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1.
Foods ; 10(11)2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828851

RESUMO

Food fraud is a criminal intent motivated by economic gain to adulterate or misrepresent food ingredients and packaging. The development of a reliable food supply system is at great risk under globalization, but Food Business Operators (FBOs) have a legal obligation to implement and maintain food traceability and quality at all stages of food production, processing, and distribution. Incidents of food fraud have a strong negative impact on consumer confidence in the food industry. Therefore, local and international regulatory mechanisms are established to prevent or mitigate food fraud. This review brings new perspectives linking EU and US legislation, as well as new definitions and descriptions of the criminal aspect of food fraud incidents. It also describes certain new insights into the application of state-of-the-art methods and techniques that provide valuable tools for geographic, botanical, or other chemical markers of food authenticity. The review also provides an overview of the most common cases of food fraud worldwide from 2010 to 2020. Further research is needed to support the development of predictive models for innovative approaches to adulteration, especially when some valuable nutrients are replaced by toxic ingredients. A possible solution to minimize food fraud incidents is to increase the level of risk-based inspections, establish more productive monitoring and implementation of food protection systems in the supply chain, and implement better ingredient control and certification. National and international (e.g., regional) police offices for food fraud should be introduced, possessing knowledge and skills in food, food safety, food processing, and food products, as initial positive results have emerged in some countries.

2.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068025

RESUMO

Consumers are becoming more mindful of their well-being. Increasing awareness of the many beneficial properties of peppermint essential oil (EO) has significantly increased product sales in recent years. Hydrodistillation (HD), a proven conventional method, and a possible alternative in the form of microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD) have been used to isolate peppermint EO. Standard Soxhlet and alternatively supercritical fluid (SFE), microwave-assisted, and ultrasound-assisted extraction separated the lipid extracts. The distillations employed various power settings, and the EO yield varied from 0.15 to 0.80%. The estimated environmental impact in terms of electricity consumption and CO2 emissions suggested that MWHD is an energy efficient way to reduce CO2 emissions. Different extraction methods and solvent properties affected the lipid extract yield, which ranged from 2.55 to 5.36%. According to the corresponding values of statistical parameters, empiric mathematical models were successfully applied to model the kinetics of MWHD and SFE processes.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Destilação , Eletricidade , Cinética , Micro-Ondas , Tamanho da Partícula , Pressão
3.
Foods ; 10(6)2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071017

RESUMO

This study investigated the status of bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and vitamin C), changes in color performance, and microbiological quality in smoothies preserved by high-pressure processing (HP) and thermal pasteurization (P) during cold storage at 4 °C for 21 days. Chemometric tools were used to select relevant variables that represent the most useful information for the fast and accurate quality assessment of smoothies. HP was performed at 350 and 450 MPa for 5 and 15 min at room temperature, respectively, while P was performed at 85 °C for 7 min. Smoothies were prepared by blending juices of apple (50%, v/v), carrot (20%, v/v), chokeberry (5%, v/v), Indian banana puree (10%, w/v), and almond drink (15%, v/v). The results obtained indicated that lower pressures with a shorter duration of HP showed higher levels of bioactive compounds in the smoothies, compared to the control samples. Compared to P, the HP samples exhibited a greater stability of bioactive compounds during shelf life. HP was found to be highly effective in reducing the native microflora of the smoothies, without subsequent microbial activation during storage. This study demonstrated the usefulness of the chemometric approach in interpreting complex datasets for the effective quality assessment of smoothies treated with different preservation technologies.

4.
Foods ; 10(4)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810442

RESUMO

The Republic of Croatia has a long tradition of fruit growing due to its geographical location, climatic conditions, and high quality of fruit crops, especially apple fruits. Apples can be used for the formulation of functional foods either in processed form (e.g., juice), or as a by-product (e.g., apple pomace). However, there is a growing demand for functional foods derived from ancient and traditional plant sources as they are recognized as a very valuable source of health-promoting bioactive ingredients. Similarly, old apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh.) are characterized by good morphological and pomological properties, less need for chemicals during cultivation and the higher share of biologically active compounds (BACs) with better sensory acceptability compared to commercial cultivars. However, their nutritional and biological potential is underestimated, as is their ability to be processed into functional food. The importance in preserving old apple cultivars can also be seen in their significance for improving the nutritional composition of other apple cultivars through innovative cultivation strategies, and therefore old local apple cultivars could be of great importance in future breeding programs.

