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1.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688376

RESUMO

The Johnson and Johnson Ad26.COV2.S single-dose vaccine represents an attractive option for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in countries with limited resources. We examined the effect of prior infection with different SARS-CoV-2 variants on Ad26.COV2.S immunogenicity. We compared participants who were SARS-CoV-2 naive with those either infected with the ancestral D614G virus or infected in the second wave when Beta predominated. Prior infection significantly boosts spike-binding antibodies, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and neutralizing antibodies against D614G, Beta, and Delta; however, neutralization cross-reactivity varied by wave. Robust CD4 and CD8 T cell responses are induced after vaccination, regardless of prior infection. T cell recognition of variants is largely preserved, apart from some reduction in CD8 recognition of Delta. Thus, Ad26.COV2.S vaccination after infection could result in enhanced protection against COVID-19. The impact of the infecting variant on neutralization breadth after vaccination has implications for the design of second-generation vaccines based on variants of concern.

2.
J Immunol ; 207(5): 1239-1249, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389623

RESUMO

HIV-1 infection substantially increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Mechanisms such as defects in the Th1 response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons have been widely reported. However, Th1-independent mechanisms also contribute to protection against TB. To identify a broader spectrum of defects in TB immunity during HIV infection, we examined IL-17A and IL-22 production in response to mycobacterial Ags in peripheral blood of persons with latent TB infection and HIV coinfection. Upon stimulating with mycobacterial Ags, we observed a distinct CD4+ Th lineage producing IL-22 in the absence of IL-17A and IFN-γ. Mycobacteria-specific Th22 cells were present at high frequencies in blood and contributed up to 50% to the CD4+ T cell response to mycobacteria, comparable in magnitude to the IFN-γ Th1 response (median 0.91% and 0.55%, respectively). Phenotypic characterization of Th22 cells revealed that their memory differentiation was similar to M. tuberculosis-specific Th1 cells (i.e., predominantly early differentiated CD45RO+CD27+ phenotype). Moreover, CCR6 and CXCR3 expression profiles of Th22 cells were similar to Th17 cells, whereas their CCR4 and CCR10 expression patterns displayed an intermediate phenotype between Th1 and Th17 cells. Strikingly, mycobacterial IL-22 responses were 3-fold lower in HIV-infected persons compared with uninfected persons, and the magnitude of responses correlated inversely with HIV viral load. These data provide important insights into mycobacteria-specific Th subsets in humans and suggest a potential role for IL-22 in protection against TB during HIV infection. Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the role of IL-22 in protective TB immunity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Coinfecção , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Masculino , África do Sul , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 707355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276702

RESUMO

HIV-1 increases susceptibility to pulmonary infection and disease, suggesting pathogenesis in the lung. However, the lung immune environment during HIV infection remains poorly characterized. This study examined T cell activation and the cytokine milieu in paired bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood from 36 HIV-uninfected and 32 HIV-infected participants. Concentrations of 27 cytokines were measured by Luminex, and T cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Blood and BAL had distinct cytokine profiles (p=0.001). In plasma, concentrations of inflammatory cytokines like IFN-γ (p=0.004) and TNF-α (p=0.004) were elevated during HIV infection, as expected. Conversely, BAL cytokine concentrations were similar in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals, despite high BAL viral loads (VL; median 48,000 copies/ml epithelial lining fluid). HIV-infected individuals had greater numbers of T cells in BAL compared to uninfected individuals (p=0.007); and BAL VL positively associated with CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers (p=0.006 and p=0.0002, respectively) and CXCL10 concentrations (p=0.02). BAL T cells were highly activated in HIV-infected individuals, with nearly 2-3 fold greater frequencies of CD4+CD38+ (1.8-fold; p=0.007), CD4+CD38+HLA-DR+ (1.9-fold; p=0.0006), CD8+CD38+ (2.8-fold; p=0.0006), CD8+HLA-DR+ (2-fold; p=0.022) and CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+ (3.6-fold; p<0.0001) cells compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. Overall, this study demonstrates a clear disruption of the pulmonary immune environment during HIV infection, with readily detectable virus and activated T lymphocytes, which may be driven to accumulate by local chemokines.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181706

RESUMO

Understanding what shapes the latent HIV-1 reservoir is critical for developing strategies for cure. We measured the frequency of persistent HIV-1 infection after 5 years of suppressive antiretroviral therapy initiated during chronic infection. Pre-treatment CD8 + T-cell activation, nadir CD4 count, and CD4:CD8 ratio predicted reservoir size.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252317, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161348

