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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548002

RESUMO

Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are observationally associated with sex hormone concentrations and sexual dysfunction, but causality is unclear. We investigated whether TSH, fT4, hypo- and hyperthyroidism are causally associated with sex hormones and sexual function. We used publicly available summary statistics from genome-wide association studies on TSH and fT4 and hypo- and hyperthyroidism from the ThyroidOmics Consortium (N ≤ 54,288). Outcomes from UK Biobank (women ≤ 194,174/men ≤ 167,020) and ReproGen (women ≤ 252,514) were sex hormones (sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], testosterone, estradiol, free androgen index [FAI]) and sexual function (ovulatory function in women: duration of menstrual period, age at menarche and menopause, reproductive lifespan, and erectile dysfunction in men). We performed two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses on summary level, and unweighted genetic risk score (GRS) analysis on individual level data. One SD increase in TSH was associated with a 1.332 nmol/L lower (95% CI: - 0.717,- 1.946; p = 2 × 10-5) SHBG and a 0.103 nmol/l lower (- 0.051,V0.154; p = 9 × 10-5) testosterone in two-sample MR, supported by the GRS approach. Genetic predisposition to hypothyroidism was associated with decreased and genetic predisposition to hyperthyroidism with increased SHBG and testosterone in both approaches. The GRS for fT4 was associated with increased testosterone and estradiol in women only. The GRS for TSH and hypothyroidism were associated with increased and the GRS for hyperthyroidism with decreased FAI in men only. While genetically predicted thyroid function was associated with sex hormones, we found no association with sexual function.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 764, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536417

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of genomic regions affecting complex diseases. The next challenge is to elucidate the causal genes and mechanisms involved. One approach is to use statistical colocalization to assess shared genetic aetiology across multiple related traits (e.g. molecular traits, metabolic pathways and complex diseases) to identify causal pathways, prioritize causal variants and evaluate pleiotropy. We propose HyPrColoc (Hypothesis Prioritisation for multi-trait Colocalization), an efficient deterministic Bayesian algorithm using GWAS summary statistics that can detect colocalization across vast numbers of traits simultaneously (e.g. 100 traits can be jointly analysed in around 1 s). We perform a genome-wide multi-trait colocalization analysis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and fourteen related traits, identifying 43 regions in which CHD colocalized with ≥1 trait, including 5 previously unknown CHD loci. Across the 43 loci, we further integrate gene and protein expression quantitative trait loci to identify candidate causal genes.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
4.
PLoS Med ; 18(1): e1003498, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can stratify populations into cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk groups. We aimed to quantify the potential advantage of adding information on PRSs to conventional risk factors in the primary prevention of CVD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from UK Biobank on 306,654 individuals without a history of CVD and not on lipid-lowering treatments (mean age [SD]: 56.0 [8.0] years; females: 57%; median follow-up: 8.1 years), we calculated measures of risk discrimination and reclassification upon addition of PRSs to risk factors in a conventional risk prediction model (i.e., age, sex, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, history of diabetes, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). We then modelled the implications of initiating guideline-recommended statin therapy in a primary care setting using incidence rates from 2.1 million individuals from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The C-index, a measure of risk discrimination, was 0.710 (95% CI 0.703-0.717) for a CVD prediction model containing conventional risk predictors alone. Addition of information on PRSs increased the C-index by 0.012 (95% CI 0.009-0.015), and resulted in continuous net reclassification improvements of about 10% and 12% in cases and non-cases, respectively. If a PRS were assessed in the entire UK primary care population aged 40-75 years, assuming that statin therapy would be initiated in accordance with the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (i.e., for persons with a predicted risk of ≥10% and for those with certain other risk factors, such as diabetes, irrespective of their 10-year predicted risk), then it could help prevent 1 additional CVD event for approximately every 5,750 individuals screened. By contrast, targeted assessment only among people at intermediate (i.e., 5% to <10%) 10-year CVD risk could help prevent 1 additional CVD event for approximately every 340 individuals screened. Such a targeted strategy could help prevent 7% more CVD events than conventional risk prediction alone. Potential gains afforded by assessment of PRSs on top of conventional risk factors would be about 1.5-fold greater than those provided by assessment of C-reactive protein, a plasma biomarker included in some risk prediction guidelines. Potential limitations of this study include its restriction to European ancestry participants and a lack of health economic evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that addition of PRSs to conventional risk factors can modestly enhance prediction of first-onset CVD and could translate into population health benefits if used at scale.