5.
Foods ; 10(1)2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374399

RESUMO

Fruit juices contain a large number of phytochemicals that, in combination with certain drugs, can cause food-drug interactions that can be clinically significant and lead to adverse events. The mechanisms behind such interactions are in most cases related to phytochemical interference with the activity of cytochrome P450 metabolizing enzymes (CYPs) or drug transporters. Moreover, alterations in their activity can have a clinical relevance if systemic exposure to the drug is decreased or increased, meaning that the pharmacological drug effects are suboptimal, or the drug will cause toxicity. In general, the common pharmacokinetic parameters found to be altered in food-drug interactions regarding fruit juices are the area under the concentration-time curve, bioavailability, and maximum plasma concentration. In most cases, the results from the drug interaction studies with fruit juices provide only limited information due to the small number of subjects, which are also healthy volunteers. Moreover, drug interactions with fruit juices are challenging to predict due to the unknown amounts of the specific phytochemicals responsible for the interaction, as well as due to the inter-individual variability of drug metabolism, among others. Therefore, this work aims to raise awareness about possible pharmacological interactions with fruit juices.

6.
Foods ; 9(11)2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113877

RESUMO

Sous-vide is a technique of cooking foods in vacuum bags under strictly controlled temperature, offering improved taste, texture and nutritional values along with extended shelf life as compared to the traditional cooking methods. In addition to other constituents, vegetables and seafood represent important sources of phytochemicals. Thus, by applying sous-vide technology, preservation of such foods can be prolonged with almost full retention of native quality. In this way, sous-vide processing meets customers' growing demand for the production of safer and healthier foods. Considering the industrial points of view, sous-vide technology has proven to be an adequate substitute for traditional cooking methods. Therefore, its application in various aspects of food production has been increasingly researched. Although sous-vide cooking of meats and vegetables is well explored, the challenges remain with seafoods due to the large differences in structure and quality of marine organisms. Cephalopods (e.g., squid, octopus, etc.) are of particular interest, as the changes of their muscular physical structure during processing have to be carefully considered. Based on all the above, this study summarizes the literature review on the recent sous-vide application on vegetable and seafood products in view of production of high-quality and safe foodstuffs.

7.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630185

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to valorize the oil recovery from red and white grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) that remains as by-product after the winemaking process. Oils were extracted by modern techniques, ultrasound assisted (UAE), microwave assisted (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and compared to the Soxhlet extraction (SE). Firstly, SFE was optimized at different operating conditions: pressure (250-350 bar), temperature (40-60 °C), CO2 flow rate (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 kg h-1), and particle size (315-800 µm and >800 µm). The highest extraction yields were achieved by SFE at the optimal conditions: 350 bar, 60 °C, 0.4 kg h-1. Afterwards, SFE was compared to SE, UAE and MAE with respect to oil extraction yields, and analyzed for fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity. Considering the general classification of fatty acids, it was found that samples had high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, regardless of extraction technology. Tocopherol content was significantly influenced by all extraction methods, whereas UAE and MAE resulted in extracts richer with lipophilic antioxidants. In conclusion, modern extractions that are suited for industrial applications had better performance as compared to SE, as judging by the oil yield and quality.

8.
Foods ; 9(7)2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708933

RESUMO

Over the last decade, fruit juice consumption has increased. Their rise in popularity can be attributed to the belief that they are a quick way to consuming a dietary portion of fruit. Probiotics added to fruit juices produce various bioactive compounds, thus probiotic fruit juices can be considered as a new type of functional foods. Such combinations could improve nutritional properties and provide health benefits of fruit juices, due to delivering positive health attributes from both sources (fruit juices and probiotics). However, this review discusses the other side of the same coin, i.e., the one that challenges general beliefs that probiotics are undoubtedly safe. This topic deserves more acknowledgments from the medical and nutritional literature, as it is highly important for health care professionals and nutritionists who must be aware of potential probiotic issues. Still, clinical trials have not adequately questioned the safety of probiotics, as they are generally considered safe. Therefore, this reviews aims to give an evidence-based perspective of probiotic safety, focusing on probiotic fruit beverages and nutraceuticals, by providing documented clinical case reports and studies. Finally, the paper deals with some additional insights from the pharmacological and toxicological point of views, such as pharmacological repercussions of probiotics on health.

