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1.
Genet Med ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257847

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine impact of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) on gynecological cancer incidence and death in heterozygotes of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants. METHODS: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database was used to investigate the effects of gynecological risk-reducing surgery (RRS) at different ages. RESULTS: Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 25 years of age prevents endometrial cancer before 50 years in 15%, 18%, 13%, and 0% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 heterozygotes and death in 2%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing BSO at 25 years of age prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 6%, 11%, 2%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 40 years prevents endometrial cancer by 50 years in 13%, 16%, 11%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. BSO at 40 years prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 4%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, and death in 1%, 1%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Little benefit is gained by performing RRS before 40 years of age and premenopausal BSO in path_MSH6 and path_PMS2 heterozygotes has no measurable benefit for mortality. These findings may aid decision making for women with LS who are considering RRS.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 383(11): 1028-1039, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of combination therapy with eflornithine and sulindac, as compared with either drug alone, in delaying disease progression in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis are unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the combination of eflornithine and sulindac, as compared with either drug alone, in adults with familial adenomatous polyposis. The patients were stratified on the basis of anatomical site with the highest polyp burden and surgical status; the strata were precolectomy (shortest projected time to disease progression), rectal or ileal pouch polyposis after colectomy (longest projected time), and duodenal polyposis (intermediate projected time). The patients were then randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 750 mg of eflornithine, 150 mg of sulindac, or both once daily for up to 48 months. The primary end point, assessed in a time-to-event analysis, was disease progression, defined as a composite of major surgery, endoscopic excision of advanced adenomas, diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia in the rectum or pouch, or progression of duodenal disease. RESULTS: A total of 171 patients underwent randomization. Disease progression occurred in 18 of 56 patients (32%) in the eflornithine-sulindac group, 22 of 58 (38%) in the sulindac group, and 23 of 57 (40%) in the eflornithine group, with a hazard ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 1.32) for eflornithine-sulindac as compared with sulindac (P = 0.29) and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.36 to 1.24) for eflornithine-sulindac as compared with eflornithine. Among 37 precolectomy patients, the corresponding values in the treatment groups were 2 of 12 patients (17%), 6 of 13 (46%), and 5 of 12 (42%) (hazard ratios, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.07 to 1.32] and 0.20 [95% CI, 0.03 to 1.32]); among 34 patients with rectal or ileal pouch polyposis, the values were 4 of 11 patients (36%), 2 of 11 (18%), and 5 of 12 (42%) (hazard ratios, 2.03 [95% CI, 0.43 to 9.62] and 0.84 [95% CI, 0.24 to 2.90]); and among 100 patients with duodenal polyposis, the values were 12 of 33 patients (36%), 14 of 34 (41%), and 13 of 33 (39%) (hazard ratios, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.34 to 1.52] and 0.76 [95% CI, 0.35 to 1.64]). Adverse and serious adverse events were similar across the treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, the incidence of disease progression was not significantly lower with the combination of eflornithine and sulindac than with either drug alone. (Funded by Cancer Prevention Pharmaceuticals; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01483144; EudraCT number, 2012-000427-41.).


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Eflornitina/uso terapêutico , Sulindaco/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Eflornitina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Sulindaco/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Genet Med ; 22(12): 2081-2088, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773772

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene pathogenic variants (PVs) cause constitutional MMR deficiency (CMMRD), a highly penetrant childhood cancer syndrome phenotypically overlapping with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). CMMRD testing in suspected NF1 children without NF1/SPRED1 PVs enables inclusion of CMMRD positives into monitoring programs prior to tumor onset. However, testing is associated with potential harms and the prevalence of CMMRD among these children is unknown. METHODS: Using a simple and scalable microsatellite instability (MSI) assay of non-neoplastic leukocyte DNA to detect CMMRD, we retrospectively screened >700 children suspected of sporadic NF1 but lacking NF1/SPRED1 PVs. RESULTS: For three of seven MSI-positive patients germline MMR gene PVs confirmed the diagnosis of CMMRD. Founder variants NM_000535.5(PMS2):c.736_741delinsTGTGTGTGAAG, prevalent in Europe and North America, and NM_000179.2(MSH6):c.10C>G, affecting 1:400 French Canadians, represented two of five PVs. The prevalence of CMMRD was 3/735 (0.41%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.08-1.19%). CONCLUSION: Our empirical data provide reliable numbers for genetic counseling and confirm previous prevalence estimations, on which Care for CMMRD consortium guidelines are based. These advocate CMMRD testing of preselected patients rather than offering reflex testing to all suspected sporadic NF1 children lacking NF1/SPRED1 PVs. The possibility of founder effects should be considered alongside these testing guidelines.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683684