5.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a Mendelian randomisation (MR) study to investigate whether physical activity (PA) causes a reduction of colorectal cancer risk and to understand the contributions of effects mediated through changes in body fat. METHODS: Common genetic variants associated with self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), acceleration vector magnitude PA (AMPA) and sedentary time were used as instrumental variables. To control for confounding effects of obesity, we included instrumental variables for body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist circumference and arm, trunk and leg fat ratios. We analysed the effect of these instrumental variables in a colorectal cancer genome-wide association study comprising 31,197 cases and 61,770 controls of European ancestry by applying two-sample and multivariable MR study designs. RESULTS: We found decreased colorectal cancer risk for genetically represented measures of MVPA and AMPA that were additional to effects mediated through genetic measures of obesity. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) per standard deviation increase in MVPA and AMPA was 0.56 (0.31, 1.01) and 0.60 (0.41, 0.88), respectively. No association has been found between sedentary time and colorectal cancer risk. The proportion of effect mediated through BMI was 2% (95% CI: 0, 14) and 32% (95% CI: 12, 46) for MVPA and AMPA, respectively. CONCLUSION: These findings provide strong evidence to reinforce public health measures on preventing colorectal cancer that promote PA at a population level regardless of body fatness.

6.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 54-64, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414548

RESUMO

In cross-platform analyses of 174 metabolites, we identify 499 associations (P < 4.9 × 10-10) characterized by pleiotropy, allelic heterogeneity, large and nonlinear effects and enrichment for nonsynonymous variation. We identify a signal at GLP2R (p.Asp470Asn) shared among higher citrulline levels, body mass index, fasting glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and type 2 diabetes, with ß-arrestin signaling as the underlying mechanism. Genetically higher serine levels are shown to reduce the likelihood (by 95%) and predict development of macular telangiectasia type 2, a rare degenerative retinal disease. Integration of genomic and small molecule data across platforms enables the discovery of regulators of human metabolism and translation into clinical insights.


Assuntos
Saúde , Metabolismo/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Oftalmopatias/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos , Pleiotropia Genética , Genoma Humano , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 2/genética , Glicina/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Telangiectasia Retiniana/genética , Tamanho da Amostra , Serina/metabolismo
7.
Diabetologia ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495845

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Our aim was to investigate the relationship between average blood glucose levels and incident CHD in individuals without diabetes mellitus. METHODS: To investigate average blood glucose levels, we studied HbA1c as predicted by 40 variants previously shown to be associated with both type 2 diabetes and HbA1c. Linear and non-linear Mendelian randomisation analyses were performed to investigate associations with incident CHD risk in 324,830 European ancestry individuals from the UK Biobank without diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: Every one mmol/mol increase in genetically proxied HbA1c was associated with an 11% higher CHD risk (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05, 1.18). The dose-response curve increased at all levels of HbA1c, and there was no evidence favouring a non-linear relationship over a linear one. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATIONS: In individuals without diabetes mellitus, lowering average blood glucose levels may reduce CHD risk in a dose-dependent way.