9.
Mar Drugs ; 18(3)2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197494

RESUMO

Over the years, brown algae bioactive polysaccharides laminarin, alginate and fucoidan have been isolated and used in functional foods, cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical industries. The extraction process of these polysaccharides includes several complex and time-consuming steps and the correct adjustment of extraction parameters (e.g., time, temperature, power, pressure, solvent and sample to solvent ratio) greatly influences the yield, physical, chemical and biochemical properties as well as their biological activities. This review includes the most recent conventional procedures for brown algae polysaccharides extraction along with advanced extraction techniques (microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction and enzymes assisted extraction) which can effectively improve extraction process. The influence of these extraction techniques and their individual parameters on yield, chemical structure and biological activities from the most current literature is discussed, along with their potential for commercial applications as bioactive compounds and drug delivery systems.


Assuntos
Feófitas , Polissacarídeos/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Humanos
10.
Annu Rev Food Sci Technol ; 11: 93-118, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905019

RESUMO

Functional foods is a very popular term in the social and scientific media; consequently, food producers have invested resources in the development of processed foods that may provide added functional benefits to consumers' well-being. Because of intrinsic regulation and end-of-use purposes in different countries, worldwide meanings and definitions of this term are still unclear. Hence, here we standardize this definition and propose a guideline to attest that some ingredients or foods truly deserve this special designation. Furthermore, focus is directed at the most recent studies and practical guidelines that can be used to develop and test the efficacy of potentially functional foods and ingredients. The most widespread functional ingredients, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), probiotics/prebiotics/synbiotics, and antioxidants, and their technological means of delivery in food products are described. The review discusses the steps that food companies should take to ensure that their developed food product is truly functional.


Assuntos
Alimento Funcional , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimento Funcional/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
11.
Foods ; 8(12)2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795393

RESUMO

This study evaluates the quality of chilled squid Loligo vulgaris by non-destructive measurements of bioelectrical impedance from the first post-mortem day under controlled conditions. Squid samples were stored at 4.5 °C and 55% of relative humidity for 11 days. Impedance magnitude (|Z|) and phase (φ) at 200 frequencies (100Hz to 100MHz) were measured using an Agilent 4294A Precision Impedance Analyzer with needle-type multi-electrode array on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, and 11 of storage. The changes in color, sensory properties, total volatile nitrogen, pH, and water holding capacity were also determined. The obtained results indicated that the samples could be classified into five to six distinctive groups by measuring the electrical parameters at frequencies close to 5MHz. In general, φ is less dependent on temperature and measurement setup than |Z|, while records at 5MHz correlate well with the days of storage (R2 = 0.968). The data imply that it is only possible to estimate the length of storage for the samples with measurements of phase angle, which can be useful for the development of new analytical instruments. Biosensors have a practical industrial application, as it is demonstrated that bioelectrical impedance data correlates well with the days of chilled storage.

12.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731548

RESUMO

The circular economy is an umbrella concept that applies different mechanisms aiming to minimize waste generation, thus decoupling economic growth from natural resources. Each year, an estimated one-third of all food produced is wasted; this is equivalent to 1.3 billion tons of food, which is worth around US$1 trillion or even $2.6 trillion when social and economic costs are included. In the fruit and vegetable sector, 45% of the total produced amount is lost in the production (post-harvest, processing, and distribution) and consumption chains. Therefore, it is necessary to find new technological and environmentally friendly solutions to utilize fruit wastes as new raw materials to develop and scale up the production of high value-added products and ingredients. Considering that the production and consumption of fruits has increased in the last years and following the need to find the sustainable use of different fruit side streams, this work aimed to describe the chemical composition and bioactivity of different fruit seeds consumed worldwide. A comprehensive focus is given on the extraction techniques of water-soluble and lipophilic compounds and in vitro/in vivo functionalities, and the link between chemical composition and observed activity is holistically explained.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Frutas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes/química , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais/economia
13.
Foods ; 8(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374833

