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1.
J Clin Invest ; 131(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373331

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) supplements may prevent bone loss and fractures in preclinical models of estrogen deficiency. However, the mechanisms by which NO modulates bone anabolism remain largely unclear. Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is the only mammalian enzyme capable of synthesizing arginine, the sole precursor for nitric oxide synthase-dependent (NOS-dependent) NO synthesis. Moreover, ASL is also required for channeling extracellular arginine to NOS for NO production. ASL deficiency (ASLD) is thus a model to study cell-autonomous, NOS-dependent NO deficiency. Here, we report that loss of ASL led to decreased NO production and impairment of osteoblast differentiation. Mechanistically, the bone phenotype was at least in part driven by the loss of NO-mediated activation of the glycolysis pathway in osteoblasts that led to decreased osteoblast differentiation and function. Heterozygous deletion of caveolin 1, a negative regulator of NO synthesis, restored NO production, osteoblast differentiation, glycolysis, and bone mass in a hypomorphic mouse model of ASLD. The translational significance of these preclinical studies was further reiterated by studies conducted in induced pluripotent stem cells from an individual with ASLD. Taken together, our findings suggest that ASLD is a unique genetic model for studying NO-dependent osteoblast function and that the NO/glycolysis pathway may be a new target to modulate bone anabolism.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) improves diagnostic rates in individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions to varying degrees, primarily by directing the prioritization of candidate DNA variants identified on exome or genome sequencing (ES/GS). Here we implemented an RNA-seq guided method to diagnose individuals across a wide range of ages and clinical phenotypes. METHODS: One hundred fifteen undiagnosed adult and pediatric patients with diverse phenotypes and 67 family members (182 total individuals) underwent RNA-seq from whole blood and fibroblasts at the Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) clinical site from 2014-2020. We implemented a workflow to detect outliers in gene expression and splicing for cases that remained undiagnosed despite standard genomic and transcriptomic analysis. RESULTS: The transcriptome-directed approach resulted in a diagnostic rate of 12% across the entire cohort, or 17% after excluding cases solved on ES/GS alone. Newly diagnosed conditions included Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KANSL1), Renpenning syndrome (PQBP1), TBCK-associated encephalopathy, NSD2- and CLTC-related intellectual disability, and others, all with negative conventional genomic testing, including ES and chromosomal microarray (CMA). Fibroblasts exhibited higher and more consistent expression of clinically relevant genes than whole blood. In solved cases with RNA-seq from both tissues, the causative defect was missed in blood in half the cases but none from fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: For our cohort of undiagnosed individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions, transcriptome-directed genomic analysis facilitated diagnoses, primarily through the identification of variants missed on ES and CMA.

3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(10): e1397, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resources within the Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN), such as genome sequencing (GS) and model organisms aid in diagnosis and identification of new disease genes, but are currently difficult to access by clinical providers. While these resources do contribute to diagnoses in many cases, they are not always necessary to reach diagnostic resolution. The UDN experience has been that participants can also receive diagnoses through the thoughtful and customized application of approaches and resources that are readily available in clinical settings. METHODS: The UDN Genetic Counseling and Testing Working Group collected case vignettes that illustrated how clinically available methods resulted in diagnoses. The case vignettes were classified into three themes; phenotypic considerations, selection of genetic testing, and evaluating exome/GS variants and data. RESULTS: We present 12 participants that illustrate how clinical practices such as phenotype-driven genomic investigations, consideration of variable expressivity, selecting the relevant tissue of interest for testing, utilizing updated testing platforms, and recognition of alternate transcript nomenclature resulted in diagnoses. CONCLUSION: These examples demonstrate that when a diagnosis is elusive, an iterative patient-specific approach utilizing assessment options available to clinical providers may solve a portion of cases. However, this does require increased provider time commitment, a particular challenge in the current practice of genomics.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(13): 2171-2184, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504080

