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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Kabuki syndrome (KS) (OMIM 147920 and 300867) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by specific facial features, intellectual disability, and various malformations. Immunopathological manifestations seem prevalent and increase the morbimortality. To assess the frequency and severity of the manifestations, we measured the prevalence of immunopathological manifestations as well as genotype-phenotype correlations in KS individuals from a registry. METHODS: Data were for 177 KS individuals with KDM6A or KMT2D pathogenic variants. Questionnaires to clinicians were used to assess the presence of immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases both on a clinical and biological basis. RESULTS: Overall, 44.1% (78/177) and 58.2% (46/79) of KS individuals exhibited infection susceptibility and hypogammaglobulinemia, respectively; 13.6% (24/177) had autoimmune disease (AID; 25.6% [11/43] in adults), 5.6% (10/177) with ≥2 AID manifestations. The most frequent AID manifestations were immune thrombocytopenic purpura (7.3% [13/177]) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (4.0% [7/177]). Among nonhematological manifestations, vitiligo was frequent. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura was frequent with missense versus other types of variants (p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of immunopathological manifestations in KS demonstrates the importance of systematic screening and efficient preventive management of these treatable and sometimes life-threatening conditions.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3094, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300657

RESUMO

AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ligand-gated channels made up of combinations of GluA1-4 subunits encoded by GRIA1-4 genes. GluA2 has an especially important role because, following post-transcriptional editing at the Q607 site, it renders heteromultimeric AMPARs Ca2+-impermeable, with a linear relationship between current and trans-membrane voltage. Here, we report heterozygous de novo GRIA2 mutations in 28 unrelated patients with intellectual disability (ID) and neurodevelopmental abnormalities including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Rett syndrome-like features, and seizures or developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In functional expression studies, mutations lead to a decrease in agonist-evoked current mediated by mutant subunits compared to wild-type channels. When GluA2 subunits are co-expressed with GluA1, most GRIA2 mutations cause a decreased current amplitude and some also affect voltage rectification. Our results show that de-novo variants in GRIA2 can cause neurodevelopmental disorders, complementing evidence that other genetic causes of ID, ASD and DEE also disrupt glutamatergic synaptic transmission.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1690-1699, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033087

RESUMO

Ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder (ATLD) is a rare genomic instability syndrome caused by biallelic variants of MRE11 (meiotic recombination 11) characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and typical karyotype abnormalities. These symptoms are common to those of ataxia-telangiectasia, which is consistent with the key role of MRE11 in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) activation after DNA double-strand breaks. Three unrelated French patients were referred with ataxia. Only one had typical karyotype abnormalities. Unreported biallelic MRE11 variants were found in these three cases. Interestingly, one variant (c.424G>A) was present in two cases and haplotype analysis strongly suggested a French founder variant. Variants c.544G>A and c.314+4_314+7del lead to splice defects. The level of MRE11 in lymphoblastoid cell lines was consistently and dramatically reduced. Functional consequences were evaluated on activation of the ATM pathway via phosphorylation of ATM targets (KAP1 and CHK2), but no consistent defect was observed. However, an S-phase checkpoint activation defect after camptothecin was observed in these patients with ATLD. In conclusion, we report the first three French ATLD patients and a French founder variant, and propose an S-phase checkpoint activation study to evaluate the pathogenicity of MRE11 variants.

5.
Neuron ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449657

RESUMO

Corpus callosum malformations are associated with a broad range of neurodevelopmental diseases. We report that de novo mutations in MAST1 cause mega-corpus-callosum syndrome with cerebellar hypoplasia and cortical malformations (MCC-CH-CM) in the absence of megalencephaly. We show that MAST1 is a microtubule-associated protein that is predominantly expressed in post-mitotic neurons and is present in both dendritic and axonal compartments. We further show that Mast1 null animals are phenotypically normal, whereas the deletion of a single amino acid (L278del) recapitulates the distinct neurological phenotype observed in patients. In animals harboring Mast1 microdeletions, we find that the PI3K/AKT3/mTOR pathway is unperturbed, whereas Mast2 and Mast3 levels are diminished, indicative of a dominant-negative mode of action. Finally, we report that de novo MAST1 substitutions are present in patients with autism and microcephaly, raising the prospect that mutations in this gene give rise to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental diseases.