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the causative agent for causing the clinical syndrome of COVID -19. Accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection is not only important for management of infected individuals but also to break the chain of transmission. South Africa is the current epicenter of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Africa. To optimize the diagnostic algorithm for SARS-CoV-2 in the South African setting, the study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the EUROIMMUN Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assays. This study reported the performance of EUROIMMUN enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for semi-quantitative detection of IgA and IgG antibodies in serum and plasma samples targeting the recombinant S1 domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as antigen. Samples were collected from 391 individuals who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 139 SARS CoV-2 negative controls. Samples were stratified by number of days' post-PCR diagnosis and symptoms. The sensitivity of EUROIMMUN IgG was 64.1% (95% CI: 59.1-69.0%) and 74.3% (95% CI: 69.6-78.6%) for IgA and the specificity was lower for IgA [84.2% (95% CI: 77-89.2%)] than IgG [95.2% (95% CI: 90.8-98.4%)]. The EUROIMMUN Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA Assay sensitivity was higher for IgA but low for IgG and improved for both assays in symptomatic individuals and at later timepoints post PCR diagnosis.


Assuntos
Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Imediatos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , África do Sul
6.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925055

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all individuals across the globe in some way. Despite large numbers of reported seroprevalence studies, there remains a limited understanding of how the magnitude and epitope utilization of the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 viral anti-gens varies within populations following natural infection. Here, we designed a quantitative, multi-epitope protein microarray comprising various nucleocapsid protein structural motifs, including two structural domains and three intrinsically disordered regions. Quantitative data from the microarray provided complete differentiation between cases and pre-pandemic controls (100% sensitivity and specificity) in a case-control cohort (n = 100). We then assessed the influence of disease severity, age, and ethnicity on the strength and breadth of the humoral response in a multi-ethnic cohort (n = 138). As expected, patients with severe disease showed significantly higher antibody titers and interestingly also had significantly broader epitope coverage. A significant increase in antibody titer and epitope coverage was observed with increasing age, in both mild and severe disease, which is promising for vaccine efficacy in older individuals. Additionally, we observed significant differences in the breadth and strength of the humoral immune response in relation to ethnicity, which may reflect differences in genetic and lifestyle factors. Furthermore, our data enabled localization of the immuno-dominant epitope to the C-terminal structural domain of the viral nucleocapsid protein in two independent cohorts. Overall, we have designed, validated, and tested an advanced serological assay that enables accurate quantitation of the humoral response post natural infection and that has revealed unexpected differences in the magnitude and epitope utilization within a population.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Epitopos , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
7.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 589940, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868324

RESUMO

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has swept the world and poses a significant global threat to lives and livelihoods, with 115 million confirmed cases and at least 2.5 million deaths from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the first year of the pandemic. Developing tools to measure seroprevalence and understand protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is a priority. We aimed to develop a serological assay using plant-derived recombinant viral proteins, which represent important tools in less-resourced settings. Methods: We established an indirect ELISA using the S1 and receptor-binding domain (RBD) portions of the spike protein from SARS-CoV-2, expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. We measured antibody responses in sera from South African patients (n = 77) who had tested positive by PCR for SARS-CoV-2. Samples were taken a median of 6 weeks after the diagnosis, and the majority of participants had mild and moderate COVID-19 disease. In addition, we tested the reactivity of pre-pandemic plasma (n = 58) and compared the performance of our in-house ELISA with a commercial assay. We also determined whether our assay could detect SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA in saliva. Results: We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins are readily detectable using recombinant plant-derived viral proteins, in patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR. Reactivity to S1 and RBD was detected in 51 (66%) and 48 (62%) of participants, respectively. Notably, we detected 100% of samples identified as having S1-specific antibodies by a validated, high sensitivity commercial ELISA, and optical density (OD) values were strongly and significantly correlated between the two assays. For the pre-pandemic plasma, 1/58 (1.7%) of samples were positive, indicating a high specificity for SARS-CoV-2 in our ELISA. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG correlated significantly with IgA and IgM responses. Endpoint titers of S1- and RBD-specific immunoglobulins ranged from 1:50 to 1:3,200. S1-specific IgG and IgA were found in saliva samples from convalescent volunteers. Conclusion: We demonstrate that recombinant SARS-CoV-2 proteins produced in plants enable robust detection of SARS-CoV-2 humoral responses. This assay can be used for seroepidemiological studies and to measure the strength and durability of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in infected patients in our setting.