RESUMO

Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an inborn error of cationic amino acid (arginine, lysine, ornithine) transport caused by biallelic pathogenic variants in SLC7A7, which encodes the light subunit of the y+LAT1 transporter. Treatments for the complications of LPI, including growth failure, renal disease, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, autoimmune disorders and osteoporosis, are limited. Given the early lethality of the only published global Slc7a7 knockout mouse model, a viable animal model to investigate global SLC7A7 deficiency is needed. Hence, we generated two mouse models with global Slc7a7 deficiency (Slc7a7em1Lbu/em1Lbu; Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu and Slc7a7em1(IMPC)Bay/em1(IMPC)Bay; Slc7a7Bay/Bay) using CRISPR/Cas9 technology by introducing a deletion of exons 3 and 4. Perinatal lethality was observed in Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu and Slc7a7Bay/Bay mice on the C57BL/6 and C57BL/6NJ inbred genetic backgrounds, respectively. We noted improved survival of Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu mice on the 129 Sv/Ev × C57BL/6 F2 background, but postnatal growth failure occurred. Consistent with human LPI, these Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu mice exhibited reduced plasma and increased urinary concentrations of the cationic amino acids. Histopathological assessment revealed loss of brush border and lipid vacuolation in the renal cortex of Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu mice, which combined with aminoaciduria suggests proximal tubular dysfunction. Micro-computed tomography of L4 vertebrae and skeletal radiographs showed delayed skeletal development and suggested decreased mineralization in Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu mice, respectively. In addition to delayed skeletal development and delayed development in the kidneys, the lungs and liver were observed based on histopathological assessment. Overall, our Slc7a7Lbu/Lbu mouse model on the F2 mixed background recapitulates multiple human LPI phenotypes and may be useful for future studies of LPI pathology.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(5): 717-725, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330417

RESUMO

We identified three unrelated individuals with de novo missense variants in CDK19, encoding a cyclin-dependent kinase protein family member that predominantly regulates gene transcription. These individuals presented with hypotonia, global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and dysmorphic features. CDK19 is conserved between vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms, but currently abnormalities in CDK19 are not known to be associated with a human disorder. Loss of Cdk8, the fly homolog of CDK19, causes larval lethality, which is suppressed by expression of human CDK19 reference cDNA. In contrast, the CDK19 p.Tyr32His and p.Thr196Ala variants identified in the affected individuals fail to rescue the loss of Cdk8 and behave as null alleles. Additionally, neuronal RNAi-mediated knockdown of Cdk8 in flies results in semi-lethality. The few eclosing flies exhibit severe seizures and a reduced lifespan. Both phenotypes are fully suppressed by moderate expression of the CDK19 reference cDNA but not by expression of the two variants. Finally, loss of Cdk8 causes an obvious loss of boutons and synapses at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Together, our findings demonstrate that human CDK19 fully replaces the function of Cdk8 in the fly, the human disease-associated CDK19 variants behave as strong loss-of-function variants, and deleterious CDK19 variants underlie a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Quinase 8 Dependente de Ciclina/deficiência , Quinase 8 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/deficiência , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Junção Neuromuscular , Doenças Raras/genética , Convulsões/genética , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(4): 570-583, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197074

RESUMO

EIF2AK1 and EIF2AK2 encode members of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase (EIF2AK) family that inhibits protein synthesis in response to physiologic stress conditions. EIF2AK2 is also involved in innate immune response and the regulation of signal transduction, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Despite these findings, human disorders associated with deleterious variants in EIF2AK1 and EIF2AK2 have not been reported. Here, we describe the identification of nine unrelated individuals with heterozygous de novo missense variants in EIF2AK1 (1/9) or EIF2AK2 (8/9). Features seen in these nine individuals include white matter alterations (9/9), developmental delay (9/9), impaired language (9/9), cognitive impairment (8/9), ataxia (6/9), dysarthria in probands with verbal ability (6/9), hypotonia (7/9), hypertonia (6/9), and involuntary movements (3/9). Individuals with EIF2AK2 variants also exhibit neurological regression in the setting of febrile illness or infection. We use mammalian cell lines and proband-derived fibroblasts to further confirm the pathogenicity of variants in these genes and found reduced kinase activity. EIF2AKs phosphorylate eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit 1 (EIF2S1, also known as EIF2α), which then inhibits EIF2B activity. Deleterious variants in genes encoding EIF2B proteins cause childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination/vanishing white matter (CACH/VWM), a leukodystrophy characterized by neurologic regression in the setting of febrile illness and other stressors. Our findings indicate that EIF2AK2 missense variants cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome that may share phenotypic and pathogenic mechanisms with CACH/VWM.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , eIF-2 Quinase/genética , Adolescente , Ataxia/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Substância Branca/patologia
8.
J Exp Med ; 217(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207811

