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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111645, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396165

RESUMO

The effects of chloridazon (Ch) and its metabolite chloridazon-desphenyl (Ch-D) at the environmentally relevant concentrations of 0.45 µg/L and 2.7 µg/L on signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus were assessed in a 30-day exposure followed by a 15-day depuration period. Locomotion, biochemical haemolymph profile, oxidative and antioxidant parameters, and histopathology were evaluated. Crayfish exposed to Ch at 0.45 µg/L and 2.7 µg/L showed significantly (p < 0.01) higher CAT activity and GSH level in hepatopancreas and gill compared to controls. The concentration of Ch at 2.7 µg/L was associated with significantly (p < 0.01) higher levels of GLU, LACT, ALT, AST in haemolymph compared to controls. Chloridazon-desphenyl exposure at both tested concentrations caused significantly higher (p < 0.01) GLU, LACT, ALT, AST, NH3, and Ca in haemolymph; lipid peroxidation (TBARS) levels in hepatopancreas; and CAT activity and GSH level in hepatopancreas and gill. Alterations of structure including focal dilatation of tubules, increased number of fibrillar cells, and haemocyte infiltration in the interstitium were observed with 2.7 µg/L Ch and with both Ch-D exposures. Locomotion patterns did not vary significantly among groups. A 15-day recovery period was insufficient to restore normal physiological parameters in exposed groups. Chloridazon and its metabolite Ch-D exerts harmful effects on crayfish.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Piridazinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Brânquias/patologia , Hemolinfa/citologia , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/patologia , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridazinas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141383, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882544

RESUMO

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment worldwide and considered emerging contaminants. Their effects on growth, behavior, and physiological processes of aquatic organisms have been identified even at very low concentrations. Ecotoxicological investigations have primarily focused on single compound exposure, generally at a range of concentrations. In the natural environment, pollutants seldom occur in isolation, but little is known about the effects and risks of combinations of chemicals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of concurrent exposure to six psychoactive PhACs on locomotory behavior and life history traits of clonal marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis. Crayfish were exposed to ~1 µg L-1 of the antidepressants sertraline, citalopram, and venlafaxine; the anxiolytic oxazepam; the opioid tramadol; and the widely abused psychostimulant methamphetamine. In the absence of shelter, exposed crayfish moved significantly shorter distances and at lower velocity and showed significantly less activity than controls. With available shelter, exposed crayfish moved significantly more distance, showed higher activity, and spent a significantly more time outside the shelter than controls. Molting, mortality, and spawning frequency did not vary significantly between the groups. Hemolymph glucose level did not vary among groups and was not correlated with observed behaviors. Results suggest that environmental concentrations of the tested compounds in combination can alter the behavior of non-target aquatic organisms as individual exposure of these compounds, which may lead to disruption of ecosystem processes due to their reduced caution in polluted conditions. Further research is needed using varied chemical mixtures, exposure systems, and habitats, considering molecular and physiological processes connected to behavior alterations.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Astacoidea , Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
3.
Chemosphere ; : 128656, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172666

RESUMO

Despite their low concentrations in many aquatic environments, evidence exists to suggest that herbicides do affect non-target organisms. Given that burrowing is a primary life-history trait in crayfish, herbicides could potentially have serious negative effects on these ecologically important freshwater macroinvertebrates. In this study, we exposed the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii to terbuthylazine (a triazine) and metazachlor (a chloroacetanilide) at an environmental concentration of 2.0 µg/L for 28 days, and then observed their burrowing behaviour for two days. The metazachlor-exposed males excavated a greater number of burrows than the other tested groups, with comparable depths and volumes relative to individual specimen weight. The relative depth and volume of female burrows were identical in all groups. The natural habit of female crayfish of constructing deeper burrows than males was marginally significant in the control and META groups but was not significant for relative volume. The hypothesized adverse effects of chronic exposure to real environmental concentrations of herbicides were not documented in terms of either relative depth or volume. However, the increased number of burrows in metazachlor-exposed animals may mean that this invasive species will cause greater damage to embankments and river banks. The mechanisms behind these effects require closer study.

