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1.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1116): 20200247, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021102

RESUMO

In the UK, one in two people will develop cancer during their lifetimes and radiotherapy (RT) plays a key role in effective treatment. High energy proton beam therapy commenced in the UK National Health Service in 2018. Heavier charged particles have potential advantages over protons by delivering more dose in the Bragg peak, with a sharper penumbra, lower oxygen dependence and increased biological effectiveness. However, they also require more costly equipment including larger gantries to deliver the treatment. There are significant uncertainties in the modelling of relative biological effectiveness and the effects of the fragmentation tail which can deliver dose beyond the Bragg peak. These effects need to be carefully considered especially in relation to long-term outcomes.In 2019, a group of clinicians, clinical scientists, engineers, physical and life scientists from academia and industry, together with funding agency stakeholders, met to consider how the UK should address new technologies for RT, especially the use of heavier charged particles such as helium and carbon and new modes of delivery such as FLASH and spatially fractionated radiotherapy (SFRT).There was unanimous agreement that the UK should develop a facility for heavier charged particle therapy, perhaps constituting a new National Ion Research Centre to enable research using protons and heavier charged particles. Discussion followed on the scale and features, including which ions should be included, from protons through helium, boron, and lithium to carbon, and even oxygen. The consensus view was that any facility intended to treat patients must be located in a hospital setting while providing dedicated research space for physics, preclinical biology and clinical research with beam lines designed for both in vitro and in vivo research. The facility should to be able to investigate and deliver both ultra-high dose rate FLASH RT and SFRT (GRID, minibeams etc.). Discussion included a number of accelerator design options and whether gantries were required. Other potential collaborations might be exploited, including with space agencies, electronics and global communications industries and the nuclear industry.In preparation for clinical delivery, there may be opportunities to send patients overseas (for 12C or 4He ion therapy) using the model of the National Health Service (NHS) Proton Overseas Programme and to look at potential national clinical trials which include heavier ions, FLASH or SFRT. This could be accomplished under the auspices of NCRI CTRad (National Cancer Research Institute, Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group).The initiative should be a community approach, involving all interested parties with a vision that combines discovery science, a translational research capability and a clinical treatment facility. Barriers to the project and ways to overcome them were discussed. Finally, a set of different scenarios of features with different costs and timelines was constructed, with consideration given to the funding environment (prer-Covid-19) and need for cross-funder collaboration.


Assuntos
Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Radioterapia com Íons Pesados/métodos , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Humanos , Reino Unido
2.
Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol ; 14: 87-94, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32582869

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Associations between dose and rectal toxicity in prostate radiotherapy are generally poorly understood. Evaluating spatial dose distributions to the rectal wall (RW) may lead to improvements in dose-toxicity modelling by incorporating geometric information, masked by dose-volume histograms. Furthermore, predictive power may be strengthened by incorporating the effects of interfraction motion into delivered dose calculations.Here we interrogate 3D dose distributions for patients with and without toxicity to identify rectal subregions at risk (SRR), and compare the discriminatory ability of planned and delivered dose. Material and Methods: Daily delivered dose to the rectum was calculated using image guidance scans, and accumulated at the voxel level using biomechanical finite element modelling. SRRs were statistically determined for rectal bleeding, proctitis, faecal incontinence and stool frequency from a training set (n = 139), and tested on a validation set (n = 47). Results: SRR patterns differed per endpoint. Analysing dose to SRRs improved discriminative ability with respect to the full RW for three of four endpoints. Training set AUC and OR analysis produced stronger toxicity associations from accumulated dose than planned dose. For rectal bleeding in particular, accumulated dose to the SRR (AUC 0.76) improved upon dose-toxicity associations derived from planned dose to the RW (AUC 0.63). However, validation results could not be considered significant. Conclusions: Voxel-level analysis of dose to the RW revealed SRRs associated with rectal toxicity, suggesting non-homogeneous intra-organ radiosensitivity. Incorporating spatial features of accumulated delivered dose improved dose-toxicity associations. This may be an important tool for adaptive radiotherapy in the future.

