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BMC Bioinformatics ; 12 Suppl 1: S14, 2011 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21342543


BACKGROUND: The gene duplication (GD) problem seeks a species tree that implies the fewest gene duplication events across a given collection of gene trees. Solving this problem makes it possible to use large gene families with complex histories of duplication and loss to infer phylogenetic trees. However, the GD problem is NP-hard, and therefore, most analyses use heuristics that lack any performance guarantee. RESULTS: We describe the first integer linear programming (ILP) formulation to solve instances of the gene duplication problem exactly. With simulations, we demonstrate that the ILP solution can solve problem instances with up to 14 taxa. Furthermore, we apply the new ILP solution to solve the gene duplication problem for the seed plant phylogeny using a 12-taxon, 6,084-gene data set. The unique, optimal solution, which places Gnetales sister to the conifers, represents a new, large-scale genomic perspective on one of the most puzzling questions in plant systematics. CONCLUSIONS: Although the GD problem is NP-hard, our novel ILP solution for it can solve instances with data sets consisting of as many as 14 taxa and 1,000 genes in a few hours. These are the largest instances that have been solved to optimally to date. Thus, this work can provide large-scale genomic perspectives on phylogenetic questions that previously could only be addressed by heuristic estimates.

Duplicação Gênica , Filogenia , Plantas/genética , Programação Linear , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Genoma de Planta , Genômica/métodos
BMC Bioinformatics ; 12 Suppl 1: S15, 2011 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21342544


BACKGROUND: The abundance of new genomic data provides the opportunity to map the location of gene duplication and loss events on a species phylogeny. The first methods for mapping gene duplications and losses were based on a parsimony criterion, finding the mapping that minimizes the number of duplication and loss events. Probabilistic modeling of gene duplication and loss is relatively new and has largely focused on birth-death processes. RESULTS: We introduce a new maximum likelihood model that estimates the speciation and gene duplication and loss events in a gene tree within a species tree with branch lengths. We also provide an, in practice, efficient algorithm that computes optimal evolutionary scenarios for this model. We implemented the algorithm in the program DrML and verified its performance with empirical and simulated data. CONCLUSIONS: In test data sets, DrML finds optimal gene duplication and loss scenarios within minutes, even when the gene trees contain sequences from several hundred species. In many cases, these optimal scenarios differ from the lca-mapping that results from a parsimony gene tree reconciliation. Thus, DrML provides a new, practical statistical framework on which to study gene duplication.

Algoritmos , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Funções Verossimilhança , Simulação por Computador , Especiação Genética , Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Filogenia , Software
Syst Biol ; 56(4): 623-32, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17654366


We describe two new methods to partition phylogenetic data sets of discrete characters based on pairwise compatibility. The partitioning methods make no assumptions regarding the phylogeny, model of evolution, or characteristics of the data. The methods first build a compatibility graph, in which each node represents a character in the data set. Edges in the compatibility graph may represent strict compatibility of characters or they may be weighted based on a fractional compatibility scoring procedure that measures how close the characters are to being compatible. Given the desired number of partitions, the partitioning methods then seek to cluster the characters with the highest average pairwise compatibility, so that characters in each cluster are more compatible with each other than they are with characters in the other cluster(s). Partitioning according to these criteria is computationally intractable (NP-hard); however, spectral methods can quickly provide high-quality solutions. We demonstrate that the spectral partitioning effectively identifies characters with different evolutionary histories in simulated data sets, and it is better at highlighting phylogenetic conflict within empirical data sets than previously used partitioning methods.

Simulação por Computador , Filogenia , Software