9.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688657

RESUMO

Neutralization escape by SARS-CoV-2 variants, as has been observed in the 501Y.V2 (B.1.351) variant, has impacted the efficacy of first generation COVID-19 vaccines. Here, the antibody response to the 501Y.V2 variant was examined in a cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in early 2021 - when over 90% of infections in South Africa were attributed to 501Y.V2. Robust binding and neutralizing antibody titers to the 501Y.V2 variant were detected and these binding antibodies showed high levels of cross-reactivity for the original variant, from the first wave. In contrast to an earlier study where sera from individuals infected with the original variant showed dramatically reduced potency against 501Y.V2, sera from 501Y.V2-infected patients maintained good cross-reactivity against viruses from the first wave. Furthermore, sera from 501Y.V2-infected patients also neutralized the 501Y.V3 (P.1) variant first described in Brazil, and now circulating globally. Collectively these data suggest that the antibody response in patients infected with 501Y.V2 has a broad specificity and that vaccines designed with the 501Y.V2 sequence may elicit more cross-reactive responses.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3890, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594125

RESUMO

Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are critical for defense against airborne pathogens and AM dysfunction is thought to contribute to the increased burden of pulmonary infections observed in individuals living with HIV-1 (HIV). While HIV nucleic acids have been detected in AMs early in infection, circulating HIV during acute and chronic infection is usually CCR5 T cell-tropic (T-tropic) and enters macrophages inefficiently in vitro. The mechanism by which T-tropic viruses infect AMs remains unknown. We collected AMs by bronchoscopy performed in HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive and uninfected subjects. We found that viral constructs made with primary HIV envelope sequences isolated from both AMs and plasma were T-tropic and inefficiently infected macrophages. However, these isolates productively infected macrophages when co-cultured with HIV-infected CD4+ T cells. In addition, we provide evidence that T-tropic HIV is transmitted from infected CD4+ T cells to the AM cytosol. We conclude that AM-derived HIV isolates are T-tropic and can enter macrophages through contact with an infected CD4+ T cell, which results in productive infection of AMs. CD4+ T cell-dependent entry of HIV into AMs helps explain the presence of HIV in AMs despite inefficient cell-free infection, and may contribute to AM dysfunction in people living with HIV.

12.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913297

RESUMO

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a global pandemic, prompting unprecedented efforts to contain the virus. Many developed countries have implemented widespread testing and have rapidly mobilized research programmes to develop vaccines and therapeutics. However, these approaches may be impractical in Africa, where the infrastructure for testing is poorly developed and owing to the limited manufacturing capacity to produce pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, a large burden of HIV-1 and tuberculosis in Africa could exacerbate the severity of infection and may affect vaccine immunogenicity. This Review discusses global efforts to develop diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines, with these considerations in mind. We also highlight vaccine and diagnostic production platforms that are being developed in Africa and that could be translated into clinical development through appropriate partnerships for manufacture.

13.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2721, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568652

RESUMO

Genital inflammatory cytokine responses increase HIV risk. Since male partner semen is a complex mixture of immune-modulatory prostaglandins and cytokines, we hypothesized that exposure to semen may influence genital inflammation in women. Here, we investigated cytokine response kinetics of cervical cells following stimulation with seminal plasma from HIV-negative and HIV-positive men characterized as having low or high concentrations of inflammatory cytokines. Irrespective of the HIV status or semen cytokine profile, in vitro stimulation of cervical cells with seminal plasma resulted in significantly elevated concentrations of secreted IL-6, IL-8, TNF-ß, MCP-1, GM-CSF, and VEGF within 8 h of stimulation, which tended to decline by 24 h, although this was only significant for TNF-ß. Consistent with this, cervical cells responded to seminal plasma with increases in IL-8 and IL-1ß mRNA expression of 10-fold. These findings suggest that the impact of semen on local female genital cytokines is likely transient. Although these findings suggest that the impact of semen on local female genital cytokines may not be sustained long-term, this heightened genital inflammation may have implications for HIV risk in women.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Sêmen/metabolismo , Vagina/metabolismo , Adulto , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Efeito de Coortes , Feminino , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1995, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30233588