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is typically caused by dominant-negative (DN) STAT3 mutations. Patients suffer from cold staphylococcal lesions and mucocutaneous candidiasis, severe allergy, and skeletal abnormalities. We report 12 patients from 8 unrelated kindreds with AD-HIES due to DN IL6ST mutations. We identified seven different truncating mutations, one of which was recurrent. The mutant alleles encode GP130 receptors bearing the transmembrane domain but lacking both the recycling motif and all four STAT3-recruiting tyrosine residues. Upon overexpression, the mutant proteins accumulate at the cell surface and are loss of function and DN for cellular responses to IL-6, IL-11, LIF, and OSM. Moreover, the patients' heterozygous leukocytes and fibroblasts respond poorly to IL-6 and IL-11. Consistently, patients with STAT3 and IL6ST mutations display infectious and allergic manifestations of IL-6R deficiency, and some of the skeletal abnormalities of IL-11R deficiency. DN STAT3 and IL6ST mutations thus appear to underlie clinical phenocopies through impairment of the IL-6 and IL-11 response pathways.

9.
JCI Insight ; 5(4)2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990680

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDLiver disease in urea cycle disorders (UCDs) ranges from hepatomegaly and chronic hepatocellular injury to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. However, the prevalence and underlying mechanisms are unclear.METHODSWe estimated the prevalence of chronic hepatocellular injury in UCDs using data from a multicenter, longitudinal, natural history study. We also used ultrasound with shear wave elastography and FibroTest to evaluate liver stiffness and markers of fibrosis in individuals with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (ASLD), a disorder with high prevalence of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT). To understand the human observations, we evaluated the hepatic phenotype of the AslNeo/Neo mouse model of ASLD.RESULTSWe demonstrate a high prevalence of elevated ALT in ASLD (37%). Hyperammonemia and use of nitrogen-scavenging agents, 2 markers of disease severity, were significantly (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively) associated with elevated ALT in ASLD. In addition, ultrasound with shear wave elastography and FibroTest revealed increased echogenicity and liver stiffness, even in individuals with ASLD and normal aminotransferases. The AslNeo/Neo mice mimic the human disorder with hepatomegaly, elevated aminotransferases, and excessive hepatic glycogen noted before death (3-5 weeks of age). This excessive hepatic glycogen is associated with impaired hepatic glycogenolysis and decreased glycogen phosphorylase and is rescued with helper-dependent adenovirus expressing Asl using a liver-specific (ApoE) promoter.CONCLUSIONOur results link urea cycle dysfunction and impaired hepatic glucose metabolism and identify a mouse model of liver disease in the setting of urea cycle dysfunction.TRIAL REGISTRATIONThis study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03721367, NCT00237315).FUNDINGFunding was provided by NIH, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, NUCDF, Genzyme/ACMG Foundation, and CPRIT.

10.
Neurol Genet ; 5(6): e366, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872050

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the findings of histopathology and genotyping studies in affected brain tissue from an individual with phacomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV). Methods: A retrospective chart review of a 2-year 10-month-old male with a clinical diagnosis of PPV cesiomarmorata (or type V) was performed. Clinical features, brain imaging and histopathology findings, and genotyping studies in his affected brain tissue are summarized. Results: The proband had a clinically severe neurologic phenotype characterized by global developmental delay, generalized hypotonia, and recurrent episodes of cardiac asystole in the setting of status epilepticus. A somatic pathogenic variant in GNA11 (c.547C>T, p.Arg183Cys) was detected in his skin tissue but not in blood (previously published). He underwent an urgent left posterior quadrantectomy for his life-threatening seizures. Histopathology of resected brain tissue showed an increase in leptomeningeal melanocytes and abnormal vasculature, and the exact pathogenic variant in GNA11 (c.547C>T, p.Arg183Cys), previously isolated from his skin tissue but not blood, was detected in his resected brain tissue. Conclusions: The finding of this variant in affected skin and brain tissue of our patient with PPV supports a unifying genetic diagnosis of his neurocutaneous features.