RESUMO

This paper gives an overview of scientific challenges that occur when performing life-cycle assessment (LCA) in the food supply chain. In order to evaluate these risks, the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis tool has been used. Challenges related to setting the goal and scope of LCA revealed four hot spots: system boundaries of LCA; used functional units; type and quality of data categories, and main assumptions and limitations of the study. Within the inventory analysis, challenging issues are associated with allocation of material and energy flows and waste streams released to the environment. Impact assessment brings uncertainties in choosing appropriate environmental impacts. Finally, in order to interpret results, a scientifically sound sensitivity analysis should be performed to check how stable calculations and results are. Identified challenges pave the way for improving LCA of food supply chains in order to enable comparison of results.

14.
Foods ; 8(7)2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate high voltage electrical discharges (HVED) as a green technology, in order to establish the effectiveness of phenolic extraction from olive leaves against conventional extraction (CE). HVED parameters included different green solvents (water, ethanol), treatment times (3 and 9 min), gases (nitrogen, argon), and voltages (15, 20, 25 kV). METHODS: Phenolic compounds were characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS), while antioxidant potency (total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity) were monitored spectrophotometrically. Data for Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) spectroscopy, colorimetry, zeta potential, particle size, and conductivity were also reported. RESULTS: The highest yield of phenolic compounds was obtained for the sample treated with argon/9 min/20 kV/50% (3.2 times higher as compared to CE). Obtained results suggested the usage of HVED technology in simultaneous extraction and nanoformulation, and production of stable emulsion systems. Antioxidant capacity (AOC) of obtained extracts showed no significant difference upon the HVED treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Ethanol with HVED destroys the linkage between phenolic compounds and components of the plant material to which they are bound. All extracts were compliant with legal requirements regarding content of contaminants, pesticide residues and toxic metals. In conclusion, HVED presents an excellent potential for phenolic compounds extraction for further use in functional food manufacturing.

15.
Foods ; 8(7)2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336726

RESUMO

Raspberries are one of Serbia's best-known and most widely exported fruits. Due to market fluctuation, producers are looking for ways to preserve this fresh product. Drying is a widely accepted method for preserving berries, as is the case with freeze-drying. Hence, the aim was to evaluate convective drying as an alternative to freeze-drying due to better accessibility, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness of Polana raspberries and compare it to a freeze-drying. Three factors were in experimental design: air temperature (60, 70, and 80 °C), air velocity (0,5 and 1,5 m · s-1), and state of a product (fresh and frozen). Success of drying was evaluated with several quality criteria: shrinkage (change of volume), color change, shape, content of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolic content, flavonoid content, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activity. A considerable influence of convective drying on color changes was not observed, as ΔE was low for all samples. It was obvious that fresh raspberries had less physical changes than frozen ones. On average, convective drying reduced L-ascorbic acid content by 80.00-99.99%, but less than 60% for other biologically active compounds as compared to fresh raspberries. Convective dried Polana raspberry may be considered as a viable replacement for freeze-dried raspberries.

16.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 89: 259-295, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351528