8.
Hypertension ; 77(2): 383-392, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356394

RESUMO

Serum urate has been implicated in hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but it is not known whether it is exerting a causal effect. To investigate this, we performed Mendelian randomization analysis using data from UK Biobank, Million Veterans Program and genome-wide association study consortia, and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The main Mendelian randomization analyses showed that every 1-SD increase in genetically predicted serum urate was associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (odds ratio, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.10-1.30]; P=4×10-5), peripheral artery disease (1.12 [95% CI, 1.03-1.21]; P=9×10-3), and stroke (1.11 [95% CI, 1.05-1.18]; P=2×10-4). In Mendelian randomization mediation analyses, elevated blood pressure was estimated to mediate approximately one-third of the effect of urate on cardiovascular disease risk. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed a favorable effect of urate-lowering treatment on systolic blood pressure (mean difference, -2.55 mm Hg [95% CI, -4.06 to -1.05]; P=1×10-3) and major adverse cardiovascular events in those with previous cardiovascular disease (odds ratio, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.22-0.73]; P=3×10-3) but no significant effect on major adverse cardiovascular events in all individuals (odds ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.44-1.03]; P=0.07). In summary, these Mendelian randomization and clinical trial data support an effect of higher serum urate on increasing blood pressure, which may mediate a consequent effect on cardiovascular disease risk. High-quality trials are necessary to provide definitive evidence on the specific clinical contexts where urate lowering may be of cardiovascular benefit.

9.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 370, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have shown that milk consumption is inversely associated with colorectal, bladder, and breast cancer risk, but positively associated with prostate cancer. However, whether the associations reflect causality remains debatable. We investigated the potential causal associations of milk consumption with the risk of colorectal, bladder, breast, and prostate cancer using a genetic variant near the LCT gene as proxy for milk consumption. METHODS: We obtained genetic association estimates for cancer from the UK Biobank (n = 367,643 women and men), FinnGen consortium (n = 135,638 women and men), Breast Cancer Association Consortium (n = 228,951 women), and Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome consortium (n = 140,254 men). Milk consumption was proxied by a genetic variant (rs4988235 or rs182549) upstream of the gene encoding lactase, which catalyzes the breakdown of lactose. RESULTS: Genetically proxied milk consumption was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. The odds ratio (OR) for each additional milk intake increasing allele was 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-0.99; P = 0.009). There was no overall association of genetically predicted milk consumption with bladder (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.94-1.05; P = 0.836), breast (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.02; P = 0.113), and prostate cancer (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.99-1.02; P = 0.389), but a positive association with prostate cancer was observed in the FinnGen consortium (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.01-1.13; P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings strengthen the evidence for a protective role of milk consumption on colorectal cancer risk. There was no or limited evidence that milk consumption affects the risk of bladder, breast, and prostate cancer.

10.
Resuscitation ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Take-home naloxone, a key response to heroin overdose, may be compromised by the way in which overdose cases are coded in EMS dispatch systems as call-takers direct callers at cardiac arrest events against using any medication. We examined the ways in which confirmed heroin overdose cases attended by ambulances are coded at dispatch to determine whether incorrect coding of overdoses as cardiac arrests may limit the use of take-home naloxone. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of coded ambulance clinical records collected in Victoria, Australia from 2012-2018. Counts of heroin overdose cases were examined by dispatch coding (heroin overdose, cardiac/respiratory arrest and 'other'), along with age, sex, GCS and respiratory rate. Data were analysed using chi-square and Poisson regression for quarterly counts, adjusting for age, sex and patient GCS. RESULTS: A total of 5637 heroin overdose cases were attended over the period 2012-2018 (71.4% male, 36.4% aged under 35 years). Almost half (n = 2674, 47.4%) were coded as cardiac/respiratory arrest at dispatch, with 36.8% (n = 2075) coded as heroin overdose and 15.7% (n = 886) coded as other/unknown. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of the heroin overdoses were dispatched according to a protocol that would preclude the use of take-home naloxone prior to ambulance arrival and this changed little over the period in which take-home naloxone programs were operating in Victoria, Australia. EMS should move as quickly as possible to newer versions of dispatch systems that enable the use of naloxone in cases of obvious opioid overdose that may be classified as cardiac/respiratory arrest.