4.
Integr Zool ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978865

RESUMO

The phylogeny of European crayfish fauna, especially with respect to Eastern European species, is still far from being completely resolved. To fill this gap, we analyzed most of the European crayfish species focusing on the phylogenetic position of the endemic crayfish Astacus colchicus, inhabiting Georgia. Three mitochondrial and one nuclear marker were used to study evolutionary relationships among European crayfish species, resulting in the unique phylogenetic position of A. colchicus indicating independent species status to A. astacus. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a deep molecular divergence of A. colchicus in comparison to A. astacus (6.5-10.9% in mtDNA and 1.1% in nDNA) as well as to Pontastacus leptodactylus and P. pachypus (5.5-10.0% in mtDNA and 1.4-2.4% in nDNA). Absent ventral process on second male pleopod and abdominal somites II and III with pleura rounded lacking prominent spines clearly indicate taxonomic assignment to the genus Astacus; however, the species is distributed almost in the middle of Ponto-Caspian area typical by occurrence of the genus Pontastacus. Several morphological indices linked to head length, carapace, and total body length and width were found to demonstrate apparent differences between A. colchicus and A. astacus. Although this study provides a novel insight into European crayfish phylogeography, we also point out the gaps in comprehensive study of the P. leptodactylus species complex, which could reveal details about the potential species status of particular species and subspecies within this genus.

5.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127189, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470540

RESUMO

The effects of chloridazon exposure at concentrations of 2.7 µg/L (maximal real environmental concentration in the Czech Republic), 27 µg/L, 135 µg/L and 270 µg/L on early life stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis) were evaluated. Significantly higher glutathione S-transferase activity and reduced glutathione level was observed at all tested concentrations of chloridazon compared with the control. Chloridazon in concentrations 27, 135 and 270 µg/L caused delay ontogenetic development and slower growth. Histopathological changes in hepathopancreas were found in two highest tested concentrations (135 µg/L and 270 µg/L). Crayfish behaviour was not altered in control vs. exposed animals, while the activity parameters tend to decline with increasing chloridazon concentrations.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/fisiologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Piridazinas/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Animais , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , República Tcheca
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245179

RESUMO

Methamphetamine (METH), a central nervous system stimulant used as a recreational drug, is frequently found in surface waters at potentially harmful concentrations. To determine effects of long-term exposure to environmentally relevant levels on nontarget organisms, we analysed cardiac and locomotor responses of signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus to acute stress during a 21-day exposure to METH at 1 µg L-1 followed by 14 days depuration. Heart rate and locomotion were recorded over a period of 30 min before and 30 min after exposure to haemolymph of an injured conspecific four times during METH exposure and four times during the depuration phase. Methamphetamine-exposed crayfish showed a weaker cardiac response to stress than was observed in controls during both exposure and depuration phases. Similarly, methamphetamine-exposed crayfish, during METH exposure, showed lower locomotor reaction poststressor application in contrast to controls. Results indicate biological alterations in crayfish exposed to METH at low concentration level, potentially resulting in a shift in interactions among organisms in natural environment.


Assuntos
Astacoidea , Metanfetamina , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Estresse Fisiológico , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 135138, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000346

RESUMO

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhAC) have been increasingly detected in freshwater and marine waterbodies worldwide and are recognized as major emerging micropollutant threat to the aquatic environment. Despite their low concentrations in the environment, there is evidence of effects on non-target aquatic organisms in natural habitats. To assess the potential effects of PhACs on its burrowing behavior, we exposed the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii to methamphetamine or tramadol at the environmentally relevant concentration of 1 µg/L. Methamphetamine-exposed females constructed burrows of lower depth and volume relative to individual weight than did controls. Tramadol-exposed females consistently exhibited a tendency for smaller burrows, but this difference was not significant. Exposed males showed a non-significant tendency to excavate larger burrows compared with the control. Control and tramadol-treated females maintained the natural tendency of constructing relatively deeper and/or larger-volume burrows compared with males. This sex-related pattern was not detected in the methamphetamine group. The rate of human therapeutic PhAC usage is relatively stable year-round, and impacts on crayfish burrowing can be particularly damaging during periods of drought, when the dilution of waste waters is reduced, and burrowing becomes a critical survival strategy. Our results suggest that an increasingly broad range of environmental impacts of PhACs on non-target organisms can be expected in natural ecosystems.


