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1.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 161: 13-26, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450313

RESUMO

Trauma exposure is prevalent, associated with multiple forms of psychopathology, and thought to alter the neurobiological substrates of threat processing. The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related potential (ERP) that may be a clinically useful probe of the neurobiology of threat processing. Despite evidence that combat-exposed veterans exhibit aberrant threat modulation of the LPP, no studies to date have tested the psychometric properties of the LPP in combat trauma-exposed, symptomatic veterans. The primary aim of the current study was to evaluate the reliability (internal consistency, retest reliability) and convergent validity of LPP modulation by threatening faces and scenes in two common tasks among combat-exposed veterans. Participants included 82 combat-exposed veterans who completed face-matching and emotion regulation tasks during EEG recording at baseline and twelve weeks. Internal consistencies of the early LPP time windows (<1000 ms) were acceptable in both tasks, whereas they were poor in late time windows (>1000 ms). Twelve-week retest reliabilities were fair for the early window LPPs to threatening scenes and fear faces, as well as in the late time window for fear faces. Reliabilities were better for individual condition compared to difference scores. Finally, LPPs modulated by threatening scenes and faces were unrelated. Together, these results suggest that the LPPs to threatening scenes and faces reflect distinct forms of threat processing in combat-exposed veterans, and their reliabilities for the early window indicate potential clinical utility in this population.

2.
Addict Behav ; 113: 106669, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035810

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Disruptions in neural measures of reward responsiveness are implicated in risk for and the development of Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) in general, but it is not clear if this is also true for Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD). To date, no studies have examined neural reward responsiveness in cannabis users using EEG. METHODS: Cannabis users (CU; n = 67) and non-users (n = 60) were drawn from larger studies of individuals with and without internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Groups were matched on current and lifetime psychopathology. Participants completed a validated monetary reward task during electroencephalogram (EEG). One-way between subject analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models examined group differences in four EEG indicators of reward responsiveness - the reward positivity (RewP) and feedback negativity (FN) event-related potentials and two time-frequency measures (reward-related delta and loss-related theta). RESULTS: CU demonstrated an enhanced RewP to the attainment of monetary reward compared to non-users (p = .004), even after controlling for relevant covariates. Secondary analyses found that occasional CU, but not current CUD or remitted CUD, showed enhanced RewP compared to non-users. There were no significant differences in FN, reward-related delta, or loss-related theta time-frequency measures between groups. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to show preliminary evidence that CU have an enhanced RewP to reward and the extent of disruption may be related to CUD status. Our findings suggest that greater neural reward responsiveness may only be seen among occasional CU, not necessarily among CU with current or remitted CUD.

3.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown variance in brain response to emotional faces predicts cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) outcome. An important next step is to determine if individual differences in neural predictors of CBT response represent distinct patient groups. METHODS: In total, 90 patients with internalizing disorders completed a face-matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after 12 weeks of CBT and 45 healthy controls completed the task before and after 12 weeks. Patients exhibiting a pre-to-post CBT >50% reduction in symptom severity on two measures were considered treatment responders. Regions of interest (ROIs) for angry, fearful, and happy faces were submitted to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Significant ROIs were then submitted to decision tree analysis to classify responder/non-responder subgroups. Psychophysiological interactions (PPI) were used to explore functional connectivity in the region(s) that delineated subgroups. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were treatment responders and ROC curve results were significant for all face types though specific regions varied. Decision tree results revealed superior occipital response to angry faces identified patient subgroups such that the subgroup with 'high' occipital activity had more responders than the 'low' occipital subgroup. Following CBT, the high, relative to low, occipital subgroup was less symptomatic. Controls exhibited stable superior occipital activation over time. Whole-brain PPI showed reduced baseline superior occipital-postcentral gyrus functional connectivity in responders compared to non-responders. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings indicate patients characterized by relatively more pre-treatment superior occipital gyrus engagement to angry faces and reduced superior occipital-postcentral gyrus connectivity, relative to non-responders, may represent a phenotype likely to benefit from CBT.