11.
BMJ ; 371: m4763, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303483
12.
PLoS Med ; 17(11): e1003413, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In observational studies of the general population, higher body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased incidence of and mortality from bloodstream infection (BSI) and sepsis. On the other hand, higher BMI has been observed to be apparently protective among patients with infection and sepsis. We aimed to evaluate the causal association of BMI with risk of and mortality from BSI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a population-based cohort in Norway followed from 1995 to 2017 (the Trøndelag Health Study [HUNT]), and carried out linear and nonlinear Mendelian randomization analyses. Among 55,908 participants, the mean age at enrollment was 48.3 years, 26,324 (47.1%) were men, and mean BMI was 26.3 kg/m2. During a median 21 years of follow-up, 2,547 (4.6%) participants experienced a BSI, and 451 (0.8%) died from BSI. Compared with a genetically predicted BMI of 25 kg/m2, a genetically predicted BMI of 30 kg/m2 was associated with a hazard ratio for BSI incidence of 1.78 (95% CI: 1.40 to 2.27; p < 0.001) and for BSI mortality of 2.56 (95% CI: 1.31 to 4.99; p = 0.006) in the general population, and a hazard ratio for BSI mortality of 2.34 (95% CI: 1.11 to 4.94; p = 0.025) in an inverse-probability-weighted analysis of patients with BSI. Limitations of this study include a risk of pleiotropic effects that may affect causal inference, and that only participants of European ancestry were considered. CONCLUSIONS: Supportive of a causal relationship, genetically predicted BMI was positively associated with BSI incidence and mortality in this cohort. Our findings contradict the "obesity paradox," where previous traditional epidemiological studies have found increased BMI to be apparently protective in terms of mortality for patients with BSI or sepsis.

13.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized by cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, which according to experimental research modulate tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. We employed the Mendelian randomization design to test the hypothesis that higher plasma phospholipid AA concentrations are associated with increased risk of 10 site-specific cancers. METHODS: Two genetic variants associated with plasma phospholipid concentrations of AA (rs174547 in FADS1 [P = 3.0 × 10-971] and rs16966952 in PDXDC1 [P = 2.4 × 10-10]) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium were used as genetic instruments. The associations of those variants with cancer were taken from the UK Biobank (n = 367,643), FinnGen consortium (n = 135,638), International Lung Cancer Consortium (n = 27,209), Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome consortium (n = 140,254), Breast Cancer Association Consortium (n = 228,951), Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (n = 66,450), and BioBank Japan (n = 212,453). RESULTS: Higher genetically predicted plasma phospholipid AA concentrations were associated with increased risk of colorectal and lung cancer. Results were consistent across data sources and variants. The combined odds ratios per standard deviation increase of AA concentrations were 1.08 (95% CI 1.05-1.11; P = 6.3 × 10-8) for colorectal cancer and 1.07 (95%CI 1.05-1.10; P = 3.5 × 10-7) for lung cancer. Genetically predicted AA concentrations had a suggestive positive association with esophageal cancer (odds ratio 1.09; 95% CI 1.02-1.17; P = 0.016) but were not associated with cancers of the stomach, pancreas, bladder, prostate, breast, uterus, or ovary. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that AA may be implicated in the development of colorectal and lung cancer and possibly esophageal cancer. Treatments with plasma AA-lowering properties should be evaluated for clinical benefit.

15.
Biostatistics ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155035

RESUMO

Valid estimation of a causal effect using instrumental variables requires that all of the instruments are independent of the outcome conditional on the risk factor of interest and any confounders. In Mendelian randomization studies with large numbers of genetic variants used as instruments, it is unlikely that this condition will be met. Any given genetic variant could be associated with a large number of traits, all of which represent potential pathways to the outcome which bypass the risk factor of interest. Such pleiotropy can be accounted for using standard multivariable Mendelian randomization with all possible pleiotropic traits included as covariates. However, the estimator obtained in this way will be inefficient if some of the covariates do not truly sit on pleiotropic pathways to the outcome. We present a method that uses regularization to identify which out of a set of potential covariates need to be accounted for in a Mendelian randomization analysis in order to produce an efficient and robust estimator of a causal effect. The method can be used in the case where individual-level data are not available and the analysis must rely on summary-level data only. It can be used where there are any number of potential pleiotropic covariates up to the number of genetic variants less one. We show the results of simulation studies that demonstrate the performance of the proposed regularization method in realistic settings. We also illustrate the method in an applied example which looks at the causal effect of urate plasma concentration on coronary heart disease.

