of the patients 6-9 months after participation. Conclusion: Patient group education in chronic AI represents a helpful tool for the guidance of patients, their self-assurance and their knowledge on prevention of adrenal crises. Repeated training and adaptation to specific needs, for example, of older patients is needed.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/normas , Doença Aguda/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Etiquetas de Emergência Médica , Tratamento de Emergência , Feminino , Alemanha , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/administração & dosagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Autoadministração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613324

RESUMO

CONTEXT: An important clinical feature of Cushing's syndrome (CS) is proximal muscle myopathy caused by glucocorticoid induced protein metabolism. However, interindividual differences cannot be explained solely by the pure extent of hypercortisolemia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) polymorphisms (BclI, N363S, ER22/23EK and A3669G), which influence peripheral glucocorticoid sensitivity on muscular function in endogenous CS. METHODS: 205 patients with proven endogenous CS (128 central, 77 adrenal) from 3 centers of the German Cushing's Registry and 125 subjects, in whom CS was ruled out, were included. All subjects were assessed for grip strength (via hand grip dynamometer) and performed a chair-rising test (CRT). DNA samples were obtained from peripheral blood leukocytes for GR genotyping. RESULTS: In patients with active CS, normalized handgrip strength of the dominant and nondominant hand was higher in A3669G minor allele than in wildtype carriers (P = .006 and P = .021, respectively). CS patients in remission and ruled-out CS showed no differences in handgrip strength regarding A3669G minor allele and wildtype carriers. Male CS patients harboring the ER22/23EK wildtype presented lower hand grip strength than minor allele carriers (P = .049 dominant hand; P = .027 nondominant hand). The other polymorphisms did not influence handgrip strength. CRT showed no differences regarding GR polymorphisms carrier status. CONCLUSION: Handgrip strength seems to be more susceptible to hypercortisolism in A3669G wildtype than in A3669G minor allele carriers. This might partially explain the inter-individual differences of glucocorticoid-induced myopathy in patients with endogenous CS. ER22/23EK polymorphism seems to exert sex-specific differences.

6.
Endocr Connect ; 8(4): 425-434, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952111

RESUMO

Objective Patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) need to adapt their glucocorticoid replacement under stressful conditions to prevent adrenal crisis (AC). Prednisone (PN) suppositories are used for emergency treatment. Pharmacokinetics of 100 mg PN suppositories after vaginal or rectal administration was evaluated. Design Single-center, open-label, sequence-randomized, cross-over, bioequivalence study. Methods Twelve females with primary AI were included. Comparison of pharmacokinetics after vaginal and rectal administration of 100 mg PN suppositories. Main outcome measures: bioequivalence (Cmax: maximum plasma concentration of prednisolone; AUC0 -360: area under the plasma concentration curve of prednisolone from administration to 360 min), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) levels, safety and tolerability. Comparison of ACTH-suppressive effect with subcutaneous and intramuscular administration of 100 mg hydrocortisone. Results Vaginal administration of PN suppositories was not bioequivalent to rectal administration: Cmax and AUC0-360 were significantly lower after vaginal compared to rectal administration: 22 ng/mL (109%) vs 161 ng/mL (28%), P < 0.001; 4390 ng/mL * min (116%) vs 40,302 ng/mL * min (26%), P < 0.001; (mean (coefficient of variation), respectively). A suppression of ACTH by >50% of baseline values was observed 149 min (32%) after rectal PN administration; after vaginal PN administration, the maximum decrease within 360 min was only 44%. Adverse events were more frequent after vaginal administration and mainly attributable to the glucocorticoid deficit due to inadequate vaginal absorption. The ACTH-suppressive effect was more pronounced after parenteral hydrocortisone compared to rectal or vaginal PN. Conclusion Vaginal administration of PN suppositories in the available form is not useful for prevention of AC. Pharmacokinetics after rectal use of PN show inferiority compared to available data on parenteral glucocorticoids. In adrenal emergencies, hydrocortisone injection should be the first choice.