4.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e16802, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent depression carries a high burden of disease worldwide, but access to care for this population is limited. Prevention is one solution to curtail the negative consequences of adolescent depression. Internet interventions to prevent adolescent depression can overcome barriers to access, but few studies examine long-term outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study compares CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training), an internet-based intervention, to a general health education active control for depression onset at 12 and 24 months in adolescents presenting to primary care settings. METHODS: A 2-site randomized trial, blinded to the principal investigators and assessors, was conducted comparing Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training to health education to prevent depressive episodes in 369 adolescents (193 youths were randomly assigned to Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training and 176 to health education) with subthreshold depressive symptoms or prior depressive episodes. Participants were recruited from primary care settings in the United States. The primary outcome was the occurrence of a depressive episode, determined by the Depression Symptom Rating. The secondary outcome was functioning, measured by the Global Assessment Scale. RESULTS: In intention-to-treat analyses, the adjusted hazard ratio favoring Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training for first depressive episode was not statistically significant at 12 months (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.42-1.40, P=.39) and 24 months (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.52-1.47, P=.61). Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training provided preventive benefit for first depressive episode for those with mild hopelessness or at least moderate paternal monitoring at baseline. Global Assessment Scale scores improved comparably in both groups (intention-to-treat). CONCLUSIONS: A technology-based intervention for adolescent depression prevention implemented in primary care did not have additional benefit at 12 or 24 months. Further research is necessary to determine whether internet interventions have long-term benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01893749; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01893749.

5.
Depress Anxiety ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety is associated with aberrant patterns of cortical thickness in regions implicated in emotion regulation. However, few studies have examined cortical thickness differences between individuals with anxiety and healthy controls (HCs) across development, particularly during childhood when cortical thinning begins and anxiety risk increases. A better understanding of age-related changes in cortical thickness patterns among anxious individuals is essential to develop plausible targets for early identification. METHODS: The current study examined how age impacted differences in cortical thickness patterns between HCs and anxious individuals. Participants included 233 individuals (ages 7-35) with a current anxiety disorder (n = 149) or no lifetime history of psychopathology (n = 84). Cortical thickness of regions that are implicated in emotion regulation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex [vmPFC], rostral anterior cingulate [rACC], and insula) were assessed. RESULTS: All regions showed significant thinning with age, except left rACC and right insula. However, rates of thinning differed among anxious and HC participants, with anxious participants demonstrating slower rates of right vmPFC thinning. Regions of significance analyses indicated that anxious, relative to HC, participants exhibited thinner right vmPFC before age 11, but thicker right vmPFC after age 24. CONCLUSIONS: Current findings suggest that anxious individuals do not demonstrate normative right vmPFC cortical thinning, which may lead them to exhibit both thinner vmPFC in middle childhood and thicker vmPFC in adulthood compared with HCs. These findings may provide plausible targets for identification of anxiety risk that differ based on developmental stage.

6.
Dev Psychobiol ; 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743851

RESUMO

The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential that reflects error monitoring. Enhanced ERN indicates sensitivity to performance errors and is a correlate of anxiety disorders. In contrast, youth with externalizing problems exhibit a reduced ERN, suggesting decreased error monitoring. Anxiety and externalizing problems commonly co-occur in youth, but no studies have tested how comorbidity might modulate the ERN. In a sample of youth (N = 46, ages 7-19) with and without anxiety disorders, this preliminary study examined the interactive effect of anxiety and externalizing problems on ERN. Results suggest that externalizing problems moderate the relation between anxiety symptoms and ERN in youth. Anxious youth with less externalizing problems exhibited enhanced ERN response to errors. Conversely, anxious youth with greater externalizing problems demonstrated diminished ERN in response to errors. The regions of significance and proportion affected tests indicated that the moderating the effect of externalizing problems was only significant for youth with anxiety disorders. Findings suggest that enhanced neural error sensitivity could be a specific neurophysiological marker for anxiety disorders, whereas anxious individuals with comorbid externalizing problems demonstrate reduced error monitoring, similar to those with primary externalizing pathology. Results underscore the utility of examining neural correlates of pediatric anxiety comorbidity subtypes.

7.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596977

RESUMO

The ENIGMA group on Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ENIGMA-Anxiety/GAD) is part of a broader effort to investigate anxiety disorders using imaging and genetic data across multiple sites worldwide. The group is actively conducting a mega-analysis of a large number of brain structural scans. In this process, the group was confronted with many methodological challenges related to study planning and implementation, between-country transfer of subject-level data, quality control of a considerable amount of imaging data, and choices related to statistical methods and efficient use of resources. This report summarizes the background information and rationale for the various methodological decisions, as well as the approach taken to implement them. The goal is to document the approach and help guide other research groups working with large brain imaging data sets as they develop their own analytic pipelines for mega-analyses.

