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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471937

RESUMO

Microsatellite instability (MSI) testing of colorectal cancers (CRCs) is used to screen for Lynch syndrome (LS), a hereditary cancer-predisposition, and can be used to predict response to immunotherapy. Here, we present a single-molecule molecular inversion probe and sequencing-based MSI assay and demonstrate its clinical validity according to existing guidelines. We amplified 24 microsatellites in multiplex and trained a classifier using 98 CRCs, which accommodates marker specific sensitivities to MSI. Sample classification achieved 100% concordance with the MSI Analysis System v1.2 (Promega) in three independent cohorts, totaling 220 CRCs. Backward-forward stepwise selection was used to identify a 6-marker subset of equal accuracy to the 24-marker panel. Assessment of assay detection limits showed that the 24-marker panel is marginally more robust to sample variables than the 6-marker subset, detecting as little as 3% high levels of MSI DNA in sample mixtures, and requiring a minimum of 10 template molecules to be sequenced per marker for >95% accuracy. BRAF c.1799 mutation analysis was also included to streamline LS testing, with all c.1799T>A variants being correctly identified. The assay, therefore, provides a cheap, robust, automatable, and scalable MSI test with internal quality controls, suitable for clinical cancer diagnostics.

2.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218878, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233554

RESUMO

Prescription of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) compared to warfarin for treating atrial fibrillation patients have increased substantially since their introduction in the England's National Health Service. Assessment of the risk of strokes and bleeds in relation to the large-scale uptake in DOACs compared to warfarin at the clinical commissioning group (CCG) level needs to be carried out. Publicly available- aggregated, CCG level, multi-source health and prescription records data were interrogated to investigate the association between prescription rate of DOACs and stroke/ bleed events during the period of 2013 to 2016. Variability of prescription rates and patient numbers across 208 CCGs were used to infer the effect of DOACs on stroke and bleed risk. Relative risk (RR) and 95% credible intervals (CI) were estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo approach in JAGS. During the study period, the proportion of DOAC prescriptions increased at an average rate of 122% per annum. DOAC prescription was association with a 50% reduction in ischaemic (RR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.39, 0.57) and haemorrhagic stroke (RR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.26-0.77). In contrast, DOAC prescription reached significant association with reduction in gastrointestinal bleeds (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.73-0.98) but not clinically relevant bleeds (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.85-1.05). Sex stratified data showed significant association between DOAC prescription and reduction in haemorrhagic stroke risk (RR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.28-0.52) and gastrointestinal bleeds (RR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.63-0.93) in males only. Age stratified data suggested significant association with reduction in risk of both ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes in patients aged 70 years and above, and reduction in risk of clinically relevant and gastrointestinal bleeds in patients aged 70-79 years only. Publicly available health and prescription data for the English population indicates reduction in stroke and bleed risk in specific age and sex sub-groups with the uptake of DOACs compared to warfarin between 2013 and 2016.

4.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 81(6): 1300-1307, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clusters of rare cylindroma or spiradenoma tumors are a recurrent clinical presentation, yet conventional genetic testing results in individuals with these tumors are frequently normal. OBJECTIVE: To determine if genetic mosaicism accounts for such cases. METHODS: A study of 6 cases from a series of 55 patients who met criteria for diagnostic gene testing for pathogenic CYLD variants over a 5-year period (2012-2017) was performed. A novel genetic assay was used to study DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes and, where possible, matched skin and tumor tissue. RESULTS: Two patients had mosaic pathogenic CYLD variants in both the blood and skin. One of these patients transmitted a pathogenic variant to her daughter, and we report the novel phenotype of a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving CYLD. Two patients had recurrent pathogenic variants in skin tumors from a single cluster but none detectable in the blood. LIMITATIONS: The remaining 2 patients had clinical features of mosaicism, but these cases were not solved with the assays used because of a lack of access of fresh tumor tissue. CONCLUSION: Genetic mosaicism should be considered in patients presenting with clustered cylindromas, because this may inform genetic testing and counseling of these patients.