7.
Genet Med ; 2018 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997391

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the genetic basis of congenital ataxias (CAs), a unique group of cerebellar ataxias with a nonprogressive course, in 20 patients from consanguineous families, and to identify new CA genes. METHODS: Singleton -exome sequencing on these 20 well-clinically characterized CA patients. We first checked for rare homozygous pathogenic variants, then, for variants from a list of genes known to be associated with CA or very early-onset ataxia, regardless of their mode of inheritance. Our replication cohort of 180 CA patients was used to validate the new CA genes. RESULTS: We identified a causal gene in 16/20 families: six known CA genes (7 patients); four genes previously implicated in another neurological phenotype (7 patients); two new candidate genes (2 patients). Despite the consanguinity, 4/20 patients harbored a heterozygous de novo pathogenic variant. CONCLUSION: Singleton exome sequencing in 20 consanguineous CA families led to molecular diagnosis in 80% of cases. This study confirms the genetic heterogeneity of CA and identifies two new candidate genes (PIGS and SKOR2). Our work illustrates the diversity of the pathophysiological pathways in CA, and highlights the pathogenic link between some CA and early infantile epileptic encephalopathies related to the same genes (STXBP1, BRAT1, CACNA1A and CACNA2D2).

8.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 359-371, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618507

RESUMO

The Xq28 duplication involving the MECP2 gene (MECP2 duplication) has been mainly described in male patients with severe developmental delay (DD) associated with spasticity, stereotypic movements and recurrent infections. Nevertheless, only a few series have been published. We aimed to better describe the phenotype of this condition, with a focus on morphological and neurological features. Through a national collaborative study, we report a large French series of 59 affected males with interstitial MECP2 duplication. Most of the patients (93%) shared similar facial features, which evolved with age (midface hypoplasia, narrow and prominent nasal bridge, thick lower lip, large prominent ears), thick hair, livedo of the limbs, tapered fingers, small feet and vasomotor troubles. Early hypotonia and global DD were constant, with 21% of patients unable to walk. In patients able to stand, lower limbs weakness and spasticity led to a singular standing habitus: flexion of the knees, broad-based stance with pseudo-ataxic gait. Scoliosis was frequent (53%), such as divergent strabismus (76%) and hypermetropia (54%), stereotypic movements (89%), without obvious social withdrawal and decreased pain sensitivity (78%). Most of the patients did not develop expressive language, 35% saying few words. Epilepsy was frequent (59%), with a mean onset around 7.4 years of age, and often (62%) drug-resistant. Other medical issues were frequent: constipation (78%), and recurrent infections (89%), mainly lung. We delineate the clinical phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome in a large series of 59 males. Pulmonary hypertension appeared as a cause of early death in these patients, advocating its screening early in life.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 995-1007, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656858

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) represent a large clinical and genetic heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental diseases. The identification of pathogenic genetic variants in DEEs remains crucial for deciphering this complex group and for accurately caring for affected individuals (clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, impacting medical, precision therapy, clinical trials, etc.). Whole-exome sequencing and intensive data sharing identified a recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense variant in 14 unrelated individuals. Their phenotype was characterized by epilepsy, global developmental delay with or without autism, common cerebellar dysgenesis, and facial dysmorphism. Mixed focal and generalized epilepsy occurred in the neonatal period, controlled with difficulty in the first year, but many improved in early childhood. PACS2 is an important PACS1 paralog and encodes a multifunctional sorting protein involved in nuclear gene expression and pathway traffic regulation. Both proteins harbor cargo(furin)-binding regions (FBRs) that bind cargo proteins, sorting adaptors, and cellular kinase. Compared to the defined PACS1 recurrent variant series, individuals with PACS2 variant have more consistently neonatal/early-infantile-onset epilepsy that can be challenging to control. Cerebellar abnormalities may be similar but PACS2 individuals exhibit a pattern of clear dysgenesis ranging from mild to severe. Functional studies demonstrated that the PACS2 recurrent variant reduces the ability of the predicted autoregulatory domain to modulate the interaction between the PACS2 FBR and client proteins, which may disturb cellular function. These findings support the causality of this recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense in DEEs with facial dysmorphim and cerebellar dysgenesis.