Assuntos
Astacoidea , Ecossistema , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Meio Ambiente , Água Doce , Humanos
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 875, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964976

RESUMO

The effects of the herbicide metazachlor and its major metabolite metazachlor OA at two concentrations, including environmentally relevant concentrations of metazachlor (0.0115 µmol/l and 0.0790 µmol/l) and metazachlor OA (0.0117 µmol/l and 0.0805 µmol/l), respectively, were evaluated on early ontogeny, growth, behaviour, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme levels, histology, and mortality of marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis. Both tested concentrations of metazachlor and metazachlor OA were associated with significantly lower growth and delayed ontogenetic development compared to controls. Exposure of metazachlor at 0.0115 µmol/l and metazachlor OA at 0.0117 µmol/l and 0.0805 µmol/l resulted in significantly lower activity of total superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione s-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and reduced glutathione (GSH) compared with control and resulted in gill anomalies ranging from wall thinning to focal disintegration of branchial structure. Metazachlor at the environmentally relevant concentration of 0.0790 µmol/l was associated with significant alterations of crayfish distance moved and walking speed. The potential risk associated with metazachlor use in agriculture related to effects on non-target aquatic organisms.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134300, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670211

RESUMO

Pharmaceutically active compounds are major contaminants of aquatic environments. The effects on aquatic organisms have been assessed mostly through eco-toxicological tests performed using static exposure systems or flow through systems with constant concentrations. Yet, constant concentration exposures ignore the spatio-temporal dynamics of chemicals in flowing environments. In dynamic systems, a chemical's effect on an organism will vary due to fluctuations in the frequency, magnitude, and duration of the chemical concentration within the plume, which develops due to turbulence interacting with the geomorphology of habitat. The aim of this study was to analyze how different exposure dynamics to the antidepressant fluoxetine might alter the agonistic behavior of aquatic organisms. Male crayfishes, Faxonius virilis, were subjected to 23 h exposures at different concentrations of fluoxetine (control, 0.05, 0.5, 1, 10 and 100 µg/l) in both static and dynamic mesocosm systems. After exposure, size-matched crayfishes, from the same exposure system and fluoxetine concentration, underwent a fifteen minute fight trial. The aggressive intensities and duration of agonistic interactions were quantified. The time spent performing a tailflip was significantly longer for fluoxetine concentrations of 1, 10, 100 µg/l in the static exposure than in the dynamic exposure. On other hand, the time spent at higher intensities and the time to escalate to the highest intensity of interactions in control treatments were significantly lower in the dynamic exposure than in the static exposure. Whereas, in elevated fluoxetine concentrations, these times were significantly higher in the dynamic than in static treatments. Therefore, we could conclude that the fight dynamics and duration of agonistic behavior in crayfish were affected by static and dynamic exposure paradigms differently. Despite these behavioral changes, serotonin levels in fluoxetine-exposed crayfish did not differ significantly between exposure paradigms. Future research should incorporate different exposure methods that more accurately represent chemical exposure in natural habitats.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/toxicidade , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Fluoxetina/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Comportamento Agonístico , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino
10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105222, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212248