11.
Mol Genet Metab ; 128(4): 431-443, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organic acidemias, especially propionic acidemia (PA) and methylmalonic acidemia (MMA), may manifest clinically within the first few hours to days of life. The classic presentation in the newborn period includes metabolic acidosis, hyperlactatemia, and hyperammonemia that is precipitated by unrestricted protein intake. Implementation of newborn screening to diagnose and initiate early treatment has facilitated a reduction in neonatal mortality and improved survival. Despite early diagnosis and appropriate management, these individuals are prone to have recurrent episodes of metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia resulting in frequent hospitalizations. Liver transplantation (LT) has been proposed as a treatment modality to reduce metabolic decompensations which are not controlled by medical management. Published reports on the outcome of LT show heterogeneous results regarding clinical and biochemical features in the post transplantation period. As a result, we evaluated the outcomes of LT in our institution and compared it to the previously published data. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of nine individuals with PA or MMA who underwent LT and two individuals with MMA who underwent LT and kidney transplantation (KT). Data including number of hospitalizations, laboratory measures, cardiac and neurological outcomes, dietary protein intake, and growth parameters were collected. RESULTS: The median age of transplantation for subjects with MMA was 7.2 years with a median follow up of 4.3 years. The median age of transplantation for subjects with PA was 1.9 years with a median follow up of 5.4 years. The survival rate at 1 year and 5 years post-LT was 100%. Most of our subjects did not have any episodes of hyperammonemia or pancreatitis post-LT. There was significant reduction in plasma glycine post-LT. One subject developed mild elevation in ammonia post-LT on an unrestricted protein diet, suggesting that protein restriction may be indicated even after LT. CONCLUSION: In a large single center study of LT in MMA and PA, we show that LT may reduce the incidence of metabolic decompensation. Moreover, our data suggest that LT may be associated with reduced number of hospitalizations and improved linear growth in individuals with PA and MMA.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/terapia , Transplante de Fígado , Acidemia Propiônica/terapia , Adolescente , Alelos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/diagnóstico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/mortalidade , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Função Hepática , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Acidemia Propiônica/diagnóstico , Acidemia Propiônica/genética , Acidemia Propiônica/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Ann Neurol ; 86(1): 116-128, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Individuals with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) often present with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The major aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on cognitive outcomes in UCDs. METHODS: This prospective, observational, multicenter study includes data from 503 individuals with UCDs who had comprehensive neurocognitive testing with a cumulative follow-up of 702 patient-years. RESULTS: The mean cognitive standard deviation score (cSDS) was lower in symptomatic than in asymptomatic (p < 0.001, t test) individuals with UCDs. Intellectual disability (intellectual quotient < 70, cSDS < -2.0) was associated with the respective subtype of UCD and early disease onset, whereas height of the initial peak plasma ammonium concentration was inversely associated with neurocognitive outcomes in mitochondrial (proximal) rather than cytosolic (distal) UCDs. In ornithine transcarbamylase and argininosuccinate synthetase 1 deficiencies, we did not find evidence that monoscavenger therapy with sodium or glycerol phenylbutyrate was superior to sodium benzoate in providing cognitive protection. Early liver transplantation appears to be beneficial for UCDs. It is noteworthy that individuals with argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and argininosuccinate lyase deficiencies identified by newborn screening had better neurocognitive outcomes than those diagnosed after the manifestation of first symptoms. INTERPRETATION: Cognitive function is related to interventional and non-interventional variables. Early detection by newborn screening and early liver transplantation appear to offer greater cognitive protection, but none of the currently used nitrogen scavengers was superior with regard to long-term neurocognitive outcome. Further confirmation could determine these variables as important clinical indicators of neuroprotection for individuals with UCDs. ANN NEUROL 2019.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/diagnóstico , Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glicerol/análogos & derivados , Glicerol/farmacologia , Glicerol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Masculino , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Fenilbutiratos/farmacologia , Fenilbutiratos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 12, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disorders are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous encompassing developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), structural brain abnormalities, and neurological manifestations with variants in a large number of genes (hundreds) associated. To date, a few de novo mutations potentially disrupting TCF20 function in patients with ID, ASD, and hypotonia have been reported. TCF20 encodes a transcriptional co-regulator structurally related to RAI1, the dosage-sensitive gene responsible for Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion/haploinsufficiency) and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (duplication/triplosensitivity). METHODS: Genome-wide analyses by exome sequencing (ES) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) identified individuals with heterozygous, likely damaging, loss-of-function alleles in TCF20. We implemented further molecular and clinical analyses to determine the inheritance of the pathogenic variant alleles and studied the spectrum of phenotypes. RESULTS: We report 25 unique inactivating single nucleotide variants/indels (1 missense, 1 canonical splice-site variant, 18 frameshift, and 5 nonsense) and 4 deletions of TCF20. The pathogenic variants were detected in 32 patients and 4 affected parents from 31 unrelated families. Among cases with available parental samples, the variants were de novo in 20 instances and inherited from 4 symptomatic parents in 5, including in one set of monozygotic twins. Two pathogenic loss-of-function variants were recurrent in unrelated families. Patients presented with a phenotype characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, variable dysmorphic features, movement disorders, and sleep disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: TCF20 pathogenic variants are associated with a novel syndrome manifesting clinical characteristics similar to those observed in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Together with previously described cases, the clinical entity of TCF20-associated neurodevelopmental disorders (TAND) emerges from a genotype-driven perspective.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação INDEL , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 422-438, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773277