RESUMO

Individuals with Lynch syndrome (LS), one of the most common inherited cancer syndromes, are at increased risk of developing malignancies, in particular colorectal cancer (CRC). Regular colonoscopy with polypectomy is recommended to reduce CRC risk in LS individuals. However, recent independent studies demonstrated that a substantial proportion of LS individuals develop CRC despite regular colonoscopy. The reasons for this surprising observation confirmed by large prospective studies are a matter of debate. In this review, we collect existing evidence from clinical, epidemiological and molecular studies and interpret them with regard to the origins and progression of LS-associated CRC. Alongside with hypotheses addressing colonoscopy quality and pace of progression from adenoma to cancer, we discuss the role of alternative precursors and immune system in LS-associated CRC. We also identify gaps in current knowledge and make suggestions for future studies aiming at improved CRC prevention for LS individuals.

7.
Lancet ; 395(10240): 1855-1863, 2020 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer and with a broader spectrum of cancers, especially endometrial cancer. In 2011, our group reported long-term cancer outcomes (mean follow-up 55·7 months [SD 31·4]) for participants with Lynch syndrome enrolled into a randomised trial of daily aspirin versus placebo. This report completes the planned 10-year follow-up to allow a longer-term assessment of the effect of taking regular aspirin in this high-risk population. METHODS: In the double-blind, randomised CAPP2 trial, 861 patients from 43 international centres worldwide (707 [82%] from Europe, 112 [13%] from Australasia, 38 [4%] from Africa, and four [<1%] from The Americas) with Lynch syndrome were randomly assigned to receive 600 mg aspirin daily or placebo. Cancer outcomes were monitored for at least 10 years from recruitment with English, Finnish, and Welsh participants being monitored for up to 20 years. The primary endpoint was development of colorectal cancer. Analysis was by intention to treat and per protocol. The trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN59521990. FINDINGS: Between January, 1999, and March, 2005, 937 eligible patients with Lynch syndrome, mean age 45 years, commenced treatment, of whom 861 agreed to be randomly assigned to the aspirin group or placebo; 427 (50%) participants received aspirin and 434 (50%) placebo. Participants were followed for a mean of 10 years approximating 8500 person-years. 40 (9%) of 427 participants who received aspirin developed colorectal cancer compared with 58 (13%) of 434 who received placebo. Intention-to-treat Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed a significantly reduced hazard ratio (HR) of 0·65 (95% CI 0·43-0·97; p=0·035) for aspirin versus placebo. Negative binomial regression to account for multiple primary events gave an incidence rate ratio of 0·58 (0·39-0·87; p=0·0085). Per-protocol analyses restricted to 509 who achieved 2 years' intervention gave an HR of 0·56 (0·34-0·91; p=0·019) and an incidence rate ratio of 0·50 (0·31-0·82; p=0·0057). Non-colorectal Lynch syndrome cancers were reported in 36 participants who received aspirin and 36 participants who received placebo. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses showed no effect. For all Lynch syndrome cancers combined, the intention-to-treat analysis did not reach significance but per-protocol analysis showed significantly reduced overall risk for the aspirin group (HR=0·63, 0·43-0·92; p=0·018). Adverse events during the intervention phase between aspirin and placebo groups were similar, and no significant difference in compliance between intervention groups was observed for participants with complete intervention phase data; details reported previously. INTERPRETATION: The case for prevention of colorectal cancer with aspirin in Lynch syndrome is supported by our results. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, European Union, MRC, NIHR, Bayer Pharma AG, Barbour Foundation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Método Duplo-Cego , Seguimentos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Tábuas de Vida , Adesão à Medicação , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
10.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 20(1): 8-20, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941726
11.
Genet Med ; 22(1): 15-25, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/economia , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penetrância , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
Hum Mutat ; 41(1): 332-341, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471937