5.
Genet Med ; 21(10): 2390-2400, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918358

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There are no internationally agreed upon clinical guidelines as to which women with gynecological cancer would benefit from Lynch syndrome screening or how best to manage the risk of gynecological cancer in women with Lynch syndrome. The Manchester International Consensus Group was convened in April 2017 to address this unmet need. The aim of the Group was to develop clear and comprehensive clinical guidance regarding the management of the gynecological sequelae of Lynch syndrome based on existing evidence and expert opinion from medical professionals and patients. METHODS: Stakeholders from Europe and North America worked together over a two-day workshop to achieve consensus on best practice. RESULTS: Guidance was developed in four key areas: (1) whether women with gynecological cancer should be screened for Lynch syndrome and (2) how this should be done, (3) whether there was a role for gynecological surveillance in women at risk of Lynch syndrome, and (4) what preventive measures should be recommended for women with Lynch syndrome to reduce their risk of gynecological cancer. CONCLUSION: This document provides comprehensive clinical guidance that can be referenced by both patients and clinicians so that women with Lynch syndrome can expect and receive appropriate standards of care.

6.
Hum Mutat ; 40(5): 649-655, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740824

RESUMO

Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is caused by germline pathogenic variants in both alleles of a mismatch repair gene. Patients have an exceptionally high risk of numerous pediatric malignancies and benefit from surveillance and adjusted treatment. The diversity of its manifestation, and ambiguous genotyping results, particularly from PMS2, can complicate diagnosis and preclude timely patient management. Assessment of low-level microsatellite instability in nonneoplastic tissues can detect CMMRD, but current techniques are laborious or of limited sensitivity. Here, we present a simple, scalable CMMRD diagnostic assay. It uses sequencing and molecular barcodes to detect low-frequency microsatellite variants in peripheral blood leukocytes and classifies samples using variant frequencies. We tested 30 samples from 26 genetically-confirmed CMMRD patients, and samples from 94 controls and 40 Lynch syndrome patients. All samples were correctly classified, except one from a CMMRD patient recovering from aplasia. However, additional samples from this same patient tested positive for CMMRD. The assay also confirmed CMMRD in six suspected patients. The assay is suitable for both rapid CMMRD diagnosis within clinical decision windows and scalable screening of at-risk populations. Its deployment will improve patient care, and better define the prevalence and phenotype of this likely underreported cancer syndrome.

7.
PLoS Genet ; 14(12): e1007752, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586411

RESUMO

The BRCA Challenge is a long-term data-sharing project initiated within the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) to aggregate BRCA1 and BRCA2 data to support highly collaborative research activities. Its goal is to generate an informed and current understanding of the impact of genetic variation on cancer risk across the iconic cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Initially, reported variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 available from public databases were integrated into a single, newly created site, www.brcaexchange.org. The purpose of the BRCA Exchange is to provide the community with a reliable and easily accessible record of variants interpreted for a high-penetrance phenotype. More than 20,000 variants have been aggregated, three times the number found in the next-largest public database at the project's outset, of which approximately 7,250 have expert classifications. The data set is based on shared information from existing clinical databases-Breast Cancer Information Core (BIC), ClinVar, and the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)-as well as population databases, all linked to a single point of access. The BRCA Challenge has brought together the existing international Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium expert panel, along with expert clinicians, diagnosticians, researchers, and database providers, all with a common goal of advancing our understanding of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variation. Ongoing work includes direct contact with national centers with access to BRCA1 and BRCA2 diagnostic data to encourage data sharing, development of methods suitable for extraction of genetic variation at the level of individual laboratory reports, and engagement with participant communities to enable a more comprehensive understanding of the clinical significance of genetic variation in BRCA1 and BRCA2.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Variação Genética , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas/ética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Penetrância , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
8.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0203052, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157243

RESUMO

Somatic mutations in mononucleotide repeats are commonly used to assess the mismatch repair status of tumours. Current tests focus on repeats with a length above 15bp, which tend to be somatically more unstable than shorter ones. These longer repeats also have a substantially higher PCR error rate, and tests that use capillary electrophoresis for fragment size analysis often require expert interpretation. In this communication, we present a panel of 17 short repeats (length 7-12bp) for sequence-based microsatellite instability (MSI) testing. Using a simple scoring procedure that incorporates the allelic distribution of the mutant repeats, and analysis of two cohort of tumours totalling 209 samples, we show that this panel is able to discriminate between MMR proficient and deficient tumours, even when constitutional DNA is not available. In the training cohort, the method achieved 100% concordance with fragment analysis, while in the testing cohort, 4 discordant samples were observed (corresponding to 97% concordance). Of these, 2 showed discrepancies between fragment analysis and immunohistochemistry and one was reclassified after re-testing using fragment analysis. These results indicate that our approach offers the option of a reliable, scalable routine test for MSI.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(10): 1417-1423, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904176