3.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1107): 20190873, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860337

RESUMO

The UK has an important role in the evaluation of proton beam therapy (PBT) and takes its place on the world stage with the opening of the first National Health Service (NHS) PBT centre in Manchester in 2018, and the second in London coming in 2020. Systematic evaluation of the role of PBT is a key objective. By September 2019, 108 patients had started treatment, 60 paediatric, 19 teenagers and young adults and 29 adults. Obtaining robust outcome data is vital, if we are to understand the strengths and weaknesses of current treatment approaches. This is important in demonstrating when PBT will provide an advantage and when it will not, and in quantifying the magnitude of benefit.The UK also has an important part to play in translational PBT research, and building a research capability has always been the vision. We are perfectly placed to perform translational pre-clinical biological and physical experiments in the dedicated research room in Manchester. The nature of DNA damage from proton irradiation is considerably different from X-rays and this needs to be more fully explored. A better understanding is needed of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons, especially at the end of the Bragg peak, and of the effects on tumour and normal tissue of PBT combined with conventional chemotherapy, targeted drugs and immunomodulatory agents. These experiments can be enhanced by deterministic mathematical models of the molecular and cellular processes of DNA damage response. The fashion of ultra-high dose rate FLASH irradiation also needs to be explored.


Assuntos
Institutos de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia com Prótons/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Estatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Institutos de Câncer/provisão & distribução , Fortalecimento Institucional , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Dano ao DNA , Inglaterra , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Terapia com Prótons/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/educação , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Eficiência Biológica Relativa , Pesquisa , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Resultado do Tratamento , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(2): 179-190, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A total of 10%-20% of patients develop long-term toxicity following radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Identification of common genetic variants associated with susceptibility to radiotoxicity might improve risk prediction and inform functional mechanistic studies. METHODS: We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis of six genome-wide association studies (n = 3871) in men of European ancestry who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Radiotoxicities (increased urinary frequency, decreased urinary stream, hematuria, rectal bleeding) were graded prospectively. We used grouped relative risk models to test associations with approximately 6 million genotyped or imputed variants (time to first grade 2 or higher toxicity event). Variants with two-sided Pmeta less than 5 × 10-8 were considered statistically significant. Bayesian false discovery probability provided an additional measure of confidence. Statistically significant variants were evaluated in three Japanese cohorts (n = 962). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of the European ancestry cohorts identified three genomic signals: single nucleotide polymorphism rs17055178 with rectal bleeding (Pmeta = 6.2 × 10-10), rs10969913 with decreased urinary stream (Pmeta = 2.9 × 10-10), and rs11122573 with hematuria (Pmeta = 1.8 × 10-8). Fine-scale mapping of these three regions was used to identify another independent signal (rs147121532) associated with hematuria (Pconditional = 4.7 × 10-6). Credible causal variants at these four signals lie in gene-regulatory regions, some modulating expression of nearby genes. Previously identified variants showed consistent associations (rs17599026 with increased urinary frequency, rs7720298 with decreased urinary stream, rs1801516 with overall toxicity) in new cohorts. rs10969913 and rs17599026 had similar effects in the photon-treated Japanese cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: This study increases the understanding of the architecture of common genetic variants affecting radiotoxicity, points to novel radio-pathogenic mechanisms, and develops risk models for testing in clinical studies. Further multinational radiogenomics studies in larger cohorts are worthwhile.

5.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 5(1): 15, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833595

RESUMO

In the version originally published, an incorrect version of Figure 1 was used. This has now been replaced.

6.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 5(1): 13, 2019 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792503

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is used in >50% of patients with cancer, both for curative and palliative purposes. Radiotherapy uses ionizing radiation to target and kill tumour tissue, but normal tissue can also be damaged, leading to toxicity. Modern and precise radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy, may prevent toxicity, but some patients still experience adverse effects. The physiopathology of toxicity is dependent on many parameters, such as the location of irradiation or the functional status of organs at risk. Knowledge of the mechanisms leads to a more rational approach for controlling radiotherapy toxicity, which may result in improved symptom control and quality of life for patients. This improved quality of life is particularly important in paediatric patients, who may live for many years with the long-term effects of radiotherapy. Notably, signs and symptoms occurring after radiotherapy may not be due to the treatment but to an exacerbation of existing conditions or to the development of new diseases. Although differential diagnosis may be difficult, it has important consequences for patients.