RESUMO

SPONASTRIME dysplasia is an autosomal-recessive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia characterized by spine (spondylar) abnormalities, midface hypoplasia with a depressed nasal bridge, metaphyseal striations, and disproportionate short stature. Scoliosis, coxa vara, childhood cataracts, short dental roots, and hypogammaglobulinemia have also been reported in this disorder. Although an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been hypothesized, pathogenic variants in a specific gene have not been discovered in individuals with SPONASTRIME dysplasia. Here, we identified bi-allelic variants in TONSL, which encodes the Tonsoku-like DNA repair protein, in nine subjects (from eight families) with SPONASTRIME dysplasia, and four subjects (from three families) with short stature of varied severity and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with or without immunologic and hematologic abnormalities, but no definitive metaphyseal striations at diagnosis. The finding of early embryonic lethality in a Tonsl-/- murine model and the discovery of reduced length, spinal abnormalities, reduced numbers of neutrophils, and early lethality in a tonsl-/- zebrafish model both support the hypomorphic nature of the identified TONSL variants. Moreover, functional studies revealed increased amounts of spontaneous replication fork stalling and chromosomal aberrations, as well as fewer camptothecin (CPT)-induced RAD51 foci in subject-derived cell lines. Importantly, these cellular defects were rescued upon re-expression of wild-type (WT) TONSL; this rescue is consistent with the hypothesis that hypomorphic TONSL variants are pathogenic. Overall, our studies in humans, mice, zebrafish, and subject-derived cell lines confirm that pathogenic variants in TONSL impair DNA replication and homologous recombination-dependent repair processes, and they lead to a spectrum of skeletal dysplasia phenotypes with numerous extra-skeletal manifestations.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Cromossômica , Dano ao DNA , Variação Genética , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/patologia , NF-kappa B/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra
16.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 1977-1986, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670878

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Untargeted metabolomic analysis is increasingly being used in the screening and management of individuals with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). We aimed to test whether untargeted metabolomic analysis in plasma might be useful for monitoring the disease course and management of urea cycle disorders (UCDs). METHODS: Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis was used to generate z-scores for more than 900 metabolites in plasma from 48 individuals with various UCDs. Pathway analysis was used to identify common pathways that were perturbed in each UCD. RESULTS: Our metabolomic analysis in plasma identified multiple potentially neurotoxic metabolites of arginine in arginase deficiency and, thus, may have utility in monitoring the efficacy of treatment in arginase deficiency. In addition, we were also able to detect multiple biochemical perturbations in all UCDs that likely reflect clinical management, including metabolite alterations secondary to dietary and medication management. CONCLUSION: In addition to utility in screening for IEM, our results suggest that untargeted metabolomic analysis in plasma may be beneficial for monitoring efficacy of clinical management and off-target effects of medications in UCDs and potentially other IEM.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/sangue , Metabolômica , Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/patologia , Ureia/metabolismo , Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/genética , Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/patologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Med Genet ; 62(6): 103531, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142436