10.
Neurol Genet ; 4(1): e217, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473051

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the clinico-radiological phenotype of 3 patients harboring a homozygous novel AP4M1 pathogenic mutation. Methods: The 3 patients from an inbred family who exhibited early-onset developmental delay, tetraparesis, juvenile motor function deterioration, and intellectual deficiency were investigated by magnetic brain imaging using T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T2*-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequences. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on the 3 patients. Results: In the 3 patients, brain imaging identified the same pattern of bilateral SWI hyposignal of the globus pallidus, concordant with iron accumulation. A novel homozygous nonsense mutation was identified in AP4M1, segregating with the disease and leading to truncation of half of the adap domain of the protein. Conclusions: Our results suggest that AP4M1 represents a new candidate gene that should be considered in the neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) spectrum of disorders and highlight the intersections between hereditary spastic paraplegia and NBIA clinical presentations.

11.
Brain ; 140(9): 2322-2336, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29050398

RESUMO

De novo in-frame deletions and duplications in the SPTAN1 gene, encoding the non-erythrocyte αII spectrin, have been associated with severe West syndrome with hypomyelination and pontocerebellar atrophy. We aimed at comprehensively delineating the phenotypic spectrum associated with SPTAN1 mutations. Using different molecular genetic techniques, we identified 20 patients with a pathogenic or likely pathogenic SPTAN1 variant and reviewed their clinical, genetic and imaging data. SPTAN1 de novo alterations included seven unique missense variants and nine in-frame deletions/duplications of which 12 were novel. The recurrent three-amino acid duplication p.(Asp2303_Leu2305dup) occurred in five patients. Our patient cohort exhibited a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes, comprising six patients with mild to moderate intellectual disability, with or without epilepsy and behavioural disorders, and 14 patients with infantile epileptic encephalopathy, of which 13 had severe neurodevelopmental impairment and four died in early childhood. Imaging studies suggested that the severity of neurological impairment and epilepsy correlates with that of structural abnormalities as well as the mutation type and location. Out of seven patients harbouring mutations outside the α/ß spectrin heterodimerization domain, four had normal brain imaging and three exhibited moderately progressive brain and/or cerebellar atrophy. Twelve of 13 patients with mutations located within the spectrin heterodimer contact site exhibited severe and progressive brain, brainstem and cerebellar atrophy, with hypomyelination in most. We used fibroblasts from five patients to study spectrin aggregate formation by Triton-X extraction and immunocytochemistry followed by fluorescence microscopy. αII/ßII aggregates and αII spectrin in the insoluble protein fraction were observed in fibroblasts derived from patients with the mutations p.(Glu2207del), p.(Asp2303_Leu2305dup) and p.(Arg2308_Met2309dup), all falling in the nucleation site of the α/ß spectrin heterodimer region. Molecular modelling of the seven SPTAN1 amino acid changes provided preliminary evidence for structural alterations of the A-, B- and/or C-helices within each of the mutated spectrin repeats. We conclude that SPTAN1-related disorders comprise a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes ranging from mild to severe and progressive. Spectrin aggregate formation in fibroblasts with mutations in the α/ß heterodimerization domain seems to be associated with a severe neurodegenerative course and suggests that the amino acid stretch from Asp2303 to Met2309 in the α20 repeat is important for α/ß spectrin heterodimer formation and/or αII spectrin function.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Adolescente , Atrofia/complicações , Atrofia/patologia , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encefalopatias/complicações , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Epilepsia/complicações , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Fetal Diagn Ther ; 2017 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28675887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the prenatal imaging findings in pontine tegmental cap dysplasia (PTCD), a rare congenital malformation of the hindbrain so far reported postnatally only and characterized by a typical appearance of the pons with malformations of the vermis and the cerebellar peduncles. METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study retrieved 4 cases of PTCD over a 10-year period. Prenatal ultrasonography and fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were reviewed and compared to postnatal or postmortem data. RESULTS: In all cases, the parents were referred between 22 and 27 weeks of gestation for characterization of a small cerebellar diameter <3rd centile. The prenatal diagnosis of PTCD was suspected in 1/4 cases, while in 3/4 cases the suggested prenatal diagnosis was pontocerebellar hypoplasia. In all cases, PTCD was characterized by ventral pontine hypoplasia with absence of bulging of the pons and by the tegmental cap protruding into the fourth ventricle on prenatal MRI. Parents opted for termination of pregnancy in 1 case. In the 3 other cases, the children presented with global developmental delay and multiple cranial nerve impairment. CONCLUSION: PTCD is a differential diagnosis of pontocerebellar hypoplasia and should be discussed on prenatal MRI in the presence of the tegmental cap protruding into the fourth ventricle.