Assuntos
Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico , Lesões por Radiação/terapia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Linfonodos/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias/terapia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Lesões por Radiação/fisiopatologia , Radioterapia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
8.
Radiother Oncol ; 130: 32-38, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The impact of weight loss and anatomical change during head and neck (H&N) radiotherapy on spinal cord dosimetry is poorly understood, limiting evidence-based adaptive management strategies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 133 H&N patients treated with daily mega-voltage CT image-guidance (MVCT-IG) on TomoTherapy, were selected. Elastix software was used to deform planning scan SC contours to MVCT-IG scans, and accumulate dose. Planned (DP) and delivered (DA) spinal cord D2% (SCD2%) were compared. Univariate relationships between neck irradiation strategy (unilateral vs bilateral), T-stage, N-stage, weight loss, and changes in lateral separation (LND) and CT slice surface area (SSA) at C1 and the superior thyroid notch (TN), and ΔSCD2% [(DA - DP) D2%] were examined. RESULTS: The mean value for (DA - DP) D2% was -0.07 Gy (95%CI -0.28 to 0.14, range -5.7 Gy to 3.8 Gy), and the mean absolute difference between DP and DA (independent of difference direction) was 0.9 Gy (95%CI 0.76-1.04 Gy). Neck treatment strategy (p = 0.39) and T-stage (p = 0.56) did not affect ΔSCD2%. Borderline significance (p = 0.09) was seen for higher N-stage (N2-3) and higher ΔSCD2%. Mean reductions in anatomical metrics were substantial: weight loss 6.8 kg; C1LND 12.9 mm; C1SSA 12.1 cm2; TNLND 5.3 mm; TNSSA 11.2 cm2, but no relationship between weight loss or anatomical change and ΔSCD2% was observed (all r2 < 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Differences between delivered and planned spinal cord D2% are small in patients treated with daily IG. Even patients experiencing substantial weight loss or anatomical change during treatment do not require adaptive replanning for spinal cord safety.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Medula Espinal/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 928-936, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892016

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and fine-mapping efforts to date have identified more than 100 prostate cancer (PrCa)-susceptibility loci. We meta-analyzed genotype data from a custom high-density array of 46,939 PrCa cases and 27,910 controls of European ancestry with previously genotyped data of 32,255 PrCa cases and 33,202 controls of European ancestry. Our analysis identified 62 novel loci associated (P < 5.0 × 10-8) with PrCa and one locus significantly associated with early-onset PrCa (≤55 years). Our findings include missense variants rs1800057 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16; P = 8.2 × 10-9; G>C, p.Pro1054Arg) in ATM and rs2066827 (OR = 1.06; P = 2.3 × 10-9; T>G, p.Val109Gly) in CDKN1B. The combination of all loci captured 28.4% of the PrCa familial relative risk, and a polygenic risk score conferred an elevated PrCa risk for men in the ninetieth to ninety-ninth percentiles (relative risk = 2.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.55-2.82) and first percentile (relative risk = 5.71; 95% CI: 5.04-6.48) risk stratum compared with the population average. These findings improve risk prediction, enhance fine-mapping, and provide insight into the underlying biology of PrCa1.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2256, 2018 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892050