8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 128: 83-89, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544774

RESUMO

Structural differences in the amygdala (AMG) are implicated in anxiety and observed among individuals with generalized (GAD) and social anxiety (SAD) disorders. Findings have been mixed, perhaps because studies rarely examine differences between GAD and SAD, test comorbidity, or examine age-related differences. We tested AMG volume differences among a sample of adults and youth with/without SAD and GAD. Participants (N = 242; ages 7-60 years) completed an MRI scan, diagnostic interviews, and anxiety symptom measures. Groups were formed from diagnostic interviews: 1) Typically developing (TD; n = 91); 2) GAD (n = 53); 3) SAD (n = 35); and 4) comorbid SAD/GAD (n = 63). We used analysis of covariance with a bonferroni correction to examine group differences in AMG volume. The SAD and comorbid SAD/GAD groups exhibited increased bilateral AMG volume compared to the TD group. GAD and TD groups did not differ from each other in AMG size. The SAD, but not the comorbid SAD/GAD group, displayed greater right AMG size relative to the GAD group. SAD and comorbid SAD/GAD groups did not differ from the GAD group in left AMG volume. SAD and SAD/GAD groups did not exhibit different bilateral AMG size. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that greater social anxiety but not generalized anxiety symptom severity was associated with enlarged AMG volume. Age was not associated with AMG volume and nor did age moderate any group or symptom effects. Future longitudinal studies should examine whether larger AMG volume is a unique biomarker for SAD across the lifespan.

9.
Psychophysiology ; 57(1): e13423, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228269

RESUMO

Combat-related post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are prevalent among recently deployed veterans, making identification of biomarkers of PTSS in this population a public health priority. Given the link between threat processing neurobiology and PTSS, the threat-related late positive potential (LPP), an ERP reflective of attentional processing sensitive to emotion and its regulation, may have utility as a cost-effective biomarker. Existing PTSS/threat-related LPP findings are mixed, possibly due to variability in PTSS across samples, but this has never been explicitly tested. To address this gap, LPP amplitudes to angry, fearful, and happy emotional face stimuli were recorded among 81 combat-exposed veterans at a VA hospital. A quadratic relationship between self-reported PTSS and LPP amplitude modulation by angry faces emerged such that greater PTSS was related to a decreased LPP response to angry faces among veterans with subthreshold PTSD and an enhanced LPP response to angry faces among veterans with probable PTSD. These results suggest that prior mixed findings may be due to variability in PTSS severity. In addition, exploratory moderation analysis revealed that PTSS was positively associated with late LPP modulation for veterans reporting low cognitive reappraisal use and negatively associated with late LPP modulation for veterans reporting high cognitive reappraisal use. All results were specific to the 1,000-3,000 ms LPP time window. Thus, the functional nature of LPP modulation by direct threat cues may depend upon PTSS severity and/or related variables (e.g., cognitive reappraisal utilization).

10.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(3): 561-569, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756730

RESUMO

Structural variations of neural regions implicated in fear responses have been well documented in the pathophysiology of anxiety and may play an important role in treatment response. We examined whether gray matter volume of three neural regions supporting fear and avoidance responses [bilateral amygdala, nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC)] predicted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment outcome in two independent samples of patients with anxiety disorders. Study 1 consisted of 81 adults with anxiety disorders and Study 2 included 55 children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. In both studies, patients completed baseline structural MRI scans and received either CBT or SSRI treatment. Clinician-rated interviews of anxiety symptoms were assessed at baseline and posttreatment. Among the adult sample, greater pre-treatment bilateral NAcc volume was associated with a greater reduction in clinician-rated anxiety symptoms pre-to-post CBT and SSRI treatment. Greater left NAcc volume also predicted greater decreases in clinician-rated anxiety symptoms pre-to-post CBT and SSRI treatment among youth with current anxiety. Across studies, results were similar across treatments, and findings were maintained when adjusting for patient's age, sex, and total intracranial brain volume. We found no evidence for baseline amygdala or ventromedial PFC volume serving as treatment predictors across the two samples. Together, these findings provide promising support for the role of NAcc volume as an objective marker of anxiety treatment improvement that spans across development. Future studies should clarify the specific mechanisms through which NAcc volume exerts its therapeutic effects.