RESUMO

Persistent antigen stimulation in chronic infections has been associated with antigen-specific T cell dysfunction and upregulation of inhibitory receptors, including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease is characterized by high levels of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), yet the relationship between bacterial load, PD-1 expression, and Mtb-specific T cell function in human TB has not been well-defined. Using peripheral blood samples from adults with LTBI and with pulmonary TB disease, we tested the hypothesis that PD-1 expression is associated with bacterial load and functional capacity of Mtb-specific T cell responses. We found that PD-1 was expressed at significantly higher levels on Th1 cytokine-producing Mtb-specific CD4 T cells from patients with smear-positive TB, compared with smear-negative TB and LTBI, which decreased after completion of anti-TB treatment. By contrast, expression of PD-1 on Mtb-specific CD8 T cells was significantly lower than on Mtb-specific CD4 T cells and did not differ by Mtb infection and disease status. In vitro stimulation of PBMC with Mtb antigens demonstrated that PD-1 is induced on proliferating Mtb-specific CD4 T cells and that Th1 cytokine production capacity is preferentially maintained within PD-1+ proliferating CD4 T cells, compared with proliferating Mtb-specific CD4 T cells that lack PD-1 expression. Together, these data indicate that expression of PD-1 on Mtb-specific CD4 T cells is indicative of mycobacterial antigen exposure and identifies a population of effector cells with Th1 cytokine production capacity. These studies provide novel insights into the role of the PD-1 pathway in regulating CD4 and CD8 T cell responses in Mtb infection and provide rationale for future studies to evaluate PD-1 expression on antigen-specific CD4 T cells as a potential biomarker for bacterial load and treatment response in human TB.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Carga Bacteriana , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
15.
Clin Immunol ; 195: 127-138, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883708

RESUMO

HIV infection results in excessive T cell activation and dysfunction which may persist even during effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The dynamics of immune 'deactivation' and extent to which T cell memory subsets normalize after ART are unclear. We longitudinally assessed the influence of 1 year of ART on the phenotype of T cells in HIV-infected African women, relative to matched HIV-uninfected women, using activation (CD38, HLA-DR) and differentiation markers (CD27, CD45RO). ART induced a substantial reduction in T cell activation, but remained higher than HIV-uninfected controls. ART largely normalized the distribution of CD4+ T cell memory subsets, while the distribution of CD8+ T cell memory subsets remained significantly skewed compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. Thus, there was a considerable but only partial reversal of T cell defects upon ART. Understanding T cell impairment may provide important insights into mechanisms of HIV pathogenesis in the era of ART.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Imunofenotipagem , Ativação Linfocitária , África do Sul , Carga Viral
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 54, 2018 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of people living with HIV require antiretroviral therapy (ART) for controlling viral replication, however there are rare HIV controllers who spontaneously and durably control HIV in the absence of treatment. Understanding what mediates viral control in these individuals has provided us with insights into the immune mechanisms that may be important to induce for a vaccine or functional cure for HIV. To date, few African elite controllers from high incidence settings have been described. We identified virological controllers from the CAPRISA 002 cohort of HIV-1 subtype C infected women in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, two (1%) of whom were elite controllers. We examined the genetic, clinical, immunological and virological characteristics of these two elite HIV controllers in detail, to determine whether they exhibit features of putative viral control similar to those described for elite controllers reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case report, we present clinical features, CD4+ T cell and viral load trajectories for two African women over 7 years of HIV infection. Viral load became undetectable 10 months after HIV infection in Elite Controller 1 (EC1), and after 6 weeks in Elite Controller 2 (EC2), and remained undetectable for the duration of follow-up, in the absence of ART. Both elite controllers expressed multiple HLA Class I and II haplotypes previously associated with slower disease progression (HLA-A*74:01, HLA-B*44:03, HLA-B*81:01, HLA-B*57:03, HLA-DRB1*13). Fitness assays revealed that both women were infected with replication competent viruses, and both expressed higher mRNA levels of p21, a host restriction factor associated with viral control. HIV-specific T cell responses were examined using flow cytometry. EC1 mounted high frequency HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses, including a B*81:01-restricted Gag TL9 response. Unusually, EC2 had evidence of pre-infection HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses. CONCLUSION: We identified some features typical of elite controllers, including high magnitude HIV-specific responses and beneficial HLA. In addition, we made the atypical finding of pre-infection HIV-specific immunity in one elite controller, that may have contributed to very early viral control. This report highlights the importance of studying HIV controllers in high incidence settings.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/etiologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Humanos , África do Sul , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral
17.
J Infect Dis ; 216(12): 1550-1560, 2017 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29029171

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection substantially increases the risk of developing tuberculosis. There is extensive depletion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells in blood during early HIV infection, but little is known about responses in the lungs at this stage. Given that mucosal organs are a principal target for HIV-mediated CD4+ T-cell destruction, we investigated M. tuberculosis-specific responses in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from persons with latent M. tuberculosis infection and untreated HIV coinfection with preserved CD4+ T-cell counts. M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T-cell cytokine (interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 2) responses were discordant in frequency and function between BAL and blood. Responses in BAL were 15-fold lower in HIV-infected persons as compared to uninfected persons (P = .048), whereas blood responses were 2-fold lower (P = .006). However, an increase in T cells in the airways in HIV-infected persons resulted in the overall number of M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells in BAL being similar. Our study highlights the important insights gained from studying M. tuberculosis immunity at the site of disease during HIV infection.