RESUMO

Pharmaceutically active compounds are major contaminants of aquatic environments that show direct and indirect effects on aquatic organisms even at low concentrations. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the illicit drug methamphetamine and the antidepressant sertraline on clonal marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis. Crayfish exposed to the environmentally relevant concentrations of methamphetamine of ∼1 µg L-1 did not exhibit significant differences from unexposed controls in distance moved, velocity, and activity level with or without available shelter. Sertraline-exposed (∼1 µg L-1) crayfish were significantly more active, regardless of available shelter, and moved greater distances when shelter was available, compared to control crayfish. Crayfish exposed to methamphetamine and sertraline spent significantly more time outside the shelters compared to controls. Sertraline-exposed crayfish spawned more frequently and showed higher mortality than controls. The results suggest that the low environmental concentrations of the tested compounds could alter the behavior and life history traits of crayfish, resulting in higher reproductive effort and mortality.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Astacoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Sertralina/toxicidade , Animais , Invertebrados , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
Chemosphere ; 224: 616-625, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849622

RESUMO

Increasing production of energy crops in Europe, mainly maize and rapeseed, has altered patterns of pesticide use in recent decades. The long-term effects of S-metolachlor (S-M) and of its metabolite metolachlor OA (M-OA) at the environmentally relevant concentration of 4.2 µg L-1 and at 42 µg L-1 (ten-fold concentration) on marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis) were evaluated in a 28-day exposure and after a subsequent 28-day recovery period. Indicators assessed were behaviour; biochemical haemolymph profile; oxidative and antioxidant parameters of gill, hepatopancreas, and muscle; and histology of hepatopancreas and gill. Results showed biochemical haemolymph profile (lactate, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, inorganic phosphate), lipid peroxidation in hepatopancreas, and antioxidant parameters (catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione S-transferase) of hepatopancreas and gill of crayfish exposed to S-M and M-OA to significantly differ from controls (P < 0.01). Antioxidant biomarker levels remained different from controls after a 28-day recovery period. Differences in behaviour including speed of movement and velocity, and histopathological damage to gill and hepatopancreas were associated with S-M and M-OA exposure and persisted after 28 days in S-M- and M-OA-free water. Results suggest harmful effects of low concentrations of S-M and its metabolite M-OA on non-target organisms and provide information for assessing their effects at environmentally relevant concentrations.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/farmacologia , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetamidas/química , Acetamidas/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Europa (Continente) , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Vis Exp ; (144)2019 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799851

RESUMO

A crayfish is a pivotal aquatic organism that serves both as a practical biological model for behavioral and physiological studies of invertebrates and as a useful biological indicator of water quality. Even though crayfish cannot directly specify the substances that cause water quality deterioration, they can immediately (within a few seconds) warn humans of water quality deterioration via acute changes in their cardiac and behavioral activities. In this study, we present a noninvasive method that is simple enough to be implemented under various conditions due to a combination of simplicity and reliability in one model. This approach, in which the biological organisms are implemented into environmental evaluation processes, provides a reliable and timely alarm for warning of and preventing acute water deterioration in an ambient environment. Therefore, this noninvasive system based on crayfish physiological and ethological parameter recordings was investigated for the detection of changes in an aquatic environment. This system is now applied at a local brewery for controlling quality of the water used for beverage production, but it can be used at any water treatment and supply facility for continuous, real-time water quality evaluation and for regular laboratory investigations of crayfish cardiac physiology and behavior.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Coração/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Qualidade da Água , Animais , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 662: 655-661, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703723

RESUMO

Although pharmaceuticals are recognized as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide, little is known about their ecological effect on aquatic biota and ecosystems. Drug-induced behaviour changes could have a substantial impact on consumer-resource interactions influencing stability of the community and ecosystem. We combined laboratory experiments and functional response modelling to investigate effects of real wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, as well as environmentally relevant concentrations of the antidepressants citalopram and opioid pain medication tramadol, on trophic interactions. Our biological system consisted of dragonfly Aeshna cyanea larvae as predator of common carp Cyprinus carpio fry. Exposure to WWTP effluent significantly increased A. cyanea maximum feeding rate, while those parameters in tramadol and citalopram-exposed larvae were significantly lower from unexposed control group. This suggested the potential of all tested pollutants to have an effect on consumer-resource equilibrium in aquatic ecosystems. While WWTP effluent strengthened interaction strength (IS) of consumer-resource interaction dynamics making the food web more vulnerable to fluctuation and destabilization, tramadol and citalopram could inhibit the potential oscillations of the consumer-resource system by weakening the IS. Similar studies to reveal the potential of pervasive pharmaceuticals to change of consumer-resource interactions dynamics are needed, especially when real WWTP effluent consisting of mixture of various pharmaceuticals displayed very different effect from single compounds tested.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpas/fisiologia , Citalopram/efeitos adversos , Odonatos/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Tramadol/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Modelos Biológicos , Ninfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Odonatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Odonatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Recaptação de Serotonina e Norepinefrina/efeitos adversos , Águas Residuárias/análise
14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 153: 87-94, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744900