RESUMO

Constitutional MisMatch Repair Deficiency (CMMRD) is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous germline variants in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, MLH1). This syndrome results in early onset colorectal cancer, leukemia and lymphoma, brain tumors and other malignancies. Children with CMMRD are at high risk of developing multiple cancers and cancer surveillance does not guarantee detection of cancer at a curable stage. The development of a preventive treatment strategy would be a major step forward. Long-term daily use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has been shown to reduce cancer risk in individuals with Lynch syndrome (LS). LS is caused by heterozygous germline variants of MSH2, MSH6, PMS2 and MLH1 and characterized by an increased risk of developing colorectal and endometrial cancer at adult age. Here we discuss the potential use of ASA for cancer prevention in patients with CMMRD.

10.
JAMA Dermatol ; 154(8): 913-921, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955768

RESUMO

Importance: There are no medical interventions for the orphan disease CYLD cutaneous syndrome (CCS). Transcriptomic profiling of CCS skin tumors previously highlighted tropomyosin receptor kinases (TRKs) as candidate therapeutic targets. Objective: To investigate if topical targeting of TRK with an existing topical TRK inhibitor, pegcantratinib, 0.5% (wt/wt), is safe and efficacious in CCS. Design, Setting, and Participants: A phase 1b open-label safety study, followed by a phase 2a within-patient randomized (by tumor), double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (the Tropomyosin Receptor Antagonism in Cylindromatosis [TRAC] trial). The setting was a single-center trial based at a tertiary dermatogenetics referral center for CCS (Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle, United Kingdom). Patients who had germline mutations in CYLD or who satisfied clinical diagnostic criteria for CCS were recruited between March 1, 2015, and July 1, 2016. Interventions: In phase 1b, patients with CCS applied pegcantratinib for 4 weeks to a single skin tumor. In phase 2a, allocation of tumors was to either receive active treatment on the right side and placebo on the left side (arm A) or active treatment on the left side and placebo on the right side (arm B). Patients were eligible if they had 10 small skin tumors, with 5 matched lesions on each body side; patients were randomized to receive active treatment (pegcantratinib) to one body side and placebo to the other side once daily for 12 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was the number of tumors meeting the criteria for response in a prespecified critical number of pegcantratinib-treated tumors. Secondary clinical outcome measures included an assessment for safety of application, pain in early tumors, and compliance with the trial protocol. Results: In phase 1b, 8 female patients with a median age of 60 years (age range, 41-80 years) were recruited and completed the study. None of the participants experienced any adverse treatment site reactions. Three patients reported reduced pain in treated tumors. In phase 2a (15 patients [13 female; median age, 51 years], with 150 tumors), 2 tumors treated with pegcantratinib achieved the primary outcome measure of response compared with 6 tumors treated with placebo. The primary prespecified number of responses was not met. The incidence of adverse events was low. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, pegcantratinib, 0.5% (wt/wt), applied once daily appeared to be well tolerated and to penetrate the tumor tissue; however, the low tumor drug concentrations demonstrated are likely to account for the lack of response. Dose-escalation studies to assess the maximal tolerated dose may be beneficial in future studies of CCS. Trial Registration: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN75715723.

11.
Open Heart ; 5(1): e000712, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531758

RESUMO

About 1.4 British million people are at risk of strokes due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) necessitating long-term anticoagulation. The vitamin K antagonist, warfarin, has a long half-life and narrow therapeutic range necessitating regular monitoring and is a common cause of iatrogenic hospital admission. Direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs), dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban are not required to have monitoring but are sensitive to changes in renal function and are associated with poorer adherence. There are good grounds to believe that DOACs are not always superior to warfarin in routine practice particularly with an older population. Much higher levels of therapeutic effectiveness can be achieved using a simple genotype guidance to identify those who are highly sensitive and by adoption of home monitoring. These adjustments could make warfarin the preferred drug for most people and would reduce the dramatic rise in health service expenditure.

