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1.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of care abandonment for retinoblastoma (RB) demonstrate significant geographical variation; however, other variables that place a patient at risk of abandoning care remain unclear. This study aims to identify the risk factors for care abandonment across a multinational set of patients. METHODS: A prospective, observational study of 692 patients from 11 RB centres in 10 countries was conducted from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with higher rates of care abandonment. RESULTS: Logistic regression showed a higher risk of abandoning care based on country (high-risk countries include Bangladesh (OR=18.1), Pakistan (OR=45.5) and Peru (OR=9.23), p<0.001), female sex (OR=2.39, p=0.013) and advanced clinical stage (OR=4.22, p<0.001). Enucleation as primary treatment was not associated with a higher risk of care abandonment (OR=0.59, p=0.206). CONCLUSION: Country, advanced disease and female sex were all associated with higher rates of abandonment. In this analysis, enucleation as the primary treatment was not associated with abandonment. Further research investigating cultural barriers can enable the building of targeted retention strategies unique to each country.

2.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(9)2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36135680

RESUMO

Clinically diagnosing fungal keratitis (FK) is challenging; diagnosis can be assisted by investigations including in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), smear microscopy, and culture. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity in detecting fungal keratitis (FK) using IVCM, smear microscopy, and culture in a setting with a high prevalence of FK. In this cross-sectional study nested within a prospective cohort study, consecutive microbial keratitis (MK) patients attending a tertiary-referral eye hospital in south-eastern Nepal between June 2019 and November 2020 were recruited. IVCM and corneal scrapes for smear microscopy and culture were performed using a standardised protocol. Smear microscopy was performed using potassium hydroxide (KOH), Gram stain, and calcofluor white. The primary outcomes were sensitivities with 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] for IVCM, smear microscopy and culture, and for each different microscopy stain independently, to detect FK compared to a composite referent. We enrolled 642 patients with MK; 468/642 (72.9%) were filamentous FK, 32/642 (5.0%) were bacterial keratitis and 64/642 (10.0%) were mixed bacterial-filamentous FK, with one yeast infection (0.16%). No organism was identified in 77/642 (12.0%). Smear microscopy had the highest sensitivity (90.7% [87.9-93.1%]), followed by IVCM (89.8% [86.9-92.3%]) and culture (75.7% [71.8-79.3%]). Of the three smear microscopy stains, KOH had the highest sensitivity (85.3% [81.9-88.4%]), followed by Gram stain (83.2% [79.7-86.4%]) and calcofluor white (79.1% [75.4-82.5%]). Smear microscopy and IVCM were the most sensitive tools for identifying FK in our cohort. In low-resource settings we recommend clinicians perform corneal scrapes for microscopy using KOH and Gram staining. Culture remains an important tool to diagnose bacterial infection, identify causative fungi and enable antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

3.
J Glaucoma ; 2022 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001526

RESUMO

PRECIS: Simulation-based surgical education shows a positive, immediate and sustained impact on core surgical skill competency in trabeculectomy amongst resident ophthalmologists. PURPOSE: To measure the impact of trabeculectomy surgical simulation training on core surgical skill competency in resident ophthalmologists. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of the GLAucoma Simulated Surgery (GLASS) trial, which is a multi-center, multi-national randomized controlled trial. Resident ophthalmologists from six training centers in sub-Saharan Africa (in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa) were recruited according to the inclusion criteria of having performed zero surgical trabeculectomies and assisted in less than five. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention and control arms using allocation concealment. The intervention was a one-week intensive trabeculectomy surgical simulation course. Outcome measures were mean surgical competency scores in eight key trabeculectomy surgical skills (scleral incision, scleral flap, releasable suturing, conjunctival suturing, sclerostomy, tissue handling, fluidity and speed), using a validated scoring tool. RESULTS: Forty-nine residents were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Baseline characteristics were balanced between arms. Median baseline surgical competency scores were 2.88/16 (IQR 1.75-4.17) and 3.25/16 (IQR 1.83-4.75) in the intervention and control arms respectively. At primary intervention, median scores increased to 11.67/16 (IQR 9.58-12.63) and this effect was maintained at three months and one year (P=0.0001). Maximum competency scores at primary intervention were achieved in the core trabeculectomy skills of releasable suturing (n=17, 74%), scleral flap formation (n=16, 70%) and scleral incision (n=15, 65%) compared to scores at baseline. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the positive impact of intensive simulation-based surgical education on core trabeculectomy skill development. The rapid and sustained effect of resident skill acquisition pose strong arguments for its formal integration into ophthalmic surgical education.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 915293, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935768

