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1.
Sci Adv ; 7(40): eabg8329, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586847

RESUMO

Calcium-aluminum­rich inclusions (CAIs) in meteorites carry crucial information about the environmental conditions of the nascent Solar System prior to planet formation. Based on models of 50V­10Be co-production by in-situ irradiation, CAIs are considered to have formed within ~0.1 AU from the proto-Sun. Here, we present vanadium (V) and strontium (Sr) isotopic co-variations in fine- and coarse-grained CAIs and demonstrate that kinetic isotope effects during partial condensation and evaporation best explain V isotope anomalies previously attributed to solar particle irradiation. We also report initial excesses of 10Be and argue that CV CAIs possess essentially a homogeneous level of 10Be, inherited during their formation. Based on numerical modeling of 50V­10Be co-production by irradiation, we show that CAI formation during protoplanetary disk build-up likely occurred at greater heliocentric distances than previously considered, up to planet-forming regions (~1AU), where solar particle fluxes were sufficiently low to avoid substantial in-situ irradiation of CAIs.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1983, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040283

RESUMO

The engineered removal of atmospheric CO2 is now considered a key component of mitigating climate warming below 1.5 °C. Mineral carbonation is a potential negative emissions technique that, in the case of Iceland's CarbFix experiment, precipitates dissolved CO2 as carbonate minerals in basaltic groundwater settings. Here we use calcium (Ca) isotopes in both pre- and post-CO2 injection waters to quantify the amount of carbonate precipitated, and hence CO2 stored. Ca isotope ratios rapidly increase with the pH and calcite saturation state, indicating calcite precipitation. Calculations suggest that up to 93% of dissolved Ca is removed into calcite during certain phases of injection. In total, our results suggest that 165 ± 8.3 t CO2 were precipitated into calcite, an overall carbon storage efficiency of 72 ± 5%. The success of this approach opens the potential for quantification of similar mineral carbonation efforts where drawdown rates cannot be estimated by other means.

3.
Sci Adv ; 3(10): e1701107, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983510

RESUMO

Over millions of years, the oxidation of organic carbon contained within sedimentary rocks is one of the main sources of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, yet the controls on this emission remain poorly constrained. We use rhenium to track the oxidation of rock-bound organic carbon in the mountain watersheds of New Zealand, where high rates of physical erosion expose rocks to chemical weathering. Oxidative weathering fluxes are two to three times higher in watersheds dominated by valley glaciers and exposed to frost shattering processes, compared to those with less glacial cover; a feature that we also observe in mountain watersheds globally. Consequently, we show that mountain glaciation can result in an atmospheric carbon dioxide source during weathering and erosion, as fresh minerals are exposed for weathering in an environment with high oxygen availability. This provides a counter mechanism against global cooling over geological time scales.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(5): 1292-7, 2015 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25605900

RESUMO

Biological carbon fixation is limited by the supply of Fe in vast regions of the global ocean. Dissolved Fe in seawater is primarily sourced from continental mineral dust, submarine hydrothermalism, and sediment dissolution along continental margins. However, the relative contributions of these three sources to the Fe budget of the open ocean remains contentious. By exploiting the Fe stable isotopic fingerprints of these sources, it is possible to trace distinct Fe pools through marine environments, and through time using sedimentary records. We present a reconstruction of deep-sea Fe isotopic compositions from a Pacific Fe-Mn crust spanning the past 76 My. We find that there have been large and systematic changes in the Fe isotopic composition of seawater over the Cenozoic that reflect the influence of several, distinct Fe sources to the central Pacific Ocean. Given that deeply sourced Fe from hydrothermalism and marginal sediment dissolution exhibit the largest Fe isotopic variations in modern oceanic settings, the record requires that these deep Fe sources have exerted a major control over the Fe inventory of the Pacific for the past 76 My. The persistence of deeply sourced Fe in the Pacific Ocean illustrates that multiple sources contribute to the total Fe budget of the ocean and highlights the importance of oceanic circulation in determining if deeply sourced Fe is ever ventilated at the surface.

5.
Science ; 336(6077): 72-5, 2012 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22491852

RESUMO

Late accretion of primitive chondritic material to Earth, the Moon, and Mars, after core formation had ceased, can account for the absolute and relative abundances of highly siderophile elements (HSEs) in their silicate mantles. Here we show that smaller planetesimals also possess elevated HSE abundances in chondritic proportions. This demonstrates that late addition of chondritic material was a common feature of all differentiated planets and planetesimals, irrespective of when they accreted; occurring ≤5 to ≥150 million years after the formation of the solar system. Parent-body size played a role in producing variations in absolute HSE abundances among these bodies; however, the oxidation state of the body exerted the major control by influencing the extent to which late-accreted material was mixed into the silicate mantle rather than removed to the core.

6.
Nature ; 436(7053): 1005-8, 2005 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16107845

RESUMO

Abyssal peridotites are assumed to represent the mantle residue of mid-ocean-ridge basalts (MORBs). However, the osmium isotopic compositions of abyssal peridotites and MORB do not appear to be in equilibrium, raising questions about the cogenetic relationship between those two reservoirs. However, the cause of this isotopic mismatch is mainly due to a drastic filtering of the data based on the possibility of osmium contamination by sea water. Here we present a detailed study of magmatic sulphides (the main carrier of osmium) in abyssal peridotites and show that the 187Os/188Os ratio of these sulphides is of primary mantle origin and can reach radiogenic values suggesting equilibrium with MORB. Thus, the effect of sea water on the osmium systematics of abyssal peridotites has been overestimated and consequently there is no true osmium isotopic gap between MORBs and abyssal peridotites.

7.
Science ; 303(5654): 70-2, 2004 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14704423

RESUMO

Radiogenic isotope variations in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are commonly attributed to compositional variations in Earth's upper mantle. For the rheniumosmium isotope system, constituent MORB phases are shown to possess exceptionally high Re/Os (parent/daughter) ratios, consequently radiogenic 187Os is produced from the decay of 187Re over short periods of time. Thus, in the absence of precise age constraints, Os isotope variations cannot be unambiguously attributed to their source, although Re-Os isotope data for constituent minerals can yield crystallization ages, details of equilibration, and initial Os isotope values that relate directly to the mantle source.

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