13.
Hum Genet ; 136(4): 463-479, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283832

RESUMO

Subtelomeric 1q43q44 microdeletions cause a syndrome associating intellectual disability, microcephaly, seizures and anomalies of the corpus callosum. Despite several previous studies assessing genotype-phenotype correlations, the contribution of genes located in this region to the specific features of this syndrome remains uncertain. Among those, three genes, AKT3, HNRNPU and ZBTB18 are highly expressed in the brain and point mutations in these genes have been recently identified in children with neurodevelopmental phenotypes. In this study, we report the clinical and molecular data from 17 patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions, four with ZBTB18 mutations and seven with HNRNPU mutations, and review additional data from 37 previously published patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions. We compare clinical data of patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions with those of patients with point mutations in HNRNPU and ZBTB18 to assess the contribution of each gene as well as the possibility of epistasis between genes. Our study demonstrates that AKT3 haploinsufficiency is the main driver for microcephaly, whereas HNRNPU alteration mostly drives epilepsy and determines the degree of intellectual disability. ZBTB18 deletions or mutations are associated with variable corpus callosum anomalies with an incomplete penetrance. ZBTB18 may also contribute to microcephaly and HNRNPU to thin corpus callosum, but with a lower penetrance. Co-deletion of contiguous genes has additive effects. Our results confirm and refine the complex genotype-phenotype correlations existing in the 1qter microdeletion syndrome and define more precisely the neurodevelopmental phenotypes associated with genetic alterations of AKT3, ZBTB18 and HNRNPU in humans.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Humanos
14.
J Med Genet ; 54(6): 371-380, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28289185

RESUMO

Oral-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) gather rare genetic disorders characterised by facial, oral and digital abnormalities associated with a wide range of additional features (polycystic kidney disease, cerebral malformations and several others) to delineate a growing list of OFDS subtypes. The most frequent, OFD type I, is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the OFD1 gene encoding a centrosomal protein. The wide clinical heterogeneity of OFDS suggests the involvement of other ciliary genes. For 15 years, we have aimed to identify the molecular bases of OFDS. This effort has been greatly helped by the recent development of whole-exome sequencing (WES). Here, we present all our published and unpublished results for WES in 24 cases with OFDS. We identified causal variants in five new genes (C2CD3, TMEM107, INTU, KIAA0753 and IFT57) and related the clinical spectrum of four genes in other ciliopathies (C5orf42, TMEM138, TMEM231 and WDPCP) to OFDS. Mutations were also detected in two genes previously implicated in OFDS. Functional studies revealed the involvement of centriole elongation, transition zone and intraflagellar transport defects in OFDS, thus characterising three ciliary protein modules: the complex KIAA0753-FOPNL-OFD1, a regulator of centriole elongation; the Meckel-Gruber syndrome module, a major component of the transition zone; and the CPLANE complex necessary for IFT-A assembly. OFDS now appear to be a distinct subgroup of ciliopathies with wide heterogeneity, which makes the initial classification obsolete. A clinical classification restricted to the three frequent/well-delineated subtypes could be proposed, and for patients who do not fit one of these three main subtypes, a further classification could be based on the genotype.


Assuntos
Face/anormalidades , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Encefalocele/genética , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Doenças Renais Policísticas/genética , Proteínas/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(12): 3069-3082, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27648933