RESUMO

The effects of s-metolachlor chronic exposure at concentrations of 1.1 µg/L (maximal real environmental concentration in the Czech Republic), 11 µg/L (environmental relevant concentration) and 110 µg/L on early life stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis) was evaluated under laboratory conditions. All s-metolachlor exposures resulted in higher mortality, delay ontogenetic development with accompanied slower growth and excited behaviour (increase of total distance moved and walking speed). Significantly lower superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase activity and reduced glutathione level was observed at two higher tested concentrations (11 and 110 µg/L) of s-metolachlor compared with the control. S-metolachlor in concentrations 110 µg/L showed alteration of the tubular system of hepatopancreas including focal disintegration of tubular epithelium and notable reduction in epithelial cells number, especially B-cells. In conclusion, potential risk associated with using of s-metolachlor in agriculture, due to effects on non-target aquatic organisms as documented on early life stages of marbled crayfish in this study, should be taken into account.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/toxicidade , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Animais , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/patologia
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 643: 1456-1463, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189562

RESUMO

The metolachlor OA is a metabolite of herbicide metolachlor and s-metolachlor. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect metolachlor OA on early life stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis). The early life stages of marbled crayfish were exposed for 45 days to three concentrations of metolachlor OA: 4.2 µg/L (environmentally relevant concentration, E1), 42 µg/L (E2) and 420 µg/L (E3) under laboratory conditions. The effects were assessed on the basis of mortality, growth, ontogenetic development, behaviour, oxidative stress, antioxidant biomarkers and histopathology. Metolachlor OA caused significantly lower growth, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione s-transferase activity in all tested concentrations. Metolachlor OA in higher concentrations (42 and 420 µg/L) resulted in significantly delayed ontogenetic development, lower reduced glutathione level and lipid peroxidation. Metolachlor OA has not significant effect on behaviour (activity, total distance moved and walking speed). Histological examination revealed alteration of hepatopancreas and gills in crayfish exposed to two higher tested concentrations. Hepatopancreas reflected histomorphological structural changes of individual cell types. Changes of gills included focal hemocytic infiltration together with enlargement of intralamellar space packed with granular substance. In conclusion, chronic metolachlor OA exposure affected growth, ontogenetic development, and the antioxidant system and caused pathological changes in hepatopancreas and gills of early life stages of marbled crayfish.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/toxicidade , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Brânquias , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Ecol Evol ; 8(9): 4455-4464, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760887

RESUMO

Biogeographical barriers formed by natural forces over billions of years have been substantially disrupted by human activity, particularly in recent centuries. In response to these anthropogenic changes, global homogenization of biota is observed at an ever-increasing rate, causing environmental and economic losses as well as emerging health risks. Identifying factors underlying alien species richness is essential for prevention of future introductions and subsequent spread. In this study, we examined the effects of environmental and human-related factors on distribution of alien animal species richness in the Czech Republic (Central Europe). We compiled a set of maps showing the level of invasion of six categories of alien animal species in each of 628 grid cells (ca. 12.0 × 11.1 km) covering the Czech Republic. Relationships between alien species richness and 12 variables characterizing climatic conditions, topography, land cover, and human population size were calculated using the generalized least squares method. Species richness of all alien species, of invertebrates, and of terrestrial species showed the strongest positive relationship with mean annual temperature, while the number of black and grey (proposed prominent invaders) and aquatic species was most closely related to the presence of large rivers. Alien vertebrates showed a strong negative relationship with annual precipitation. The highest alien animal species richness was found in and near large population centers and in agricultural landscapes in warm and dry lowlands. The gateways for alien aquatic species are rather large rivers over sport fishing and aquaculture import. Compiled maps create a powerful visual communication tool, useful in development of programs to prevent future introductions.