RESUMO

Interstitial deletions involving chromosome region 6p21.31p21.2 have not been previously reported in the literature. Here, we present a 2 year old girl with global developmental delay, severe speech delay, dysmorphic features, laryngeal cleft, anterior descending aorta that occluded the left main bronchus and a novel de novo deletion of chromosome 6: arr[hg19] 6p21.31p21.2 (35462950-36725083)x1. The deletion, which was diagnosed by array comparative genomic hybridization and further confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridization, was approximately 1.26 Mb and contained 28 RefSeq genes. The deleted region includes 24 protein coding genes and 4 non-coding genes. This represents a novel microdeletion that has not been previously reported in the literature.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/anormalidades , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Laringe/anormalidades , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos Cromossômicos/patologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laringe/patologia , Síndrome
18.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1652-1656, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568308

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Brain malformations caused by 17p13.3 deletions include lissencephaly with deletions of the larger Miller-Dieker syndrome region or smaller deletions of only PAFAH1B1, white matter changes, and a distinct syndrome due to deletions including YWHAE and CRK but sparing PAFAH1B1. We sought to understand the significance of 17p13.3 deletions between the YWHAE/CRK and PAFAH1B1 loci. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical features of six individuals from five families with 17p13.3 deletions between and not including YWHAE/CRK and PAFAH1B1 identified among individuals undergoing clinical chromosomal microarray testing or research genome sequencing. RESULTS: Five individuals from four families had multifocal white matter lesions while a sixth had a normal magnetic resonance image. A combination of our individuals and a review of those in the literature with white matter changes and deletions in this chromosomal region narrows the overlapping region for this brain phenotype to ~345 kb, including 11 RefSeq genes, with RTN4RL1 haploinsufficiency as the best candidate for causing this phenotype. CONCLUSION: While previous literature has hypothesized dysmorphic features and white matter changes related to YWHAE, our cohort contributes evidence to the presence of additional genetic changes within 17p13.3 required for proper brain development.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , 1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterase/genética , Proteínas 14-3-3/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética
20.
Genet Med ; 21(1): 233-242, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907798

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Describe the clinical and molecular findings of patients with Kabuki syndrome (KS) who present with hypoglycemia due to congenital hyperinsulinism (HI), and assess the incidence of KS in patients with HI. METHODS: We documented the clinical features and molecular diagnoses of 9 infants with persistent HI and KS via a combination of sequencing and copy-number profiling methodologies. Subsequently, we retrospectively evaluated 100 infants with HI lacking a genetic diagnosis, for causative variants in KS genes. RESULTS: Molecular diagnoses of KS were established by identification of pathogenic variants in KMT2D (n = 5) and KDM6A (n = 4). Among the 100 infants with HI of unknown genetic etiology, a KS diagnosis was uncovered in one patient. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of HI among patients with KS may be higher than previously reported, and KS may account for as much as 1% of patients diagnosed with HI. As the recognition of dysmorphic features associated with KS is challenging in the neonatal period, we propose KS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of HI. Since HI in patients with KS is well managed medically, a timely recognition of hyperinsulinemic episodes will improve outcomes, and prevent aggravation of the preexisting mild to moderate intellectual disability in KS.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Hiperinsulinismo Congênito/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Face/anormalidades , Doenças Hematológicas/genética , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Doenças Vestibulares/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Hiperinsulinismo Congênito/complicações , Hiperinsulinismo Congênito/diagnóstico , Hiperinsulinismo Congênito/fisiopatologia , Face/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças Hematológicas/complicações , Doenças Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Hematológicas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação , Patologia Molecular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Vestibulares/complicações , Doenças Vestibulares/diagnóstico , Doenças Vestibulares/fisiopatologia
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