12.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 12: 813, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29515654

RESUMO

Acetylsalicylic acid was first synthesised by Dr FeIix Hoffman on 10th August 1897 and Aspirin was born. It quickly became the best-known pain killer in the world and in the 120 years since this event, aspirin has continued to attract interest, innovation and excitement. Set within the walls of the preserved ruins of Rudolf Virchow's lecture hall at Charité, within Berlin's Museum of Medical History, the International Aspirin Foundation's 28th Scientific Conference served to facilitate international, multi-disease, multidisciplinary discussion about the current understanding of aspirin's mechanisms of action and its utility in modern medicine as well as ideas for future research into its multifaceted applications to enhance global health. In addition to the delegates in Berlin, 300 medical doctors at the 19th Annual Scientific Congress of the Chinese Society of Cardiology were able to join the cardiology sessions from Taiyuan, Shangxi province via a live streaming link to and from China. This led to useful discussion and allowed a truly international perspective to the meeting.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 143(1): 139-150, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29424427

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MMR deficiency has long been regarded as a secondary event in the pathogenesis of Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers. Recently, this concept has been challenged by the discovery of MMR-deficient crypt foci in the normal mucosa. We aimed to reconstruct colorectal carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome by collecting molecular and histology evidence from Lynch syndrome adenomas and carcinomas. We determined the frequency of MMR deficiency in adenomas from Lynch syndrome mutation carriers by immunohistochemistry and by systematic literature analysis. To trace back the pathways of pathogenesis, histological growth patterns and mutational signatures were analyzed in Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers. Literature and immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated MMR deficiency in 491 (76.7%) out of 640 adenomas (95% CI: 73.3% to 79.8%) from Lynch syndrome mutation carriers. Histologically normal MMR-deficient crypts were found directly adjacent to dysplastic adenoma tissue, proving their role as tumor precursors in Lynch syndrome. Accordingly, mutation signature analysis in Lynch colorectal cancers revealed that KRAS and APC mutations commonly occur after the onset of MMR deficiency. Tumors lacking evidence of polypous growth frequently presented with CTNNB1 and TP53 mutations. Our findings demonstrate that Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers can develop through three pathways, with MMR deficiency commonly representing an early and possibly initiating event. This underlines that targeting MMR-deficient cells by chemoprevention or vaccines against MMR deficiency-induced frameshift peptide neoantigens holds promise for tumor prevention in Lynch syndrome.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192223, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425227

RESUMO

Regular aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Variation in aspirin's chemoprevention efficacy has been attributed to the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We conducted a meta-analysis using two large population-based case-control datasets, the UK-Leeds Colorectal Cancer Study Group and the NIH-Colon Cancer Family Registry, having a combined total of 3325 cases and 2262 controls. The aim was to assess 42 candidate SNPs in 15 genes whose association with colorectal cancer risk was putatively modified by aspirin use, in the literature. Log odds ratios (ORs) and standard errors were estimated for each dataset separately using logistic regression adjusting for age, sex and study site, and dataset-specific results were combined using random effects meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed association between SNPs rs6983267, rs11694911 and rs2302615 with CRC risk reduction (All P<0.05). Association for SNP rs6983267 in the CCAT2 gene only was noteworthy after multiple test correction (P = 0.001). Site-specific analysis showed association between SNPs rs1799853 and rs2302615 with reduced colon cancer risk only (P = 0.01 and P = 0.004, respectively), however neither reached significance threshold following multiple test correction. Meta-analysis of SNPs rs2070959 and rs1105879 in UGT1A6 gene showed interaction between aspirin use and CRC risk (Pinteraction = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively); stratification by aspirin use showed an association for decreased CRC risk for aspirin users having a wild-type genotype (rs2070959 OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.68-0.86; rs1105879 OR = 0.77 95% CI = 0.69-0.86) compared to variant allele cariers. The direction of the interaction however is in contrast to that published in studies on colorectal adenomas. Both SNPs showed potential site-specific interaction with aspirin use and colon cancer risk only (Pinteraction = 0.006 and 0.008, respectively), with the direction of association similar to that observed for CRC. Additionally, they showed interaction between any non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (including aspirin) use and CRC risk (Pinteraction = 0.01 for both). All gene x environment (GxE) interactions however were not significant after multiple test correction. Candidate gene investigation indicated no evidence of GxE interaction between genetic variants in genes involved in aspirin pathways, regular aspirin use and colorectal cancer risk.


