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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(5): 2635-2646, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30695634

RESUMO

Biochar has been proposed as a soil amendment in agricultural applications due to its advantageous adsorptive properties, high porosity, and low cost. These properties allow biochar to retain soil nutrients, yet the effects of biochar on bacterial growth remain poorly understood. To examine how biochar influences microbial metabolism, Escherichia coli was grown in a complex, well-defined media and treated with either biochar or activated carbon. The concentration of metabolites in the media were then quantified at several time points using NMR spectroscopy. Several metabolites were immediately adsorbed by the char, including l-asparagine, l-glutamine, and l-arginine. However, we find that biochar quantitatively adsorbs less of these metabolic precursors when compared to activated carbon. Electron microscopy reveals differences in surface morphology after cell culture, suggesting that Escherichia coli can form biofilms on the surfaces of the biochar. An examination of significant compounds in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis reveals that treatment with biochar is less disruptive than activated carbon throughout metabolism. While both biochar and activated carbon slowed growth compared to untreated media, Escherichia coli in biochar-treated media grew more efficiently, as indicated by a longer logarithmic growth phase and a higher final cell density. This work suggests that biochar can serve as a beneficial soil amendment while minimizing the impact on bacterial viability. In addition, the experiments identify a mechanism for biochar's effectiveness in soil conditioning and reveal how biochar can alter specific bacterial metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Metabolômica , Carvão Vegetal , Solo
2.
RSC Adv ; 9(31): 17612-17622, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35520596

RESUMO

Tea-waste is an abundant feedstock for producing biochar (BC) which is considered to be a cost effective carbonaceous adsorbent useful for water remediation and soil amendment purposes. In the present study, tea-waste BC (TWBC) produced at three different temperatures were subjected to nitric, sulfuric and hydrochloric acid modifications (abbreviated as NM, SM and HM respectively). Characteristics of the raw and modified BC such as ultimate and proximate analyses, surface morphology, surface acidity and functionality, point of zero charge, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and thermal stability were compared to evaluate the influence of pyrolysis temperature and of modifications incorporated. The amount of carboxylic and phenolic surface functionalities on TWBC was seen to decrease by 93.44% and 81.06% respectively when the pyrolysis temperature was increased from 300 to 700 °C. Additionally, the yield of BC was seen to decrease by 46% upon the latter temperature increment. The elemental analysis results provided justification for high-temperature BC being more hydrophobic as was observed by the 61% increase in H/C ratio which is an indication of augmented aromatization. The CEC was the highest for the low-temperature BC and was seen to further increase by NM which is attributed to the 81.89% increase in carboxylic functionalities. The surface area was seen to significantly increase for BC700 upon NM (∼27 times). The SM led to pore wall destruction which was observed in scanning electron microscopy images. Findings would enable the rational use of these particular modifications in relevant remediation and soil amendment applications.

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