RESUMO

The world population is constantly growing so that the needs of food, including protein sources, will also increase considerably in the coming years. Animal farming has been related to numerous environmental consequences such as soil erosion, exaggerated water consumption, generation of large quantities of waste and accumulation of greenhouse gases. This is a situation that demonstrates the suitability and importance of finding more sustainable protein alternatives without losing the quality and the nutritional benefits of current common protein sources. In this context, it is worth highlighting the potential of insects and products derived from aquaculture. Particularly, farmed aquatic food products can reduce the impact on wild fish stocks, whose overfishing may end up in an ecological collapse, and insects are easy to be reared and efficient in converting feed into biomass. However, there are still several challenges like the need to adapt technologies and methods for the production and well-characterization of the new ingredients, careful evaluation of the introduction of such new proteins in the diet and its safety of use, including potential allergies, and the acceptance by consumers.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Proteínas na Dieta , Peixes , Insetos , Animais , Aquicultura , Dieta
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6173-6181, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tomato is one of the most important agricultural crops and it is characterized by a wide bioactive compound profile. However, little information is reported on its comprehensive polyphenol profile. In this work, 13 commercial tomato cultivars for industrial transformation were screened by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) for both free and bound phenolic profiles. Thereafter, the in vitro antioxidant activity of each cultivar was assessed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance activity (ORAC) assays. Multivariate statistics, i.e. orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), were then used to model samples according to their distinct phenolic signatures, thus providing compounds that better discriminated between the distributions of the cultivars that were considered. RESULTS: More than 350 phenolic compounds could be identified across the samples that were considered: flavonoids (such as flavones and flavanols), hydroxycinnamic acids, lignans, and lower-molecular-weight phenolics were the most frequently observed classes of phenolics in tomato berries. Anthocyanins were the most abundant class among bound phenolics (being highest in the Leader F1 and Defender F1 cultivars), followed by tyrosols (mainly in Heinz cultivars). However, flavones and hydroxybenzoic acids were the most represented discriminant phenolics in the bound fraction. CONCLUSIONS: Untargeted metabolomics allowed significant differences in phenolic composition to be outlined across the tomato cultivars that were analyzed. Such differences were particularly evident regarding the free-to-bound phenolic ratio, hence allowing differences in the bioaccessibility of phenolics to be postulated. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/química , Frutas/química , Espectrometria de Massas
18.
Food Res Int ; 120: 464-477, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000263

RESUMO

Environmental factors are responsible of cellular senescence and processes found in the development of cognitive disorders. The aim of this paper is to compare benefits of the Japanese, Mediterranean, and Argentinian Diet on the onset or prevention of senile dementia (SD) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Special focus was on the effects of specific compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), antioxidants, and saturated and trans fatty acids. A high adherence to diets rich in PUFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and antioxidants may decrease the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases; while the predominance of saturated and trans fatty acids possibly rises it.


Assuntos
Dieta , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doença de Alzheimer/dietoterapia , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Argentina , Demência/dietoterapia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Humanos , Japão , Região do Mediterrâneo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/dietoterapia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/prevenção & controle , Neuroproteção
19.
Food Chem ; 279: 150-161, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611474

RESUMO

The consumption of pomegranate juice (PJ) has increased substantially since scientific literature reported its therapeutic benefits that are attributable to antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The growing consumer demands for fresh and high-quality food products have led to the interest in non-thermal technologies for preservation of fruit juices. Although thermal pasteurization is the most widely used preservation technology, it has adverse effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of juices. Conversely, non-thermal technologies are suitable alternatives for preservation and without negative effects on the quality. However, there is limited scientific literature concerning the use of non-thermal technologies for preservation of PJ. Therefore, this review focuses on PJ preservation by using non-thermal technologies. In conclusion, pomegranate is an economical crop that can justify the use of advanced non-thermal technologies for PJ preservation, as consumers' interest can offset the expenses associated with investments in alternative technological options and processing adjustments.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Lythraceae/química , Lythraceae/metabolismo , Pasteurização , Raios Ultravioleta
20.
Food Chem ; 276: 680-691, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409648

RESUMO

The use of Allium species and their extracts has been known since immemorial times due to their health beneficial properties. It is known that functional properties of Allium genus come from the high content of bioactive compounds. The biological activity of Allium extracts will be conditioned by the type of Allium variety, agricultural conditions, and specific extraction process used since all these factors affect the content and the profile of bioactive compounds. Innovative extraction techniques in comparison to conventional processes could be considered as a promising tool to recover bioactive compounds from Allium spp. with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. Trying to fill the gap in the literature, this paper reviews the chemical composition, the effects of processing on the nutritional and bioactive composition of Allium species and their extracts. Moreover, the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as the bioavailability of bioactive compounds of edible members from the Allium genus is discussed.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Compostos de Enxofre/farmacologia , Agricultura , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacocinética , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Alho/química , Humanos , Cebolas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos de Enxofre/química
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