Assuntos
Aspirina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Austrália/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Gut ; 67(7): 1306-1316, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with path_MMR gene variants (Lynch syndrome (LS)) now survive both their first and subsequent cancers, resulting in a growing number of older patients with LS for whom limited information exists with respect to cancer risk and survival. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This observational, international, multicentre study aimed to determine prospectively observed incidences of cancers and survival in path_MMR carriers up to 75 years of age. RESULTS: 3119 patients were followed for a total of 24 475 years. Cumulative incidences at 75 years (risks) for colorectal cancer were 46%, 43% and 15% in path_MLH1, path_MSH2 and path_MSH6 carriers; for endometrial cancer 43%, 57% and 46%; for ovarian cancer 10%, 17% and 13%; for upper gastrointestinal (gastric, duodenal, bile duct or pancreatic) cancers 21%, 10% and 7%; for urinary tract cancers 8%, 25% and 11%; for prostate cancer 17%, 32% and 18%; and for brain tumours 1%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Ovarian cancer occurred mainly premenopausally. By contrast, upper gastrointestinal, urinary tract and prostate cancers occurred predominantly at older ages. Overall 5-year survival for prostate cancer was 100%, urinary bladder 93%, ureter 85%, duodenum 67%, stomach 61%, bile duct 29%, brain 22% and pancreas 0%. Path_PMS2 carriers had lower risk for cancer. CONCLUSION: Carriers of different path_MMR variants exhibit distinct patterns of cancer risk and survival as they age. Risk estimates for counselling and planning of surveillance and treatment should be tailored to each patient's age, gender and path_MMR variant. We have updated our open-access website www.lscarisk.org to facilitate this.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in carriers of pathogenic MLH1 variants (path_MLH1) despite follow-up with colonoscopy including polypectomy. METHODS: The cohort included Finnish carriers enrolled in 3-yearly colonoscopy (n = 505; 4625 observation years) and carriers from other countries enrolled in colonoscopy 2-yearly or more frequently (n = 439; 3299 observation years). We examined whether the longer interval between colonoscopies in Finland could explain the high incidence of CRC and whether disease expression correlated with differences in population CRC incidence. RESULTS: Cumulative CRC incidences in carriers of path_MLH1 at 70-years of age were 41% for males and 36% for females in the Finnish series and 58% and 55% in the non-Finnish series, respectively (p > 0.05). Mean time from last colonoscopy to CRC was 32.7 months in the Finnish compared to 31.0 months in the non-Finnish (p > 0.05) and was therefore unaffected by the recommended colonoscopy interval. Differences in population incidence of CRC could not explain the lower point estimates for CRC in the Finnish series. Ten-year overall survival after CRC was similar for the Finnish and non-Finnish series (88% and 91%, respectively; p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that the high incidence of CRC in path_MLH1 carriers was caused by a higher incidence in the Finnish series was not valid. We discuss whether the results were influenced by methodological shortcomings in our study or whether the assumption that a shorter interval between colonoscopies leads to a lower CRC incidence may be wrong. This second possibility is intriguing, because it suggests the dogma that CRC in path_MLH1 carriers develops from polyps that can be detected at colonoscopy and removed to prevent CRC may be erroneous. In view of the excellent 10-year overall survival in the Finnish and non-Finnish series we remain strong advocates of current surveillance practices for those with LS pending studies that will inform new recommendations on the best surveillance interval.

