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1.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(6): 1625-1656, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095442

RESUMO

Purpose The use of sign-supported speech (SSS) in the education of deaf students has been recently discussed in relation to its usefulness with deaf children using cochlear implants. To clarify the benefits of SSS for comprehension, 2 eye-tracking experiments aimed to detect the extent to which signs are actively processed in this mode of communication. Method Participants were 36 deaf adolescents, including cochlear implant users and native deaf signers. Experiment 1 attempted to shift observers' foveal attention to the linguistic source in SSS from which most information is extracted, lip movements or signs, by magnifying the face area, thus modifying lip movements perceptual accessibility (magnified condition), and by constraining the visual field to either the face or the sign through a moving window paradigm (gaze contingent condition). Experiment 2 aimed to explore the reliance on signs in SSS by occasionally producing a mismatch between sign and speech. Participants were required to concentrate upon the orally transmitted message. Results In Experiment 1, analyses revealed a greater number of fixations toward the signs and a reduction in accuracy in the gaze contingent condition across all participants. Fixations toward signs were also increased in the magnified condition. In Experiment 2, results indicated less accuracy in the mismatching condition across all participants. Participants looked more at the sign when it was inconsistent with speech. Conclusions All participants, even those with residual hearing, rely on signs when attending SSS, either peripherally or through overt attention, depending on the perceptual conditions. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.8121191.

2.
Cognition ; 185: 91-120, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682714

RESUMO

Language and vision interact in non-trivial ways. Linguistically, spatial utterances are often asymmetrical as they relate more stable objects (reference objects) to less stable objects (located objects). Researchers have claimed that such linguistic asymmetry should also be reflected in the allocation of visual attention when people process a depicted spatial relation described by spatial language. More specifically, it was assumed that people move their attention from the reference object to the located object. However, recent theoretical and empirical findings challenge the directionality of this attentional shift. In this article, we present the results of an empirical study based on predictions generated by computational cognitive models implementing different directionalities of attention. Moreover, we thoroughly analyze the computational models. While our results do not favor any of the implemented directionalities of attention, we found that two unknown sources of geometric information affect spatial language understanding. We provide modifications to the computational models that substantially improve their performance on empirical data.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicolinguística , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Vis Exp ; (141)2018 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582604

RESUMO

The present work is a description and an assessment of a methodology designed to quantify different aspects of the interaction between language processing and the perception of the visual world. The recording of eye-gaze patterns has provided good evidence for the contribution of both the visual context and linguistic/world knowledge to language comprehension. Initial research assessed object-context effects to test theories of modularity in language processing. In the introduction, we describe how subsequent investigations have taken the role of the wider visual context in language processing as a research topic in its own right, asking questions such as how our visual perception of events and of speakers contributes to comprehension informed by comprehenders' experience. Among the examined aspects of the visual context are actions, events, a speaker's gaze, and emotional facial expressions, as well as spatial object configurations. Following an overview of the eye-tracking method and its different applications, we list the key steps of the methodology in the protocol, illustrating how to successfully use it to study visually-situated language comprehension. A final section presents three sets of representative results and illustrates the benefits and limitations of eye tracking for investigating the interplay between the perception of the visual world and language comprehension.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Idioma , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Humanos
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 8627569, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410965

RESUMO

It has been shown that abstract concepts are more difficult to process and are acquired later than concrete concepts. We analysed the percentage of concrete words in the narrative lexicon of individuals with Williams Syndrome (WS) as compared to individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) and typically developing (TD) peers. The cognitive profile of WS is characterized by visual-spatial difficulties, while DS presents with predominant impairments in linguistic abilities. We predicted that if linguistic abilities are crucial to the development and use of an abstract vocabulary, DS participants should display a higher concreteness index than both Williams Syndrome and typically developing individuals. Results confirm this prediction, thus supporting the hypothesis of a crucial role of linguistic processes in abstract language acquisition. Correlation analyses suggest that a maturational link exists between the level of abstractness in narrative production and syntactic comprehension.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Vocabulário , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Síndrome de Down , Humanos , Síndrome de Williams
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27362220

RESUMO

Focusing on relevant information while suppressing the irrelevant one are critical abilities for different cognitive processes. However, their functioning has been scarcely investigated in the working memory (WM) domain, in both healthy and pathological conditions. The present research aimed to study these abilities in aging and Parkinson's disease (PD), testing three groups of healthy participants (young, older and elderly) and one of PD patients, employing a new experimental paradigm. Results showed that the transient storing of irrelevant information in WM causes substantial interference effects, which were remarkable in elderly individuals on both response latency and accuracy. Interestingly, PD patients responded faster and were equally accurate compared to a matched control group. Taken together, findings confirm the existence of similar mechanisms for orienting attention inwards to WM contents or outwards to perceptual stimuli, and suggest the suitability of our task to assess WM functioning in both healthy aging and PD.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
6.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 69(12): 2319-2337, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26911205