16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants can be used to prioritize risk factors as potential therapeutic targets via Mendelian randomization (MR). An agnostic statistical framework using Bayesian model averaging (MR-BMA) can disentangle the causal role of correlated risk factors with shared genetic predictors. Here, our objective is to identify lipoprotein measures as mediators between lipid-associated genetic variants and coronary artery disease (CAD) for the purpose of detecting therapeutic targets for CAD. METHODS: As risk factors we consider 30 lipoprotein measures and metabolites derived from a high-throughput metabolomics study including 24 925 participants. We fit multivariable MR models of genetic associations with CAD estimated in 453 595 participants (including 113 937 cases) regressed on genetic associations with the risk factors. MR-BMA assigns to each combination of risk factors a model score quantifying how well the genetic associations with CAD are explained. Risk factors are ranked by their marginal score and selected using false-discovery rate (FDR) criteria. We perform supplementary and sensitivity analyses varying the dataset for genetic associations with CAD. RESULTS: In the main analysis, the top combination of risk factors ranked by the model score contains apolipoprotein B (ApoB) only. ApoB is also the highest ranked risk factor with respect to the marginal score (FDR <0.005). Additionally, ApoB is selected in all sensitivity analyses. No other measure of cholesterol or triglyceride is consistently selected otherwise. CONCLUSIONS: Our agnostic genetic investigation prioritizes ApoB across all datasets considered, suggesting that ApoB, representing the total number of hepatic-derived lipoprotein particles, is the primary lipid determinant of CAD.

19.
Elife ; 92020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046214

RESUMO

Laboratory studies have suggested oncogenic roles of lipids, as well as anticarcinogenic effects of statins. Here we assess the potential effect of statin therapy on cancer risk using evidence from human genetics. We obtained associations of lipid-related genetic variants with the risk of overall and 22 site-specific cancers for 367,703 individuals in the UK Biobank. In total, 75,037 individuals had a cancer event. Variants in the HMGCR gene region, which represent proxies for statin treatment, were associated with overall cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] per one standard deviation decrease in low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-0.88, p=0.0003) but variants in gene regions representing alternative lipid-lowering treatment targets (PCSK9, LDLR, NPC1L1, APOC3, LPL) were not. Genetically predicted LDL-cholesterol was not associated with overall cancer risk (OR per standard deviation increase 1.01, 95% CI 0.98-1.05, p=0.50). Our results predict that statins reduce cancer risk but other lipid-lowering treatments do not. This suggests that statins reduce cancer risk through a cholesterol independent pathway.

20.
Nat Genet ; 52(10): 1122-1131, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895551

RESUMO

The human proteome is a major source of therapeutic targets. Recent genetic association analyses of the plasma proteome enable systematic evaluation of the causal consequences of variation in plasma protein levels. Here we estimated the effects of 1,002 proteins on 225 phenotypes using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) and colocalization. Of 413 associations supported by evidence from MR, 130 (31.5%) were not supported by results of colocalization analyses, suggesting that genetic confounding due to linkage disequilibrium is widespread in naïve phenome-wide association studies of proteins. Combining MR and colocalization evidence in cis-only analyses, we identified 111 putatively causal effects between 65 proteins and 52 disease-related phenotypes ( https://www.epigraphdb.org/pqtl/ ). Evaluation of data from historic drug development programs showed that target-indication pairs with MR and colocalization support were more likely to be approved, evidencing the value of this approach in identifying and prioritizing potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Proteoma/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
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