RESUMO

Microsatellite instability (MSI) testing of colorectal cancers (CRCs) is used to screen for Lynch syndrome (LS), a hereditary cancer-predisposition, and can be used to predict response to immunotherapy. Here, we present a single-molecule molecular inversion probe and sequencing-based MSI assay and demonstrate its clinical validity according to existing guidelines. We amplified 24 microsatellites in multiplex and trained a classifier using 98 CRCs, which accommodates marker specific sensitivities to MSI. Sample classification achieved 100% concordance with the MSI Analysis System v1.2 (Promega) in three independent cohorts, totaling 220 CRCs. Backward-forward stepwise selection was used to identify a 6-marker subset of equal accuracy to the 24-marker panel. Assessment of assay detection limits showed that the 24-marker panel is marginally more robust to sample variables than the 6-marker subset, detecting as little as 3% high levels of MSI DNA in sample mixtures, and requiring a minimum of 10 template molecules to be sequenced per marker for >95% accuracy. BRAF c.1799 mutation analysis was also included to streamline LS testing, with all c.1799T>A variants being correctly identified. The assay, therefore, provides a cheap, robust, automatable, and scalable MSI test with internal quality controls, suitable for clinical cancer diagnostics.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636762

RESUMO

Background: We previously reported that in pathogenic mismatch repair (path_MMR) variant carriers, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) was not reduced when colonoscopy was undertaken more frequently than once every 3 years, and that CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated. Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) that records outcomes of surveillance was examined to determine survival after colon cancer in relation to the time since previous colonoscopy and pathological stage. Only path_MMR variants scored by the InSiGHT variant database as class 4 or 5 (clinically actionable) were included in the analysis. Results: Ninety-nine path_MMR carriers had no cancer prior to or at first colonoscopy, but subsequently developed colon cancer. Among these, 96 were 65 years of age or younger at diagnosis, and included 77 path_MLH1, 17 path_MSH2, and 2 path_MSH6 carriers. The number of cancers detected within < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 and at > 3.5 years after previous colonoscopy were 9, 43, 31 and 13, respectively. Of these, 2, 8, 4 and 3 were stage III, respectively, and only one stage IV (interval 2.5-3.5 years) disease. Ten-year crude survival after colon cancer were 93, 94 and 82% for stage I, II and III disease, respectively (p < 0.001). Ten-year crude survival when the last colonoscopy had been < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 or > 3.5 years before diagnosis, was 89, 90, 90 and 92%, respectively (p = 0.91). Conclusions: In path_MLH1 and path_MSH2 carriers, more advanced colon cancer stage was associated with poorer survival, whereas time since previous colonoscopy was not. Although the numbers are limited, together with our previously reported findings, these results may be in conflict with the view that follow-up of path_MMR variant carriers with colonoscopy intervals of less than 3 years provides significant benefit.

14.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218878, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233554