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise Multivariada , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco
12.
Radiat Oncol ; 13(1): 84, 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: L'Hermitte's sign (LS) after chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer appears related to higher spinal cord doses. IMRT plans limit spinal cord dose, but the incidence of LS remains high. METHODS: One hundred seventeen patients treated with TomoTherapy™ between 2008 and 2015 prospectively completed a side-effect questionnaire (VoxTox Trial Registration: UK CRN ID 13716). Baseline patient and treatment data were collected. Radiotherapy plans were analysed; mean and maximum spinal cord dose and volumes receiving 10, 20, 30 and 40 Gy were recorded. Dose variation across the cord was examined. These data were included in a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Forty two patients (35.9%) reported LS symptoms. Concurrent weekly cisplatin did not increase LS risk (p = 0.70, OR = 1.23 {95% CI 0.51-2.34}). Of 13 diabetic participants (9 taking metformin), only 1 developed LS (p = 0.025, OR = 0.13 {95% CI 0.051-3.27}). A refined binary logistic regression model showed that patients receiving unilateral radiation (p = 0.019, OR = 2.06 {95% CI 0.15-0.84}) were more likely to develop LS. Higher V40Gy (p = 0.047, OR = 1.06 {95% CI 1.00-1.12}), and younger age (mean age 56.6 vs 59.7, p = 0.060, OR = 0.96 {95% CI 0.92-1.00}) were associated with elevated risk of LS, with borderline significance. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, concomitant cisplatin did not increase risk, and LS incidence was lower in diabetic patients. Patient age and dose gradients across the spinal cord may be important factors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Medula Espinal/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Fatores de Risco , Medula Espinal/efeitos da radiação , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico
13.
Radiother Oncol ; 128(1): 26-36, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779919

RESUMO

PURPOSE: For unbiased comparison of different radiation modalities and techniques, consensus on delineation of radiation sensitive organs at risk (OARs) and on their dose constraints is warranted. Following the publication of a digital, online atlas for OAR delineation in neuro-oncology by the same group, we assessed the brain OAR-dose constraints in a follow-up study. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search to identify the current papers on OAR dose constraints for normofractionated photon and particle therapy in PubMed, Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science. Moreover, the included articles' reference lists were cross-checked for potential studies that met the inclusion criteria. Consensus was reached among 20 radiation oncology experts in the field of neuro-oncology. RESULTS: For the OARs published in the neuro-oncology literature, we summarized the available literature and recommended dose constraints associated with certain levels of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) according to the recent ICRU recommendations. For those OARs with lacking or insufficient NTCP data, a proposal for effective and efficient data collection is given. CONCLUSION: The use of the European Particle Therapy Network-consensus OAR dose constraints summarized in this article is recommended for the model-based approach comparing photon and proton beam irradiation as well as for prospective clinical trials including novel radiation techniques and/or modalities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Radioterapia com Íons Pesados/efeitos adversos , Órgãos em Risco , Terapia com Prótons/efeitos adversos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Consenso , Humanos , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos
14.
Br J Radiol ; 91(1087): 20170894, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29616822

RESUMO

MR-based image-guided (IG) radiotherapy via all-in-one MR treatment units (MR-linacs) is one of the hottest topics in contemporary radiotherapy research. From ingenious engineering solutions to complex physical problems, researchers have developed machines with the promise of superior image quality, and all the advantages this may confer. Benefits include better tumour visualisation, online adaptation and the potential for image biomarker-based personalised RT. However, it is important to remember that the technical challenges are real. In many instances, they are skillfully managed rather than abolished, a point illustrated by the wide variety of MR-linac designs. The proposed benefits also deserve careful inspection. Better visibility of the primary tumour on an IG scan cannot be bad, but does not automatically equate to better IG, which often depends on a more generalised match to daily anatomy. MR-linac will undoubtedly be a rich milieu to search for IMBs, but these will need to be carefully validated, and similar work with CT-based biomarkers using existing, cheaper, and more widely available hardware is currently ongoing. Online adaptation is an attractive concept, but practicalities are complex, and more work is required to understand which patients will benefit from plan adaptation, and when. Finally, the issue of cost cannot be overlooked, nor can the research community's responsibilities to global healthcare inequalities. MR-linac is an exciting and ingenious technology, which merits both investment and research. It may not, however, have the future to itself.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Aceleradores de Partículas , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
15.
Radiother Oncol ; 128(1): 37-43, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29548560