7.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 89(1): 22-29, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the management of adrenal emergencies (AE) requiring parenteral glucocorticoid (GC) treatment in patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency (AI). DESIGN: Prospective, multicentre, questionnaire-based study. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Participating patients (n = 150) with chronic AI were provided with a questionnaire on the management of emergency situations, which had to be completed and sent back in case of an AE. In addition, patients were contacted by phone on a regular basis. RESULTS: Fifty-nine AE in 39 patients were documented. The time interval from contact to arrival of a medical professional was 20 minutes (1-240). In total, in 43 AE, patients received parenteral GC by a medical professional. The time interval between showing the emergency card and GC injection by a medical professional was 60 minutes (5-360). A total of 26 patients administered GC by self-injection. The time from the beginning of symptoms to GC injection was significantly shorter in case of self-injection (self-injection vs injection by medical professional; 85 minutes [20-280] vs 232.5 minutes [1-3135]; P < .001). After self-injection, 62% of the patients were treated outpatient, compared to 27% of the patients after exclusive injection by a medical professional (P = .008). To improve the emergency management, most of the patients (84%) indicated a need for an easier way of self-injection. CONCLUSION: While management of AE by both patients and medical professionals still shows high variability, patients profit from the option of self-injection. Patient care, including education of patients and health-professionals, as well as the way of GC administration, needs further optimization.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 141(24): 1740-1742, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27903023

RESUMO

Even under established replacement therapy, chronic adrenal insufficiency is associated with an impairment in daily life activities and a higher number of sick-days. In patients with individually adjusted glucocorticoid doses (avoiding over-replacement) the frequency of glucocorticoid side effects is low. Besides the standard treatment with conventional hydrocortisone, new formulas aiming at more adjusted physiological circadian cortisol profiles or improved individual dosing have been evaluated in recent clinical trials. Adrenal crisis is a potential threat for patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency even under established hormone replacement therapy, which is triggered by infectious diseases mostly. Primary adrenal insufficiency, comorbidities and previous adrenal crisis were identified as risk factors. To improve the emergency-management in patients with adrenal insufficiency a nation-wide standardized education program for patients and relatives has been established in Germany. First results show an ongoing improvement of handling their sickness and certitude in patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Adrenal/terapia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/tendências , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Front Horm Res ; 46: 171-83, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27211797

RESUMO

For a long time it has been assumed that patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency under established replacement therapy have a normal life expectancy and a normal everyday life. Recent studies now indicate both an impairment of quality of life (QoL) with a negative impact on daily life and increased mortality in a significant number of patients. The clinical presentation of patients varies considerably. While some neither suffer from reduced QoL nor from adrenal crisis, others are significantly more affected by the disease. Long-term management of patients is thus more challenging and goes far beyond identification of the correct maintenance dose of corticosteroids. The mortality from adrenal crisis is still high and prevention should be a top priority for endocrinologists. Concepts of replacement therapy as well as patient education and emergency equipment are currently being reassessed. Developments to improve patient care and treatment comprise novel glucocorticoid preparations that are closer to the physiological circadian cortisol profile, a uniform European emergency card and more standardized crisis prevention measures.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/epidemiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Adrenal/mortalidade , Humanos
10.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11097, 2016 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27020697

RESUMO

Mg(2+) plays a vital role in platelet function, but despite implications for life-threatening conditions such as stroke or myocardial infarction, the mechanisms controlling [Mg(2+)]i in megakaryocytes (MKs) and platelets are largely unknown. Transient receptor potential melastatin-like 7 channel (TRPM7) is a ubiquitous, constitutively active cation channel with a cytosolic α-kinase domain that is critical for embryonic development and cell survival. Here we report that impaired channel function of TRPM7 in MKs causes macrothrombocytopenia in mice (Trpm7(fl/fl-Pf4Cre)) and likely in several members of a human pedigree that, in addition, suffer from atrial fibrillation. The defect in platelet biogenesis is mainly caused by cytoskeletal alterations resulting in impaired proplatelet formation by Trpm7(fl/fl-Pf4Cre) MKs, which is rescued by Mg(2+) supplementation or chemical inhibition of non-muscle myosin IIA heavy chain activity. Collectively, our findings reveal that TRPM7 dysfunction may cause macrothrombocytopenia in humans and mice.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Homeostase , Magnésio/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo , Trombopoese , Animais , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Humanos , Megacariócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Miosina não Muscular Tipo IIA/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/deficiência , Canais de Cátion TRPM/deficiência , Trombocitopenia/metabolismo , Trombocitopenia/patologia
11.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 140(16): 1195-7, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26261924

RESUMO

Hypoparathyroidism and quality of life: Even in adequately substituted patients, hypoparathyroidism (HPT) is associated with impaired quality of life. It has been hypothesized that there is a correlation between reduced quality of life and lack of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the central nervous system. Positive effects on quality of life have been reported when treating HPT with PTH. Hypoparathyroidism and comorbidities: Comorbidities associated with HPT include an increased risk of nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis and neuro-psychiatric disease. Additionally, cardiovascular risk profile and an increased susceptibility for infections have been reported. Mortality rates seem not to be increased in HPT. Hypoparathyroidism and new therapeutic strategies: Recombinant PTH has not been approved for the treatment of HPT in Europe yet. However, in early 2015, the FDA approved PTH (1-84). Daily subcutaneous delivery of PTH (1-84) and PTH (1-34) (Teriparatide) has emerged as a promising therapeutic tool. However, its use should be restricted to patients insufficiently controlled with the standard treatment consisting of active vitamin d and calcium.