11.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 188: 104676, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499457

RESUMO

Although biases in the processing of affectively salient stimuli are thought to increase risk for psychopathology across the lifespan, questions remain regarding how these biases develop. The current study tested an aversive conditioning model for the development of children's sensitivity in detecting fearful faces at varying levels of emotional intensity and their facilitated attention to fearful faces assessed via the late positive potential (LPP) event-related potential component. Participants (N = 144, ages 7-11 years) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: an active training condition in which an 85-dB white noise burst was paired with fearful faces, an active control condition in which the white noise was presented randomly throughout the task, and a no-sound condition. Children completed a separate task in which they viewed happy, sad, and fearful child faces at varying levels of emotional intensity while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. Although there were no conditioning group differences in children's sensitivity in detecting facial displays of emotion, there were group differences in LPP magnitude that were moderated by children's age. Among younger children, those in the active conditioning group exhibited smaller LPP amplitudes to high-intensity fearful faces than children in the control groups. However, among older youth, those in the active conditioning group exhibited larger LPP amplitudes to high-intensity fearful faces than children in the control groups. These findings provide insight into how attentional biases may develop in children and how period of development may influence these patterns.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Medo/fisiologia , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; : 1-11, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454265

RESUMO

Maternal depression increases the risk for offspring cognitive vulnerabilities, which may be a mechanism underlying the intergenerational transmission of depression. Little is known about how cognitive vulnerabilities, particularly memory biases, develop in the offspring of depressed mothers. Understanding the etiology of memory biases may lead to novel intervention targets. Therefore, the current study examined the prospective impact of maternal depression on the development of offspring overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM; i.e., the tendency to recall less specific memories), a cognitive vulnerability implicated in the intergenerational transmission of depression. Participants were offspring (ages 8-14; 51% daughters, 81% Caucasian) of mothers with (n= 129) or without (n= 122) a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) during the offspring's life. Mothers and offspring completed assessments every 6 months for 2 years. Compared to offspring of never-depressed mothers, offspring of mothers with a history of MDD recalled less specific memories in response to negative, but not positive, cue words at the initial assessment, and this bias was maintained across the 2-year follow-up. For offspring of depressed, but not never-depressed, mothers, higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms at a given assessment predicted prospective decreases in the children's autobiographical memory specificity. Again, this finding was specific to negative, but not positive, cue words. These results suggest that maternal depression has both short- and long-term effects on the development of offspring OGM to negative cues, which may represent a malleable cognitive vulnerability for the intergenerational transmission of MDD that could be targeted for intervention.

13.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 29(5): 378-385, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062997

RESUMO

Objectives: Reduced reward responsiveness, as measured by the event-related potential (ERP) component, the reward positivity (RewP), has been shown to play a role in the development of internalizing disorders, but implications for treatment remain unclear. In adult patients with anxiety and/or depression, reduced RewP has emerged as a predictor of greater change in symptoms following cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. The objectives of this preliminary study were to extend these findings to children and adolescents with anxiety disorders by evaluating RewP to reward as a predictor of change in anxiety severity or depressive symptoms following treatment with CBT or SSRI and to explore whether RewP differentially predicts response to one type of treatment. Methods: Patients (7-19 years old) with social and/or generalized anxiety disorder (N = 27) completed baseline measures of anxiety severity and depressive symptoms, as well as an ERP monetary reward anticipation and feedback task. RewP was measured in response to reward and breaking even feedback. Patients were then randomly assigned to CBT or SSRI treatment, and completed measures of anxiety and depressive symptom severity at the last treatment session. Results: Reduced reward responsiveness, as measured by RewP to rewards, predicted greater change in depressive symptoms following treatment, adjusting for baseline symptoms, age, and RewP to breaking even. RewP was not a significant predictor of change in anxiety symptoms. Although preliminary, exploratory analyses suggested that among anxious youth, RewP specifically predicted change in depressive symptoms following CBT, rather than SSRI. Conclusion: Results provide preliminary support for the utility of ERP measures of reward responsiveness in predicting treatment response in youth. With further research and standardization, ERP assessments could potentially be implemented in clinical settings to inform prognosis and treatment planning for youth with internalizing disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Eletroencefalografia/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico
14.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(4): 284-294, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045411