Assuntos
Sangue/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Coinfecção/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Adulto , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Tuberculose Latente/complicações , Masculino , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Immunol ; 2017 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28794233

RESUMO

A major challenge for the development of an effective vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) is that the attributes of protective CD4+ T cell responses are still elusive for human TB. Infection with HIV type 1 is a major risk factor for TB, and a better understanding of HIV-induced alterations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells that leads to failed host resistance may provide insight into protective T cell immunity to TB. A total of 86 participants from a TB-endemic setting, either HIV-infected or uninfected and with latent or active TB (aTB), were screened using M.tuberculosis-specific MHC class II tetramers. We examined the phenotype as well as function of ex vivo M. tuberculosis-specific tetramer+CD4+ T cells using flow cytometry. The numbers of M. tuberculosis-specific tetramer+CD4+ T cells were relatively well maintained in HIV-infected persons with aTB, despite severe immunodeficiency. However, although HIV-uninfected persons with latent TB infection exhibited ex vivo M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells predominantly of a CXCR3+CCR6+CCR4- (Th1*) phenotype, aTB or HIV infection was associated with a contraction of this subset. Nevertheless, in individuals with aTB and/or HIV infection, circulating ex vivo M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells did not display defects in exhaustion or polyfunctionality compared with healthy HIV-uninfected individuals with latent TB infection. Collectively, these data suggest that increased susceptibility to TB disease could be related to a loss of circulating Th1* CD4+ T cells rather than major changes in the number or function of circulating CD4+ T cells.

19.
Front Immunol ; 8: 968, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28848561

RESUMO

Several immune-based assays have been suggested to differentiate latent from active tuberculosis (TB). However, their relative performance as well as their efficacy in HIV-infected persons, a highly at-risk population, remains unclear. In a study of 81 individuals, divided into four groups based on their HIV-1 status and TB disease activity, we compared the differentiation (CD27 and KLRG1), activation (HLA-DR), homing potential (CCR4, CCR6, CXCR3, and CD161) and functional profiles (IFNγ, IL-2, and TNFα) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific CD4+ T cells using flow cytometry. Active TB disease induced major changes within the Mtb-responding CD4+ T cell population, promoting memory maturation, elevated activation and increased inflammatory potential when compared to individuals with latent TB infection. Moreover, the functional profile of Mtb-specific CD4+ T cells appeared to be inherently related to their degree of differentiation. While these specific cell features were all capable of discriminating latent from active TB, irrespective of HIV status, HLA-DR expression showed the best performance for TB diagnosis [area-under-the-curve (AUC) = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.01, specificity: 82%, sensitivity: 84% for HIV- and AUC = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-1.01, specificity: 94%, sensitivity: 93% for HIV+]. In conclusion, these data support the idea that analysis of T cell phenotype can be diagnostically useful in TB.

20.
J Immunol ; 198(3): 1220-1228, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28039305

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus infection induces a wide range of effects in B cells, including skewed memory cell differentiation, compromised B cell function, and hypergammaglobulinemia. However, data on the extent to which these B cell abnormalities can be reversed by antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited. To investigate the effect of ART on B cells, the activation (CD86) and differentiation (IgD, CD27, and CD38) profiles of B cells were measured longitudinally in 19 HIV-infected individuals before (median, 2 mo) and after ART initiation (median, 12 mo) and compared with 19 age-matched HIV-uninfected individuals using flow cytometry. Twelve months of ART restored the typical distribution of B cell subsets, increasing the proportion of naive B cells (CD27-IgD+CD38-) and concomitantly decreasing the immature transitional (CD27-IgD+CD38+), unswitched memory (CD27+IgD+CD38-), switched memory (CD27+IgD-CD38- or CD27-IgD-CD38-), and plasmablast (CD27+IgD-CD38high) subsets. However, B cell activation was only partially normalized post-ART, with the frequency of activated B cells (CD86+CD40+) reduced compared with pre-ART levels (p = 0.0001), but remaining significantly higher compared with HIV-uninfected individuals (p = 0.0001). Interestingly, unlike for T cell activation profiles, the extent of B cell activation prior to ART did not correlate with HIV plasma viral load, but positively associated with plasma sCD14 levels (p = 0.01, r = 0.58). Overall, ART partially normalizes the skewed B cell profiles induced by HIV, with some activation persisting. Understanding the effects of HIV on B cell dysfunction and restoration following ART may provide important insights into the mechanisms of HIV pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Memória Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Carga Viral
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