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To create a digital, online atlas for organs at risk (OAR) delineation in neuro-oncology based on high-quality computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. METHODS: CT and 3 Tesla (3T) MR images (slice thickness 1 mm with intravenous contrast agent) were obtained from the same patient and subsequently fused. In addition, a 7T MR without intravenous contrast agent was obtained from a healthy volunteer. Based on discussion between experienced radiation oncologists, the clinically relevant organs at risk (OARs) to be included in the atlas for neuro-oncology were determined, excluding typical head and neck OARs previously published. The draft atlas was delineated by a senior radiation oncologist, 2 residents in radiation oncology, and a senior neuro-radiologist incorporating relevant available literature. The proposed atlas was then critically reviewed and discussed by European radiation oncologists until consensus was reached. RESULTS: The online atlas includes one CT-scan at two different window settings and one MR scan (3T) showing the OARs in axial, coronal and sagittal view. This manuscript presents the three-dimensional descriptions of the fifteen consensus OARs for neuro-oncology. Among these is a new OAR relevant for neuro-cognition, the posterior cerebellum (illustrated on 7T MR images). CONCLUSION: In order to decrease inter- and intra-observer variability in delineating OARs relevant for neuro-oncology and thus derive consistent dosimetric data, we propose this atlas to be used in photon and particle therapy. The atlas is available online at www.cancerdata.org and will be updated whenever required.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Radioterapia com Íons Pesados , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Órgãos em Risco , Terapia com Prótons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Consenso , Humanos , Radiometria , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos
16.
Br J Radiol ; 91(1083): 20170651, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To enable fast and customizable automated collection of radiotherapy (RT) data from tomotherapy storage. METHODS: Human-readable data maps (TagMaps) were created to generate DICOM-RT (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine standard for Radiation Therapy) data from tomotherapy archives, and provided access to "hidden" information comprising delivery sinograms, positional corrections and adaptive-RT doses. RESULTS: 797 data sets totalling 25,000 scans were batch-exported in 31.5 h. All archived information was restored, including the data not available via commercial software. The exported data were DICOM-compliant and compatible with major commercial tools including RayStation, Pinnacle and ProSoma. The export ran without operator interventions. CONCLUSION: The TagMap method for DICOM-RT data modelling produced software that was many times faster than the vendor's solution, required minimal operator input and delivered high volumes of vendor-identical DICOM data. The approach is applicable to many clinical and research data processing scenarios and can be adapted to recover DICOM-RT data from other proprietary storage types such as Elekta, Pinnacle or ProSoma. Advances in knowledge: A novel method to translate data from proprietary storage to DICOM-RT is presented. It provides access to the data hidden in electronic archives, offers a working solution to the issues of data migration and vendor lock-in and paves the way for large-scale imaging and radiomics studies.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Auditoria Administrativa , Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia/organização & administração , Radioterapia , Automação , Humanos , Software
17.
CERN Ideasq J Exp Innov ; 1(1): 3-12, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177202

RESUMO

The VoxTox research programme has applied expertise from the physical sciences to the problem of radiotherapy toxicity, bringing together expertise from engineering, mathematics, high energy physics (including the Large Hadron Collider), medical physics and radiation oncology. In our initial cohort of 109 men treated with curative radiotherapy for prostate cancer, daily image guidance computed tomography (CT) scans have been used to calculate delivered dose to the rectum, as distinct from planned dose, using an automated approach. Clinical toxicity data have been collected, allowing us to address the hypothesis that delivered dose provides a better predictor of toxicity than planned dose.

18.
BJR Case Rep ; 3(2): 20160098, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30363212

RESUMO

A 54-year-old male presented with visual loss owing to a giant, infiltrative pituitary adenoma. Following decompressive trans-sphenoidal surgery, the patient was referred for adjuvant radiotherapy. We describe the potential utility of 11carbon methionine positron emission tomography imaging in confirming the true extent of tumour infiltration, which included the cavernous sinuses and the bones of the skull base. The co-registration of positron emission tomography imaging to planning MR and CT imaging provided assurance of complete radiotherapy coverage of the target volume and assisted with the minimisation of collateral radiation dose to adjacent organs at risk.

19.
BJR Case Rep ; 3(3): 20160145, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30363228

RESUMO

Chordomas can present a challenge to the radiation oncologist and surgeon owing to the proximity to neurological structures. We describe a case of long-term tumour control in a chordoma of the lumbar spine following high-dose palliative radiotherapy. Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy with photons provided a good solution to deliver 65 Gy to the tumour in a technically challenging case, and local control has been sustained over a period of years.

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