RESUMO

Prescription of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) compared to warfarin for treating atrial fibrillation patients have increased substantially since their introduction in the England's National Health Service. Assessment of the risk of strokes and bleeds in relation to the large-scale uptake in DOACs compared to warfarin at the clinical commissioning group (CCG) level needs to be carried out. Publicly available- aggregated, CCG level, multi-source health and prescription records data were interrogated to investigate the association between prescription rate of DOACs and stroke/ bleed events during the period of 2013 to 2016. Variability of prescription rates and patient numbers across 208 CCGs were used to infer the effect of DOACs on stroke and bleed risk. Relative risk (RR) and 95% credible intervals (CI) were estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo approach in JAGS. During the study period, the proportion of DOAC prescriptions increased at an average rate of 122% per annum. DOAC prescription was association with a 50% reduction in ischaemic (RR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.39, 0.57) and haemorrhagic stroke (RR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.26-0.77). In contrast, DOAC prescription reached significant association with reduction in gastrointestinal bleeds (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.73-0.98) but not clinically relevant bleeds (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.85-1.05). Sex stratified data showed significant association between DOAC prescription and reduction in haemorrhagic stroke risk (RR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.28-0.52) and gastrointestinal bleeds (RR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.63-0.93) in males only. Age stratified data suggested significant association with reduction in risk of both ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes in patients aged 70 years and above, and reduction in risk of clinically relevant and gastrointestinal bleeds in patients aged 70-79 years only. Publicly available health and prescription data for the English population indicates reduction in stroke and bleed risk in specific age and sex sub-groups with the uptake of DOACs compared to warfarin between 2013 and 2016.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prescrições , Risco , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
15.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 81(6): 1300-1307, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clusters of rare cylindroma or spiradenoma tumors are a recurrent clinical presentation, yet conventional genetic testing results in individuals with these tumors are frequently normal. OBJECTIVE: To determine if genetic mosaicism accounts for such cases. METHODS: A study of 6 cases from a series of 55 patients who met criteria for diagnostic gene testing for pathogenic CYLD variants over a 5-year period (2012-2017) was performed. A novel genetic assay was used to study DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes and, where possible, matched skin and tumor tissue. RESULTS: Two patients had mosaic pathogenic CYLD variants in both the blood and skin. One of these patients transmitted a pathogenic variant to her daughter, and we report the novel phenotype of a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving CYLD. Two patients had recurrent pathogenic variants in skin tumors from a single cluster but none detectable in the blood. LIMITATIONS: The remaining 2 patients had clinical features of mosaicism, but these cases were not solved with the assays used because of a lack of access of fresh tumor tissue. CONCLUSION: Genetic mosaicism should be considered in patients presenting with clustered cylindromas, because this may inform genetic testing and counseling of these patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico/patologia , Enzima Desubiquitinante CYLD/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosaicismo , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Amostragem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858900

RESUMO

Background: Recent epidemiological evidence shows that colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to occur in carriers of pathogenic mismatch repair (path_MMR) variants despite frequent colonoscopy surveillance in expert centres. This observation conflicts with the paradigm that removal of all visible polyps should prevent the vast majority of CRC in path_MMR carriers, provided the screening interval is sufficiently short and colonoscopic practice is optimal. Methods: To inform the debate, we examined, in the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), whether the time since last colonoscopy was associated with the pathological stage at which CRC was diagnosed during prospective surveillance. Path_MMR carriers were recruited for prospective surveillance by colonoscopy. Only variants scored by the InSiGHT Variant Interpretation Committee as class 4 and 5 (clinically actionable) were included. CRCs detected at the first planned colonoscopy, or within one year of this, were excluded as prevalent cancers. Results: Stage at diagnosis and interval between last prospective surveillance colonoscopy and diagnosis were available for 209 patients with 218 CRCs, including 162 path_MLH1, 45 path_MSH2, 10 path_MSH6 and 1 path_PMS2 carriers. The numbers of cancers detected within < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 and at > 3.5 years since last colonoscopy were 36, 93, 56 and 33, respectively. Among these, 16.7, 19.4, 9.9 and 15.1% were stage III-IV, respectively (p = 0.34). The cancers detected more than 2.5 years after the last colonoscopy were not more advanced than those diagnosed earlier (p = 0.14). Conclusions: The CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated, which is in conflict with the accelerated adenoma-carcinoma paradigm. We have previously reported that more frequent colonoscopy is not associated with lower incidence of CRC in path_MMR carriers as was expected. In contrast, point estimates showed a higher incidence with shorter intervals between examinations, a situation that may parallel to over-diagnosis in breast cancer screening. Our findings raise the possibility that some CRCs in path_MMR carriers may spontaneously disappear: the host immune response may not only remove CRC precursor lesions in path_MMR carriers, but may remove infiltrating cancers as well. If confirmed, our suggested interpretation will have a bearing on surveillance policy for path_MMR carriers.

17.
Genet Med ; 21(10): 2390-2400, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918358

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There are no internationally agreed upon clinical guidelines as to which women with gynecological cancer would benefit from Lynch syndrome screening or how best to manage the risk of gynecological cancer in women with Lynch syndrome. The Manchester International Consensus Group was convened in April 2017 to address this unmet need. The aim of the Group was to develop clear and comprehensive clinical guidance regarding the management of the gynecological sequelae of Lynch syndrome based on existing evidence and expert opinion from medical professionals and patients. METHODS: Stakeholders from Europe and North America worked together over a two-day workshop to achieve consensus on best practice. RESULTS: Guidance was developed in four key areas: (1) whether women with gynecological cancer should be screened for Lynch syndrome and (2) how this should be done, (3) whether there was a role for gynecological surveillance in women at risk of Lynch syndrome, and (4) what preventive measures should be recommended for women with Lynch syndrome to reduce their risk of gynecological cancer. CONCLUSION: This document provides comprehensive clinical guidance that can be referenced by both patients and clinicians so that women with Lynch syndrome can expect and receive appropriate standards of care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/terapia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Consenso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , América do Norte , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia
18.
Hum Mutat ; 40(5): 649-655, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740824