RESUMO

Maternal history of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) dramatically increases children's risk for developing depression, highlighting the critical need for further research on the specific processes involved in the intergenerational transmission of depression. Although previous research suggests that maternal depression may adversely affect the quality of mother-child interactions, less is known about the role of maternal MDD in the moment-to-moment changes in affect that occur during these interactions. The goal of this project, therefore, was to examine synchrony of facial displays of affect during a positive (Vacation Planning) and a negative (Issues Discussion) mother-child interaction, and how this synchrony may be impacted by maternal history of MDD. In doing so, we examined both concurrent and lagged synchrony of facial affect. We recruited 341 mother-child dyads (child average age = 9.30 years; 50.1% girls; 71.6% Caucasian) with and without a maternal history of MDD. Facial electromyography (EMG), continuously recorded during those tasks, was used to index mother and child facial affect. We found that a maternal history of MDD was associated with reduced concurrent synchrony and lagged synchrony (mother facial affect predicting changes in child facial affect) of positive affect during Vacation Planning. Reduced concurrent mother-child synchrony of positive affect during the discussion was also associated with an increase in child self-reported sad affect from before to after the discussion. These findings provide promising initial evidence for how the dynamic exchange of positive affect during mother-child interactions may be disrupted in families with maternal MDD history. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Correlação de Dados , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Eletromiografia , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
15.
Biol Psychol ; 142: 126-131, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742843

RESUMO

Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) report less habitual reappraisal and more frequent suppression compared to healthy controls (HC). However, it is unclear whether a neurophysiological index of emotional reactivity, the late positive potential (LPP), is aberrant in SAD or whether self-reported reappraisal or suppression relates to the LPP during on-line emotion reactivity and reappraisal. Participants with SAD (n = 51) and HC (n = 31) completed an Emotion Regulation Task. Emotion reactivity and regulation were measured via LPP when viewing negative images ('Look Negative') and when using a cognitive strategy to reduce negative affect ('Reappraise Negative'). Participants also completed a self-report measure of habitual reappraisal and suppression. SAD participants displayed heightened LPP for 'Look Negative' compared to HC. However, LPP for online reappraisal was comparable between groups. Self-reported suppression predicted the LPP during 'Look Negative' in HC, and there was a trend-level relationship in SAD. LPP findings suggest targeted reappraisal approaches may benefit individuals with SAD.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Neurológico , Emoções/fisiologia , Fobia Social/psicologia , Autoavaliação , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fobia Social/fisiopatologia , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(2): 184-197, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Screening protocols that rely on a single informant are inadequate in predicting pediatric depression. Multi-informant and risk factor screening approaches are potentially more sensitive methods for identifying depression risk, but the incremental validity of these protocols has not been adequately tested. Using a translational analytic approach and multimethod, longitudinal study design, we simultaneously tested several multi-indicator approaches to depression screening to identify an optimal algorithm for predicting depression onset in youth. METHOD: Participants were 222 never-depressed children and adolescents (Mage = 10.75 years old, SDage = 1.85; female = 50.45%; 82.88% White), who completed baseline questionnaires for depressive symptoms and cognitive vulnerabilities, in addition to a morphed face task to assess pupil dilation. Mothers, meanwhile, completed baseline questionnaires and a semistructured interview to assess maternal and pediatric depression. Follow-up depression diagnostic assessments with both the mother and youth occurred every 6 months for 2 years. Receiver operating characteristics and reclassification analyses were used to test our aims. RESULTS: Overall, we found moderate support for a multi-informant approach, and convincing evidence that individual differences in pupil dilation uniquely predicted depression onset. Youth with subthreshold depressive symptoms and elevated pupil dilation were over twice as likely to develop a first lifetime episode of depression compared to one's risk rate based on sex and age. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides one of the first screening batteries for detecting first lifetime episodes of depression in youth. The unique and incremental validity provided by pupil dilation suggests feasible biological indicators of depression risk can improve primary prevention efforts that target depression, such as universal pediatric depression screening. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Depressão/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães
17.
Dev Psychobiol ; 61(1): 69-80, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043447