RESUMO

Typical spatial language sentences consist of describing the location of an object (the located object) in relation to another object (the reference object) as in "The book is above the vase". While it has been suggested that the properties of the located object (the book) are not translated into language because they are irrelevant when exchanging location information, it has been shown that the orientation of the located object affects the production and comprehension of spatial descriptions. In line with the claim that spatial language apprehension involves inferences about relations that hold between objects it has been suggested that during spatial language apprehension people use the orientation of the located object to evaluate whether the logical property of converseness (e.g., if "the book is above the vase" is true, then also "the vase is below the book" must be true) holds across the objects' spatial relation. In three experiments using sentence acceptability rating tasks we tested this hypothesis and demonstrated that when converseness is violated people's acceptability ratings of a scene's description are reduced indicating that people do take into account geometric properties of the located object and use it to infer logical spatial relations.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Orientação , Semântica , Percepção Espacial , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
7.
Behav Neurol ; 2015: 475271, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26246693

RESUMO

Forty native Italian children (age 6-15) performed a sentence plausibility judgment task. ERP recordings were available for 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 11 children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD), and 13 control children. Participants listened to verb-object combinations and judged them as acceptable or unacceptable. Stimuli belonged to four conditions, where concreteness and congruency were manipulated. All groups made more errors responding to abstract and to congruent sentences. Moreover, SLI participants performed worse than NVLD participants with abstract sentences. ERPs were analyzed in the time window 300-500 ms. SLI children show atypical, reversed effects of concreteness and congruence as compared to control and NVLD children, respectively. The results suggest that linguistic impairments disrupt abstract language processing more than visual-motor impairments. Moreover, ROI and SPM analyses of ERPs point to a predominant involvement of the left rather than the right hemisphere in the comprehension of figurative expressions.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Linguística , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Comunicação não Verbal/fisiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 10(1): e0115758, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25607540

RESUMO

Spatial terms such as "above", "in front of", and "on the left of" are all essential for describing the location of one object relative to another object in everyday communication. Apprehending such spatial relations involves relating linguistic to object representations by means of attention. This requires at least one attentional shift, and models such as the Attentional Vector Sum (AVS) predict the direction of that attention shift, from the sausage to the box for spatial utterances such as "The box is above the sausage". To the extent that this prediction generalizes to overt gaze shifts, a listener's visual attention should shift from the sausage to the box. However, listeners tend to rapidly look at referents in their order of mention and even anticipate them based on linguistic cues, a behavior that predicts a converse attentional shift from the box to the sausage. Four eye-tracking experiments assessed the role of overt attention in spatial language comprehension by examining to which extent visual attention is guided by words in the utterance and to which extent it also shifts "against the grain" of the unfolding sentence. The outcome suggests that comprehenders' visual attention is predominantly guided by their interpretation of the spatial description. Visual shifts against the grain occurred only when comprehenders had some extra time, and their absence did not affect comprehension accuracy. However, the timing of this reverse gaze shift on a trial correlated with that trial's verification time. Thus, while the timing of these gaze shifts is subtly related to the verification time, their presence is not necessary for successful verification of spatial relations.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Idioma , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos
9.
Cogn Sci ; 37(8): 1471-92, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23676080

RESUMO

Typical spatial descriptions, such as "The car is in front of the house," describe the position of a located object (LO; e.g., the car) in space relative to a reference object (RO) whose location is known (e.g., the house). The orientation of the RO affects spatial language comprehension via the reference frame selection process. However, the effects of the LO's orientation on spatial language have not received great attention. This study explores whether the pure geometric information of the LO (e.g., its orientation) affects spatial language comprehension using placing and production tasks. Our results suggest that the orientation of the LO influences spatial language comprehension even in the absence of functional relationships.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Idioma , Orientação/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 139(1): 244-53, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22019058

RESUMO

We investigated whether two basic forms of deductive inference, Modus Ponens and Disjunctive Syllogism, occur automatically and without awareness. In Experiment 1, we used a priming paradigm with a set of conditional and disjunctive problems. For each trial, two premises were shown. The second premise was presented at a rate designed to be undetectable. After each problem, participants had to evaluate whether a newly-presented target number was odd or even. The target number matched or did not match a conclusion endorsed by the two previous premises. We found that when the target matched the conclusion of a Modus Ponens inference, the evaluation of the target number was reliably faster than baseline even when participants reported that they were not aware of the second premise. This priming effect did not occur for any other valid or invalid inference that we tested, including the Disjunctive Syllogism. In Experiment 2, we used a forced-choice paradigm in which we found that some participants were able to access some information on the second premise when their attention was explicitly directed to it. In Experiment 3, we showed that the priming effect for Modus Ponens was present also in subjects who could not access any information about P(2). In Experiment 4 we explored whether spatial relations (e.g., "a before b") or sentences with quantifiers (e.g., "all a with b") could generate a priming effect similar to the one observed for Modus Ponens. A priming effect could be found for Modus Ponens only, but not for the other relations tested. These findings show that the Modus Ponens inference, in contrast to other deductive inferences, can be carried out automatically and unconsciously. Furthermore, our findings suggest that critical deductive inference schemata can be included in the range of high-level cognitive activities that are carried out unconsciously.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Conscientização/fisiologia , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos
11.
ImplantNews ; 9(1): 105-110, 2012. ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: lil-642670