RESUMO

Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is caused by germline pathogenic variants in both alleles of a mismatch repair gene. Patients have an exceptionally high risk of numerous pediatric malignancies and benefit from surveillance and adjusted treatment. The diversity of its manifestation, and ambiguous genotyping results, particularly from PMS2, can complicate diagnosis and preclude timely patient management. Assessment of low-level microsatellite instability in nonneoplastic tissues can detect CMMRD, but current techniques are laborious or of limited sensitivity. Here, we present a simple, scalable CMMRD diagnostic assay. It uses sequencing and molecular barcodes to detect low-frequency microsatellite variants in peripheral blood leukocytes and classifies samples using variant frequencies. We tested 30 samples from 26 genetically-confirmed CMMRD patients, and samples from 94 controls and 40 Lynch syndrome patients. All samples were correctly classified, except one from a CMMRD patient recovering from aplasia. However, additional samples from this same patient tested positive for CMMRD. The assay also confirmed CMMRD in six suspected patients. The assay is suitable for both rapid CMMRD diagnosis within clinical decision windows and scalable screening of at-risk populations. Its deployment will improve patient care, and better define the prevalence and phenotype of this likely underreported cancer syndrome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites
19.
PLoS Genet ; 14(12): e1007752, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586411

RESUMO

The BRCA Challenge is a long-term data-sharing project initiated within the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) to aggregate BRCA1 and BRCA2 data to support highly collaborative research activities. Its goal is to generate an informed and current understanding of the impact of genetic variation on cancer risk across the iconic cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Initially, reported variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 available from public databases were integrated into a single, newly created site, www.brcaexchange.org. The purpose of the BRCA Exchange is to provide the community with a reliable and easily accessible record of variants interpreted for a high-penetrance phenotype. More than 20,000 variants have been aggregated, three times the number found in the next-largest public database at the project's outset, of which approximately 7,250 have expert classifications. The data set is based on shared information from existing clinical databases-Breast Cancer Information Core (BIC), ClinVar, and the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)-as well as population databases, all linked to a single point of access. The BRCA Challenge has brought together the existing international Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium expert panel, along with expert clinicians, diagnosticians, researchers, and database providers, all with a common goal of advancing our understanding of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variation. Ongoing work includes direct contact with national centers with access to BRCA1 and BRCA2 diagnostic data to encourage data sharing, development of methods suitable for extraction of genetic variation at the level of individual laboratory reports, and engagement with participant communities to enable a more comprehensive understanding of the clinical significance of genetic variation in BRCA1 and BRCA2.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Variação Genética , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas/ética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Penetrância , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
20.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0203052, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157243

RESUMO

Somatic mutations in mononucleotide repeats are commonly used to assess the mismatch repair status of tumours. Current tests focus on repeats with a length above 15bp, which tend to be somatically more unstable than shorter ones. These longer repeats also have a substantially higher PCR error rate, and tests that use capillary electrophoresis for fragment size analysis often require expert interpretation. In this communication, we present a panel of 17 short repeats (length 7-12bp) for sequence-based microsatellite instability (MSI) testing. Using a simple scoring procedure that incorporates the allelic distribution of the mutant repeats, and analysis of two cohort of tumours totalling 209 samples, we show that this panel is able to discriminate between MMR proficient and deficient tumours, even when constitutional DNA is not available. In the training cohort, the method achieved 100% concordance with fragment analysis, while in the testing cohort, 4 discordant samples were observed (corresponding to 97% concordance). Of these, 2 showed discrepancies between fragment analysis and immunohistochemistry and one was reclassified after re-testing using fragment analysis. These results indicate that our approach offers the option of a reliable, scalable routine test for MSI.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polimorfismo Genético , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Simulação por Computador , Fixadores , Formaldeído , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Inclusão em Parafina , Fixação de Tecidos
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