RESUMO

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a developmental disorder characterized by a typical face and distal limbs abnormalities, intellectual disability, and a vast number of other features. Two genes are known to cause RSTS, CREBBP in 60% and EP300 in 8-10% of clinically diagnosed cases. Both paralogs act in chromatin remodeling and encode for transcriptional co-activators interacting with >400 proteins. Up to now 26 individuals with an EP300 mutation have been published. Here, we describe the phenotype and genotype of 42 unpublished RSTS patients carrying EP300 mutations and intragenic deletions and offer an update on another 10 patients. We compare the data to 308 individuals with CREBBP mutations. We demonstrate that EP300 mutations cause a phenotype that typically resembles the classical RSTS phenotype due to CREBBP mutations to a great extent, although most facial signs are less marked with the exception of a low-hanging columella. The limb anomalies are more similar to those in CREBBP mutated individuals except for angulation of thumbs and halluces which is very uncommon in EP300 mutated individuals. The intellectual disability is variable but typically less marked whereas the microcephaly is more common. All types of mutations occur but truncating mutations and small rearrangements are most common (86%). Missense mutations in the HAT domain are associated with a classical RSTS phenotype but otherwise no genotype-phenotype correlation is detected. Pre-eclampsia occurs in 12/52 mothers of EP300 mutated individuals versus in 2/59 mothers of CREBBP mutated individuals, making pregnancy with an EP300 mutated fetus the strongest known predictor for pre-eclampsia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/genética , Adulto , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/patologia , Deleção de Sequência
16.
J Med Genet ; 53(11): 743-751, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27317772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterozygous NSD1 mutations were identified in 60%-90% of patients with Sotos syndrome. Recently, mutations of the SETD2 and DNMT3A genes were identified in patients exhibiting only some Sotos syndrome features. Both NSD1 and SETD2 genes encode epigenetic 'writer' proteins that catalyse methylation of histone 3 lysine 36 (H3K36me). The DNMT3A gene encodes an epigenetic 'reader' protein of the H3K36me chromatin mark. METHODS: We aimed at confirming the implication of DNMT3A and SETD2 mutations in an overgrowth phenotype, through a comprehensive targeted-next generation sequencing (NGS) screening in 210 well-phenotyped index cases with a Sotos-like phenotype and no NSD1 mutation, from a French cohort. RESULTS: Six unreported heterozygous likely pathogenic variants in DNMT3A were identified in seven patients: two nonsense variants and four de novo missense variants. One de novo unreported heterozygous frameshift variant was identified in SETD2 in one patient. All the four DNMT3A missense variants affected DNMT3A functional domains, suggesting a potential deleterious impact. DNMT3A-mutated index cases shared similar clinical features including overgrowth phenotype characterised by postnatal tall stature (≥+2SD), macrocephaly (≥+2SD), overweight or obesity at older age, intellectual deficiency and minor facial features. The phenotype associated with SETD2 mutations remains to be described more precisely. The p.Arg882Cys missense de novo constitutional DNMT3A variant found in two patients is the most frequent DNMT3A somatic mutation in acute leukaemia. CONCLUSIONS: Our results illustrate the power of targeted NGS to identify rare disease-causing variants. These observations provided evidence for a unifying mechanism (disruption of apposition and reading of the epigenetic chromatin mark H3K36me) that causes an overgrowth syndrome phenotype. Further studies are needed in order to assess the role of SETD2 and DNMT3A in intellectual deficiency without overgrowth.

17.
J Neurol ; 263(7): 1314-22, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27142713

RESUMO

Establishing a molecular diagnosis of autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCA) is challenging due to phenotype and genotype heterogeneity. We report the validation of a previously published clinical practice-based algorithm to diagnose ARCA. Two assessors performed a blind analysis to determine the most probable mutated gene based on comprehensive clinical and paraclinical data, without knowing the molecular diagnosis of 23 patients diagnosed by targeted capture of 57 ataxia genes and high-throughput sequencing coming from a 145 patients series. The correct gene was predicted in 61 and 78 % of the cases by the two assessors, respectively. There was a high inter-rater agreement [K = 0.85 (0.55-0.98) p < 0.001] confirming the algorithm's reproducibility. Phenotyping patients with proper clinical examination, imaging, biochemical investigations and nerve conduction studies remain crucial for the guidance of molecular analysis and to interpret next generation sequencing results. The proposed algorithm should be helpful for diagnosing ARCA in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Genes Recessivos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 20(4): 604-10, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27091087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic leukoencephalopathy without megalencephaly is a disorder related in some cases to RNASET2 mutations and characterized by bilateral anterior temporal subcortical cysts and multifocal lobar white matter lesions with sparing of central white matter structures. This phenotype significantly overlaps with the sequelae of in utero cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, including the presence of intracranial calcification in some cases. Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is another inherited leukodystrophy with cerebral calcification mimicking congenital infection. Clinical, radiological and biochemical criteria for the diagnosis of AGS have been established, although the breadth of phenotype associated with mutations in the AGS-related genes is much greater than previously envisaged. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe the clinical, biochemical and radiological findings of five patients demonstrating a phenotype reminiscent of AGS. RESULTS: All patients were found to carry biallelic mutations of RNASET2. CONCLUSIONS: Our patients illustrate the clinical and radiological overlap that can be seen between RNASET2-related leukodystrophy and AGS in some cases. Our data highlight the need to include both disorders in the same differential diagnosis, and hint at possible shared pathomechanisms related to auto-inflammation which are worthy of further investigation.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cistos/fisiopatologia , Leucoencefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cistos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cistos/genética , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/congênito , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Ribonucleases/genética , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(5): 971-980, 2016 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27108797