17.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 18075, 2017 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273716

RESUMO

Nonconsumptive predator-driven mortality (NCM), defined as prey mortality due to predation that does not result in prey consumption, is an underestimated component of predator-prey interactions with possible implications for population dynamics and ecosystem functioning. However, the biotic and abiotic factors influencing this mortality component remain largely unexplored, leaving a gap in our understanding of the impacts of environmental change on ecological communities. We investigated the effects of temperature, prey density, and predator diversity and density on NCM in an aquatic food web module composed of dragonfly larvae (Aeshna cyanea) and marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis) preying on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry. We found that NCM increased with prey density and depended on the functional diversity and density of the predator community. Warming significantly reduced NCM only in the dragonfly larvae but the magnitude depended on dragonfly larvae density. Our results indicate that energy transfer across trophic levels is more efficient due to lower NCM in functionally diverse predator communities, at lower resource densities and at higher temperatures. This suggests that environmental changes such as climate warming and reduced resource availability could increase the efficiency of energy transfer in food webs only if functionally diverse predator communities are conserved.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Comportamento Predatório , Temperatura , Animais , Astacoidea , Carpas , Água Doce , Odonatos , Dinâmica Populacional
18.
Springerplus ; 5(1): 1674, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27733976

RESUMO

Invertebrates are a very diverse group of animals, showing a wide spectrum of life strategies and adaptations. They often exhibit very complex behavioural and social patterns. In crayfish, the largest freshwater invertebrates, we found a new behavioural pattern, burying their own exuviae after moulting. Such a pattern may be an as yet unrecognized type of hoarding or caching. The buried exuvia is exhumed after 2 or 3 days (when the crayfish body is no longer as soft) and consumed. This behaviour is probably self-protective (hiding the mark of a helpless prey), as well as having mineral storage reasons. Such complex behavioural patterns in invertebrates present new challenges for future research.

19.
Sci Rep ; 6: 26569, 2016 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27225308

RESUMO

Freshwater biodiversity is globally threatened by various factors while severe weather events like long-term droughts may be substantially devastating. In order to remain in contact with the water or stay in a sufficiently humid environment at drying localities, the ability to withstand desiccation by dwelling in the hyporheic zone, particularly through vertical burrowing is crucial. We assessed the ability of three European native and five non-native crayfish as models to survive and construct vertical burrows in a humid sandy-clayey substrate under a simulated one-week drought. Three native species (Astacus astacus, A. leptodactylus, and Austropotamobius torrentium) suffered extensive mortalities. Survival of non-native species was substantially higher while all specimens of Cherax destructor and Procambarus clarkii survived. The native species and Pacifastacus leniusculus exhibited no ability to construct vertical burrows. Procambarus fallax f. virginalis and P. clarkii constructed bigger and deeper burrows than C. destructor and Orconectes limosus. In the context of predicted weather fluctuations, the ability to withstand desiccation through constructing vertical burrows into the hyporheic zone under drought conditions might play a significant role in the success of particular crayfish species, as well as a wide range of further hyporheic-dwelling aquatic organisms in general.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/fisiologia , Secas , Animais , Astacoidea/classificação , Biodiversidade , Água Doce , Modelos Biológicos , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 25896, 2016 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27221025

RESUMO

In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo-Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to "hitchhikers" associated with the ornamental trade.


Assuntos
Eichhornia/fisiologia , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Comércio , República Tcheca , Indonésia , Espécies Introduzidas , Tanques/análise , América do Sul
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