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1.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 375-383, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230546

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with low birth weight, shorter gestational age, and increased risk of maternal and offspring cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a part. We performed meta-analyses in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics Consortium to test the association between either maternal HDP (10 cohorts; n=5242 [cases=476]) or preeclampsia (3 cohorts; n=2219 [cases=135]) and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In models adjusted for confounders, and with Bonferroni correction, HDP and preeclampsia were associated with DNA methylation at 43 and 26 CpG sites, respectively. HDP was associated with higher methylation at 27 (63%) of the 43 sites, and across all 43 sites, the mean absolute difference in methylation was between 0.6% and 2.6%. Epigenome-wide associations of HDP with offspring DNA methylation were modestly consistent with the equivalent epigenome-wide associations of preeclampsia with offspring DNA methylation (R2=0.26). In longitudinal analyses conducted in 1 study (n=108 HDP cases; 550 controls), there were similar changes in DNA methylation in offspring of those with and without HDP up to adolescence. Pathway analysis suggested that genes located at/near HDP-associated sites may be involved in developmental, embryogenesis, or neurological pathways. HDP is associated with offspring DNA methylation with potential relevance to development.

2.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 6, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA CN) exhibits interindividual and intercellular variation, but few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of directly assayed mtDNA CN exist. We undertook a GWAS of qPCR-assayed mtDNA CN in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the UK Blood Service (UKBS) cohort. After validating and harmonising data, 5461 ALSPAC mothers (16-43 years at mtDNA CN assay) and 1338 UKBS females (17-69 years) were included in a meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses restricted to females with white cell-extracted DNA and adjusted for estimated or assayed cell proportions. Associations were also explored in ALSPAC children and UKBS males. RESULTS: A neutrophil-associated locus approached genome-wide significance (rs709591 [MED24], ß (change in SD units of mtDNA CN per allele) [SE] - 0.084 [0.016], p = 1.54e-07) in the main meta-analysis of adult females. This association was concordant in magnitude and direction in UKBS males and ALSPAC neonates. SNPs in and around ABHD8 were associated with mtDNA CN in ALSPAC neonates (rs10424198, ß [SE] 0.262 [0.034], p = 1.40e-14), but not other study groups. In a meta-analysis of unrelated individuals (N = 11,253), we replicated a published association in TFAM (ß [SE] 0.046 [0.017], p = 0.006), with an effect size much smaller than that observed in the replication analysis of a previous in silico GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: In a hypothesis-generating GWAS, we confirm an association between TFAM and mtDNA CN and present putative loci requiring replication in much larger samples. We discuss the limitations of our work, in terms of measurement error and cellular heterogeneity, and highlight the need for larger studies to better understand nuclear genomic control of mtDNA copy number.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
Eur Respir J ; 53(4)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765504

RESUMO

RATIONALE: We aimed to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in cord blood DNA associated with childhood lung function, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) across the life course. METHODS: We meta-analysed epigenome-wide data of 1688 children from five cohorts to identify cord blood DMRs and their annotated genes, in relation to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio and forced expiratory flow at 75% of FVC at ages 7-13 years. Identified DMRs were explored for associations with childhood asthma, adult lung function and COPD, gene expression and involvement in biological processes. RESULTS: We identified 59 DMRs associated with childhood lung function, of which 18 were associated with childhood asthma and nine with COPD in adulthood. Genes annotated to the top 10 identified DMRs were HOXA5, PAOX, LINC00602, ABCA7, PER3, CLCA1, VENTX, NUDT12, PTPRN2 and TCL1A. Differential gene expression in blood was observed for 32 DMRs in childhood and 18 in adulthood. Genes related with 16 identified DMRs were associated with respiratory developmental or pathogenic pathways. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that the epigenetic status of the newborn affects respiratory health and disease across the life course.