RESUMO

Gillespie syndrome (GS) is a rare variant form of aniridia characterized by non-progressive cerebellar ataxia, intellectual disability, and iris hypoplasia. Unlike the more common dominant and sporadic forms of aniridia, there has been no significant association with PAX6 mutations in individuals with GS and the mode of inheritance of the disease had long been regarded as uncertain. Using a combination of trio-based whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing in five simplex GS-affected families, we found homozygous or compound heterozygous truncating mutations (c.4672C>T [p.Gln1558(∗)], c.2182C>T [p.Arg728(∗)], c.6366+3A>T [p.Gly2102Valfs5(∗)], and c.6664+5G>T [p.Ala2221Valfs23(∗)]) and de novo heterozygous mutations (c.7687_7689del [p.Lys2563del] and c.7659T>G [p.Phe2553Leu]) in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 gene (ITPR1). ITPR1 encodes one of the three members of the IP3-receptors family that form Ca(2+) release channels localized predominantly in membranes of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores. The truncation mutants, which encompass the IP3-binding domain and varying lengths of the modulatory domain, did not form functional channels when produced in a heterologous cell system. Furthermore, ITPR1 p.Lys2563del mutant did not form IP3-induced Ca(2+) channels but exerted a negative effect when co-produced with wild-type ITPR1 channel activity. In total, these results demonstrate biallelic and monoallelic ITPR1 mutations as the underlying genetic defects for Gillespie syndrome, further extending the spectrum of ITPR1-related diseases.


Assuntos
Aniridia/etiologia , Ataxia Cerebelar/etiologia , Genes Dominantes/genética , Genes Recessivos/genética , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Aniridia/patologia , Ataxia Cerebelar/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Linhagem
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170A(1): 116-29, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26420639

RESUMO

Xq28 duplications encompassing MECP2 have been described in male patients with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypotonia and spasticity, severe learning disability, stereotyped movements, and recurrent pulmonary infections. We report on standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 30 affected patients carrying an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 of various sizes (228 kb to 11.7 Mb). The aim of this study was to seek recurrent malformations and attempt to determine whether variations in imaging features could be explained by differences in the size of the duplications. We showed that 93% of patients had brain MRI abnormalities such as corpus callosum abnormalities (n = 20), reduced volume of the white matter (WM) (n = 12), ventricular dilatation (n = 9), abnormal increased hyperintensities on T2-weighted images involving posterior periventricular WM (n = 6), and vermis hypoplasia (n = 5). The occipitofrontal circumference varied considerably between >+2SD in five patients and <-2SD in four patients. Among the nine patients with dilatation of the lateral ventricles, six had a duplication involving L1CAM. The only patient harboring bilateral posterior subependymal nodular heterotopia also carried an FLNA gene duplication. We could not demonstrate a correlation between periventricular WM hyperintensities/delayed myelination and duplication of the IKBKG gene. We thus conclude that patients with an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 share some similar but non-specific brain abnormalities. These imaging features, therefore, could not constitute a diagnostic clue. The genotype-phenotype correlation failed to demonstrate a relationship between the presence of nodular heterotopia, ventricular dilatation, WM abnormalities, and the presence of FLNA, L1CAM, or IKBKG, respectively, in the duplicated segment.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encefalopatias/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
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