17.
Fam Cancer ; 16(4): 509-516, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28434157

RESUMO

A dose non-inferiority study comparing 100 mg, 300 mg and 600 mg of aspirin for cancer prevention among Lynch Syndrome carriers is underway (Colorectal Adenoma/Carcinoma Prevention Programme trial 3, CaPP3). To guide implementation of the findings, we investigated general practitioner (GP) attitudes towards aspirin prescribing for Lynch Syndrome carriers. We surveyed 1007 UK GPs (9.6% response rate). Using a within-subjects design, GPs read a statement on harms and benefits of aspirin and indicated their willingness to prescribe aspirin at three doses (100 mg, 300 mg, 600 mg). Approximately two-thirds (70.8%) of GPs had heard of Lynch Syndrome or its associated names, and among those 46.7% were aware of the cancer preventive effects of aspirin among carriers. Two-thirds (68.1%) of GPs reported feeling comfortable discussing harms and benefits of aspirin with a Lynch Syndrome patient. Willingness to prescribe was 91.3% at 100 mg, and declined to 81.8% at 300 mg and 62.3% at 600 mg (p < 0.001). In multivariable analyses, willingness to prescribe (600 mg) was higher among GPs ≥50 years (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03-2.07), more experienced GPs (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.10-2.04), GPs who were aware of the cancer preventive effects of aspirin (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.20-2.09), and those who reported seeing a Lynch Syndrome patient in practice (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.01-2.05, p = 0.045). GPs report limited awareness of Lynch Syndrome and the preventive effects of aspirin among carriers. To ensure the optimal dose identified in the CaPP3 trial is readily available to patients, prescribing guidance and strategies to educate GPs should be developed.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/prevenção & controle , Clínicos Gerais , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
19.
Trials ; 18(1): 111, 2017 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28270164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with germline mutations in a tumour suppressor gene called CYLD develop multiple, disfiguring, hair follicle tumours on the head and neck. The prognosis is poor, with up to one in four mutation carriers requiring complete surgical removal of the scalp. There are no effective medical alternatives to treat this condition. Whole genome molecular profiling experiments led to the discovery of an attractive molecular target in these skin tumour cells, named tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK), upon which these cells demonstrate an oncogenic dependency in preclinical studies. Recently, the development of an ointment containing a TRK inhibitor (pegcantratinib - previously CT327 - from Creabilis SA) allowed for the assessment of TRK inhibition in tumours from patients with inherited CYLD mutations. METHODS/DESIGN: Tropomysin Receptor Antagonism in Cylindromatosis (TRAC) is a two-part, exploratory, early phase, single-centre trial. Cohort 1 is a phase 1b open-labelled trial, and cohort 2 is a phase 2a randomised double-blinded exploratory placebo-controlled trial. Cohort 1 will determine the safety and acceptability of applying pegcantratinib for 4 weeks to a single tumour on a CYLD mutation carrier that is scheduled for a routine lesion excision (n = 8 patients). Cohort 2 will investigate if CYLD defective tumours respond following 12 weeks of treatment with pegcantratinib. As patients have multiple tumours, we intend to treat 10 tumours in each patient, 5 with active treatment and 5 with placebo. Patients will be allocated both active and placebo treatments to be applied randomly to tumours on the left or right side. The target is to treat 150 tumours in a maximum of 20 patients. Tumour volume will be measured at baseline and at 4 and 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of tumours responding to treatment by 12 weeks, based on change in tumour volume, with secondary measures based on adverse event profile, treatment compliance and acceptability, changes in tumour volume and surface area, patient quality of life and pain. DISCUSSION: Interventions for rare genetic skin diseases are often difficult to assess in an unbiased way due to small patient numbers and the challenges of incorporating adequate controls into trial design. Here we present a single-centre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial design that leverages the multiplicity of tumours seen in an inherited skin tumour syndrome that may inform the design of other studies in similar genetic diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Registry, ISRCTN75715723 . Registered on 22 October 2014.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Enzima Desubiquitinante CYLD/genética , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/administração & dosagem , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Cutânea , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Protocolos Clínicos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Esquema de Medicação , Inglaterra , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/enzimologia , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/cirurgia , Fenótipo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pele/enzimologia , Pele/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 10(3): 208-218, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28154202

RESUMO

This study was designed to determine how aspirin influences the growth kinetics and characteristics of cultured colorectal cancer cells that harbor a variety of different mutational backgrounds, including PIK3CA- and KRAS-activating mutations, and the presence or absence of microsatellite instability. Colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116, HCT116 + Chr3/5, RKO, SW480, HCT15, CACO2, HT29, and SW48) were treated with pharmacologically relevant doses of aspirin (0.5-10 mmol/L) and evaluated for proliferation and cell-cycle distribution. These parameters were fitted to a mathematical model to quantify the effects and understand the mechanism(s) by which aspirin modifies growth in colorectal cancer cells. We also evaluated the effects of aspirin on key G0-G1 cell-cycle genes that are regulated by the PI3K-Akt pathway. Aspirin decelerated growth rates and disrupted cell-cycle dynamics more profoundly in faster growing colorectal cancer cell lines, which tended to be PIK3CA mutants. Additionally, microarray analysis of 151 colorectal cancer cell lines identified important cell-cycle regulatory genes that are downstream targets of PIK3 and were also dysregulated by aspirin treatment (PCNA and RB1). Our study demonstrated what clinical trials have only speculated, that PIK3CA-mutant colorectal cancers are more sensitive to aspirin. Aspirin inhibited cell growth in all colorectal cancer cell lines regardless of mutational background, but the effects were exacerbated in cells with PIK3CA mutations. Mathematical modeling combined with bench science revealed that cells with PIK3CA-mutations experience significant G0-G1 arrest and explains why patients with PIK3CA mutant colorectal cancers may benefit from aspirin use after diagnosis. Cancer Prev Res; 10(3); 208-18. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Aspirina/farmacologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Modelos Teóricos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Mutação , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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