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders are associated with enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) across development but it remains unclear whether alterations in brain electrophysiology are linked to the timing of puberty. Pubertal timing and alterations of prefrontal and limbic development are implicated in risk for depression, but the interplay of these factors on the ERN-anxiety association has not been assessed. We examined the unique and interactive effects of pubertal timing and depression on the ERN in a sample of youth 10-19 years old with anxiety disorders (n = 30) or no history of psychopathology (n = 30). Earlier pubertal maturation was associated with an enhanced ERN. Among early, but not late maturing youth, higher depressive symptoms were associated with a reduced ERN. The magnitude of neural reactivity to errors is sensitive to anxiety, depression, and development. Early physical maturation and anxiety may heighten neural sensitivity to errors yet predict opposing effects in the context of depression.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Puberdade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(2): 141-152, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three well-established intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) involved in cognitive-affective processing include the cognitive control network (CCN), default mode network (DMN), and salience and emotional network (SEN). Despite recent advances in understanding developmental changes in these ICNs, the majority of research has focused on single seeds or networks in isolation with limited age ranges. Additionally, although internalizing psychopathologies (IPs), such as anxiety and depression, are often characterized by maladaptive cognitive-affective processing styles, it is not clear how IP history influences age-related changes in brain networks. METHOD: The current study aimed to characterize the normative development of the CCN, DMN, and SEN across a large age-span (7-29 year olds) of typically developing (TD) individuals (n = 97). We also explore how age may impact differences in network connectivity between TD individuals and patients with IPs (n = 136). RESULTS: Among TD individuals, DMN and CCN connectivity strengthened with age, whereas connectivity between the SEN and ventromedial prefrontal cortex weakened across development. When exploring group (IP vs. TD) differences, the IP group was characterized by greater connectivity between the CCN and cerebellum and between the SEN and caudate from childhood to early adulthood, relative to TD individuals. In addition, patients with IPs, versus TD individuals, exhibited reduced connectivity between the SEN and medial frontal gyrus from adolescence to adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings shed light on differential age-related changes in brain network patterns among psychiatrically free, TD individuals and those with internalizing disorders, and may provide plausible targets for novel mechanism-based treatments that differ based on developmental stage.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Descanso/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Ansiedade/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cerebelo/patologia , Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Cognição , Depressão/patologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vias Neurais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vias Neurais/patologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Neurosci Lett ; 690: 17-22, 2019 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292719

RESUMO

Decreased reward responsiveness, as demonstrated utilizing the event-related potential (ERP) component the reward positivity (RewP), is an established correlate of internalizing psychopathologies (IPs), such as depressive and anxiety disorders. Although IPs are highly comorbid with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and despite evidence that AUDs are also characterized by aberrant reward processing styles, no studies have examined how AUD history impacts the RewP among adults with IPs. The current preliminary study sought to examine this question in a sample of 65 adults with 1) current IPs (i.e., depression, social anxiety, and/or generalized anxiety, 2) current IPs with a history of an AUD (IP + Past AUD), and 3) no history of a DSM-IV disorder. Participants completed a guessing reward task while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Results indicated that participants in the IP group exhibited a more attenuated RewP relative to IP + Past AUD and healthy control individuals. Findings from this study highlight the importance of examining diagnostic subgroups among adults with anxiety and depressive disorders, and suggest that a history of AUD may enhance reward reactivity at the neural level in individuals with IPs.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Recompensa , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychol Med ; 49(13): 2267-2278, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-life adversity (ELA) is a risk factor for internalizing psychopathology (IP). ELA is also linked to alterations in neural phenotypes of emotion processing and maladaptive emotion regulatory strategies, such as ruminative brooding, in adulthood. We therefore expected that ELA would predict cortical brain activation to emotional faces in transdiagnostic IP and in turn, mediate the extent of rumination amongst patients with IPs and ELA (IP + ELA). METHOD: One hundred and thirty-two individuals, including 102 treatment-seeking adults with heterogeneous IPs and 30 healthy controls (HCs) performed an Emotional Face-Matching Task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Whole-brain analyses compared HC (n = 30), IP (n = 52), and IP + ELA (n = 50) neural responses to emotional (angry, fearful, happy, and sad) faces v. shapes, controlling for depression and anxiety symptoms. Parameter estimates of activation were extracted for significant between-group differences and tested as a mediator of ruminative brooding in IP + ELA. RESULTS: IP + ELA demonstrated increased activation in the superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (fear), superior parietal lobule, precuneus, posterior cingulate, and inferior temporal gyrus (fear only), and cuneus (fear and angry). These regions were preferentially correlated with ruminative brooding in IP + ELA, many of which mediated the link between IP + ELA and ruminative brooding. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence that ELA history amongst IP patients augments engagement of brain regions involved in emotion processing, above and beyond what is accounted for by current symptoms. Though longitudinal designs are needed, alterations in the neural correlates of maladaptive processing of socio-emotional information may be a common pathway by which ELA poses risk for psychopathology.


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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