4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2062-2074, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation, can contribute to childhood asthma. Identifying DNA methylation profiles in asthmatic patients can inform disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify differential DNA methylation in newborns and children related to childhood asthma. METHODS: Within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics consortium, we performed epigenome-wide meta-analyses of school-age asthma in relation to CpG methylation (Illumina450K) in blood measured either in newborns, in prospective analyses, or cross-sectionally in school-aged children. We also identified differentially methylated regions. RESULTS: In newborns (8 cohorts, 668 cases), 9 CpGs (and 35 regions) were differentially methylated (epigenome-wide significance, false discovery rate < 0.05) in relation to asthma development. In a cross-sectional meta-analysis of asthma and methylation in children (9 cohorts, 631 cases), we identified 179 CpGs (false discovery rate < 0.05) and 36 differentially methylated regions. In replication studies of methylation in other tissues, most of the 179 CpGs discovered in blood replicated, despite smaller sample sizes, in studies of nasal respiratory epithelium or eosinophils. Pathway analyses highlighted enrichment for asthma-relevant immune processes and overlap in pathways enriched both in newborns and children. Gene expression correlated with methylation at most loci. Functional annotation supports a regulatory effect on gene expression at many asthma-associated CpGs. Several implicated genes are targets for approved or experimental drugs, including IL5RA and KCNH2. CONCLUSION: Novel loci differentially methylated in newborns represent potential biomarkers of risk of asthma by school age. Cross-sectional associations in children can reflect both risk for and effects of disease. Asthma-related differential methylation in blood in children was substantially replicated in eosinophils and respiratory epithelium.

5.
Epigenomics ; 10(1): 27-42, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172695

RESUMO

AIM: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is sometimes associated with adverse outcomes in offspring, potentially mediated by epigenetic modifications. We aimed to investigate genome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood of newborns exposed to alcohol in utero. MATERIALS & METHODS: We meta-analyzed information from six population-based birth cohorts within the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics consortium. RESULTS: We found no strong evidence of association at either individual CpGs or across larger regions of the genome. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest no association between maternal alcohol consumption and offspring cord blood DNA methylation. This is in stark contrast to the multiple strong associations previous studies have found for maternal smoking, which is similarly socially patterned. However, it is possible that a combination of a larger sample size, higher doses, different timings of exposure, exploration of a different tissue and a more global assessment of genomic DNA methylation might show evidence of association.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Metilação de DNA , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Exposição Materna , Troca Materno-Fetal , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Mitochondrion ; 39: 9-19, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28818596

RESUMO

The mitochondrial genome is present at variable copy number between individuals. Mitochondria are vulnerable to oxidative stress, and their dysfunction may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The association of mitochondrial DNA copy number with cardiometabolic risk factors (lipids, glycaemic traits, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and blood pressure) was assessed in two independent cohorts of European origin women, one in whom outcomes were measured at mean (SD) age 30 (4.3) years (N=2278) and the second at 69.4 (5.5) years (N=2872). Mitochondrial DNA copy number was assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations were adjusted for smoking, sociodemographic status, laboratory factors and white cell traits. Out of a total of 12 outcomes assessed in both cohorts, mitochondrial DNA copy number showed little or no association with the majority (point estimates were close to zero and nearly all p-values were >0.01). The strongest evidence was for an inverse association in the older cohort with insulin (standardised beta [95%CI]: -0.06, [-0.098, -0.022], p=0.002), but this association did not replicate in the younger cohort. Our findings do not provide support for variation in mitochondrial DNA copy number having an important impact on cardio-metabolic risk factors in European origin women.