RESUMO

A evolução da Implantodontia e a validação da Osseointegração já não deixam dúvidas quanto ao sucesso das cirurgias de instalação de implantes. Com isso, houve mudança nas preocupações pós-cirúrgicas. Dentre elas, pode-se citar a parestesia, que é definida como sendo um dos distúrbios que acomete os pacientes e que pode ser um transtorno para os mesmos depois de cirurgias implantológicas. Bom planejamento cirúrgico e cuidados operatórios devem ser rigorosamente seguidos, porém, nem sempre o dano ao nervo consegue ser evitado. Para melhorar o prognóstico desses pacientes, a Fisioterapia entra com um papel importante na avaliação e no tratamento das parestesias. Neste artigo, apresenta-se o caso de um paciente com parestesia pós-instalação de implante dentário que, após algumas sessões fisioterápicas, teve restituída sua sensibilidade


The evolution of implant and validation of osseointegration leave no doubts about the success of implant surgeries. Thus, there are changes in post-surgical concerns. Among them, paresthesia can be quoted, which is defined as a disorder that affects patients and can be a hassle for them after implant surgery. A good surgical planning and care must be strictly followed, but not always nerve damage can be avoided. In order to improve one´s patient prognosis, physiotherapy comes with an important role in the evaluation and treatment of paresthesia. Here, a case is presented were paresthesia was seen after dental implant placement, after some physical therapy sessions, restored his sensitivity


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Implantes Dentários , Parestesia , Fisioterapia
12.
J Gen Psychol ; 135(3): 252-70, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18649492

RESUMO

The authors explored the information search strategies of 145 individuals in the predecisional stage. Decision-making participants selected pieces of information from a list including relevant and irrelevant data. The authors investigated the influence of the individual's knowledge and information source. In Experiment 1, the authors experimentally manipulated the information source reliability. The results revealed that participants tended to use a sequential strategy when the authors presented information as supplied by a reliable source. In Experiment 2, the authors analyzed the interaction between information source and the individuals' knowledge. When participants believed the source to be reliable, even knowledgeable participants adopted a strategy as sequential as that chosen by naive individuals. In Experiment 3, a mediational model corroborated the hypothesis that the search strategy affects the final judgment. The results were consistent with the constructivist framework, which emphasizes the role of individual, task, and context in the decision-making process.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Teoria da Informação , Julgamento , Conhecimento , Processos Mentais , Adulto , Afeto , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Paladar , Vinho
13.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 59(3): 597-624, 2006 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16627358

RESUMO

The aims of this paper are (a) to gather support for the hypothesis that some basic mechanisms of attentional deployment (i.e., its high efficiency in dealing with expected and unexpected inputs) meet the requirements of the inferential system and have possibly evolved to support its functioning, and (b) to show that these orienting mechanisms function in very similar ways in two perceptual tasks and in a symbolic task. The general hypothesis and its predictions are sketched in the Introduction, after a discussion of current findings concerning visual attention and the generalities of the inferential system. In the empirical section, three experiments are presented where participants tracked visual trajectories (Experiments 1 and 3) or arithmetic series (Experiments 2 and 3), responding to the onset of a target event (e.g., to a specific number) and to the repetition of an event (e.g., to a number appearing twice consecutively). Target events could be anticipated when they were embedded in regular series/trajectories; they could be anticipated, with the anticipation later disconfirmed, when a regular series/trajectory was abruptly interrupted before the target event occurred; and they could not be anticipated when the series/trajectory was random. Repeated events could not be anticipated. Results show a very similar pattern of allocation in tracking visual trajectories and arithmetic series: Attention is focused on anticipated events; it is defocused and redistributed when an anticipation is not confirmed by ensuing events; however, performance decreases when dealing with random series/trajectory--that is, in the absence of anticipations. In our view, this is due to the fact that confirmed and disconfirmed anticipations are crucial events for "knowledge revision"--that is, the fine tuning of the inferential system to the environment; attentional mechanisms have developed so as to enhance detection of these events, possibly at all levels of inferential processing.


Assuntos
Atenção , Conscientização , Simbolismo , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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