Assuntos
Hipoparatireoidismo/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Comorbidade , Esquema de Medicação , Aprovação de Drogas , Alemanha , Humanos , Hipoparatireoidismo/complicações , Hipoparatireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Injeções Subcutâneas , Proteína Relacionada ao Hormônio Paratireóideo/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
12.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 29(1): 25-32, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25617170

RESUMO

Although dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate ester dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) are the most abundant steroid hormones in the human circulation, its exact physiological role is not yet fully understood. In patients with adrenal insufficiency, secretion of DHEA is impaired, leading to decreased circulating DHEA and DHEAS levels, and to androgen deficiency in women. Replacement of DHEA in patients with adrenal insufficiency positively influence mood, sexuality and subjective health status. These effects are generally moderate and show high inter-individual variability. Limited evidence exists for immunomodulatory effects of DHEA. Although an increase of IGF-I levels has been documented, relevant effects on body composition, metabolic or cardiovascular parameters has not been observed in patients with adrenal insufficiency receiving DHEA. Larger-scale phase III studies are still lacking; therefore, initiation of DHEA replacement is decided on an individual basis, focussing on those patients with impaired well-being associated with signs and symptoms of androgen deficiency.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Desidroepiandrosterona/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 100(2): 407-16, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25419882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adrenal crisis (AC) is a life-threatening complication of adrenal insufficiency (AI), which according to retrospective data represents a significant clinical complication. Here we aimed to prospectively assess incidence of AC and mortality associated with AC in patients with chronic AI. METHODS: A total of 423 patients with AI (primary AI, n = 221; secondary AI, n = 202) were prospectively followed up for 2 years. Baseline assessment included a general questionnaire and detailed written instructions on glucocorticoid dose adaptation during stress. Patients received follow-up questionnaires every 6 months and were contacted by phone in case of reported adrenal crisis. RESULTS: A total of 423 data sets were available for baseline analysis, and 364 patients (86%) completed the whole study. Sixy-four AC in 767.5 patient-years were documented (8.3 crises per 100 patient-years). Precipitating causes were mainly gastrointestinal infection, fever, and emotional stress (20%, respectively) but also other stressful events (eg, major pain, surgery, strenuous physical activity, heat, pregnancy) or unexplained sudden onset of AC (7%) were documented. Patients with a previous AC were at higher risk of crisis (odds ratio 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.5-5.5, P < .01). However, no further risk factors could be identified. Ten patients died during follow-up; in four cases death was associated with AC (0.5 AC related deaths per 100 patient-years). CONCLUSION: Even in educated patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency, AC occurs in a substantial proportion of cases. Furthermore, we identified AC-associated mortality in approximately 6% of AC. Our findings further emphasize the need for improved management of AC in patients with chronic AI.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/epidemiologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Adrenal/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 169(2): 147-54, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23672956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and safety of s.c. hydrocortisone injection for use in adrenal emergency. DESIGN: Single-center, open-label, sequence-randomized, crossover study in a tertiary care center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with chronic Addison's disease. Comparison of hydrocortisone pharmacokinetics after s.c. and i.m. injection (100 mg) and after s.c. administration of sodium chloride (0.9%) respectively at three different visits. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: maximum serum cortisol (Cmax), time to Cmax (tmax), and time to serum cortisol >36 µg/dl (tserum cortisol >36 µg/dl) after s.c. administration compared with i.m. administration, safety, and patient preference. RESULTS: Serum cortisol increased rapidly and substantially after both i.m. and s.c. injections (Cmax: 110±29 vs 97±28 µg/dl, P=0.27, tmax: 66±51 vs 91±34 min, P=0.17, and tserum cortisol >36 µg/dl: 11±5 vs 22±11 min, P=0.004 respectively). Both i.m. and s.c. injections were well tolerated. Eleven (91.7%) patients preferred s.c. injection, whereas one patient did not have any preference. CONCLUSIONS: S.c. administration of 100 mg hydrocortisone shows excellent pharmacokinetics for emergency use with only a short delay in cortisol increase compared with i.m. injection. It has a good safety profile and is preferred by patients over i.m. injection.


Assuntos
Doença de Addison/sangue , Doença de Addison/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrocortisona/administração & dosagem , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hidrocortisona/farmacocinética , Doença de Addison/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/efeitos adversos , Injeções Intramusculares , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Preferência do Paciente , Adulto Jovem
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