7.
Nat Genet ; 49(12): 1752-1757, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29083406

RESUMO

Asthma, hay fever (or allergic rhinitis) and eczema (or atopic dermatitis) often coexist in the same individuals, partly because of a shared genetic origin. To identify shared risk variants, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS; n = 360,838) of a broad allergic disease phenotype that considers the presence of any one of these three diseases. We identified 136 independent risk variants (P < 3 × 10-8), including 73 not previously reported, which implicate 132 nearby genes in allergic disease pathophysiology. Disease-specific effects were detected for only six variants, confirming that most represent shared risk factors. Tissue-specific heritability and biological process enrichment analyses suggest that shared risk variants influence lymphocyte-mediated immunity. Six target genes provide an opportunity for drug repositioning, while for 36 genes CpG methylation was found to influence transcription independently of genetic effects. Asthma, hay fever and eczema partly coexist because they share many genetic risk variants that dysregulate the expression of immune-related genes.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Eczema/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
8.
Clin Epigenetics ; 9: 112, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma heritability has only been partially explained by genetic variants and is known to be sensitive to environmental factors, implicating epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation in its pathogenesis. METHODS: Using data collected in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we assessed associations of asthma and wheeze with DNA methylation at 7.5 and 16.5 years, at over 450,000 CpG sites in DNA from the peripheral blood of approx. 1000 participants. We used Mendelian randomization (MR), a method of causal inference that uses genetic variants as instrumental variables, to infer the direction of association between DNA methylation and asthma. RESULTS: We identified 302 CpGs associated with current asthma status (FDR-adjusted P value < 0.05) and 445 with current wheeze status at 7.5 years, with substantial overlap between the two. Genes annotated to the 302 associated CpGs were enriched for pathways related to movement of cellular/subcellular components, locomotion, interleukin-4 production and eosinophil migration. All associations attenuated when adjusted for eosinophil and neutrophil cell count estimates. At 16.5 years, two sites were associated with current asthma after adjustment for cell counts. The CpGs mapped to the AP2A2 and IL5RA genes, with a - 2.32 [95% CI - 1.47, - 3.18] and - 2.49 [95% CI - 1.56, - 3.43] difference in percentage methylation in asthma cases respectively. Two-sample bi-directional MR indicated a causal effect of asthma on DNA methylation at several CpG sites at 7.5 years. However, associations did not persist after adjustment for multiple testing. There was no evidence of a causal effect of asthma on DNA methylation at either of the two CpG sites at 16.5 years. CONCLUSION: The majority of observed associations are driven by higher eosinophil cell counts in asthma cases, acting as an intermediate phenotype, with important implications for future studies of DNA methylation in atopic diseases.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Sons Respiratórios/genética , Complexo 2 de Proteínas Adaptadoras/genética , Subunidades alfa do Complexo de Proteínas Adaptadoras/genética , Adolescente , Asma/imunologia , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , Eosinófilos/citologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-5/genética , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Neutrófilos/citologia , Sons Respiratórios/imunologia
9.
Clin Chem ; 59(1): 234-44, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23169475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a widely used biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa), is encoded by a kallikrein gene (KLK3, kallikrein-related peptidase 3). Serum PSA concentrations vary in the population, with PCa patients generally showing higher PSA concentrations than control individuals, although a small proportion of individuals in the population display very low PSA concentrations. We hypothesized that very low PSA concentrations might reflect gene-inactivating mutations in KLK3 that lead to abnormally reduced gene expression. METHODS: We have sequenced all KLK3 exons and the promoter and searched for gross deletions or duplications in KLK3 in the 30 individuals with the lowest observed PSA concentrations in a sample of approximately 85 000 men from the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study. The ProtecT study examines a community-based population of men from across the UK with little prior PSA testing. RESULTS: We observed no stop codons or frameshift mutations, but we did find 30 single-base genetic variants, including 3 variants not described previously. These variants included missense variants that could be functionally inactivating and splicing variants. At this stage, however, we cannot confidently conclude whether these variants markedly lower PSA concentration or activity. More importantly, we identified 3 individuals with different large heterozygous deletions that encompass all KLK3 exons. The absence of a functional copy of KLK3 in these individuals is consistent with their reduced serum PSA concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical interpretation of the PSA test for individuals with KLK3 gene inactivation could lead to false-negative PSA findings used for screening, diagnosis, or monitoring of PCa.


Assuntos
Deleção de Genes , Calicreínas/genética , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Éxons , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Antígeno Prostático Específico/genética
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