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to describe the health-seeking journey for patients with microbial keratitis (MK) in Nepal and identify factors associated with delay. Methods: Prospective cohort study where MK patients attending a large, tertiary-referral eye hospital in south-eastern Nepal between June 2019 and November 2020 were recruited. We collected demographic details, clinical history, and examination findings. Care-seeking journey details were captured including places attended, number of journeys, time from symptom onset, and costs. We compared "direct" with "indirect" presenters, analyzing for predictors of delay. Results: We enrolled 643 patients with MK. The majority (96%) self-referred. "Direct" attenders accounted for only 23.6% (152/643) of patients, the majority of "indirect" patients initially presented to a pharmacy (255/491). Over half (328/643) of all cases presented after at least 7 days. The total cost of care increased with increasing numbers of facilities visited (p < 0.001). Those living furthest away were least likely to present directly (p < 0.001). Factors independently associated with delayed presentation included distance >50 km from the eye hospital [aOR 5.760 (95% CI 1.829-18.14, p = 0.003)], previous antifungal use [aOR 4.706 (95% CI 3.139-5.360)], and two or more previous journeys [aOR 1.442 (95% CI 1.111-3.255)]. Conclusions: Most patients visited at least one facility prior to our institution, with time to presentation and costs increasing with the number of prior journeys. Distance to the eye hospital is a significant barrier to prompt, direct presentation. Based on these findings, improving access to eye care services, strengthening referral networks and encouraging early appropriate treatment are recommended to reduce delay, ultimately improving clinical outcomes.

5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 49: 101487, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35747196

RESUMO

Background: The eye-seeking fly Musca sorbens can act as a vector for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis, causing trachoma, yet there has been very little research on control measures. We investigated whether insect repellent products, specifically insecticide-treated clothing, could provide personal protection to the user from eye-seeking flies. Methods: We first conducted a series of phase I laboratory studies to inform our choice of field intervention. We then conducted a phase II randomised controlled trial testing the efficacy of permethrin-treated scarves (PTS) in reducing fly-face contact in Oromia, Ethiopia. Children aged 4-10 years in full health and with no known adverse reactions to permethrin or other insecticides were allocated to either arm using restricted randomisation. Intervention arm children wore Insect Shield® versatile wraps (as PTS) for 28 days. The primary outcomes, fly-eye, -nose and -mouth contact, were assessed on the first day (0/30/60/180 minutes), on day 7 and on day 28. All participants present per timepoint were included in analyses. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03813069). Findings: Participants were recruited to the field trial between 29/10/2019 and 01/11/2019, 58 were randomised to test or control arm. More fly (-eye, -nose and -mouth) contacts were observed in the PTS arm at baseline. After adjusting for baseline contact rates, across all timepoints there was a 35% decrease in fly-eye contacts in the PTS relative to control arm (rate ratio [RR] 0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.83). Similar cross-timepoint reductions were seen for fly-nose and fly-mouth contacts (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.51-0.92 and RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62-1.01, respectively). All children were included on day 0. Two in the control arm were absent on day 7, one left the study and four were excluded from analysis at day 28. No adverse events occurred in the trial. Interpretation: Musca sorbens flies are sufficiently repelled by PTS to reduce fly-eye contacts for the wearer, thus possibly reducing the risk of trachoma transmission. Permethrin-treated scarves may therefore an alternative to insecticide space spraying for protection from these flies. Funding: Wellcome Trust.

6.
Lancet Planet Health ; 6(6): e524-e534, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709809

RESUMO

The demand for eye care-the most common medical speciality in some countries-is increasing globally due to both demographic change and the development of eye health-care services in low-income and middle-income countries. This expansion of service provision needs to be environmentally sustainable. We conducted a scoping review to establish the nature and extent of the literature describing the environmental costs of delivering eye-care services, identify interventions to diminish the environmental impact of eye care, and identify key sustainability themes that are not yet being addressed. We identified 16 peer-reviewed articles for analysis, all published since 2009. Despite a paucity of research evidence, there is a need for the measurement of environmental impacts associated with eye care to be standardised along with the methodological tools to assess these impacts. The vastly different environmental costs of delivering clinical services with similar clinical outcomes in different regulatory settings is striking; in one example, a phacoemulsification cataract extraction in a UK hospital produced more than 20 times the greenhouse gas emission of the same procedure in an Indian hospital. The environmental costs must be systematically included when evaluating the risks and benefits of new interventions or policies aimed at promoting safety in high-income countries.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Renda , Meio Ambiente
7.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 8(1): 32, 2022 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35618795

RESUMO

Trachoma is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with conjunctival strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. It can result in blindness. Pathophysiologically, trachoma is a disease complex composed of two linked chronic processes: a recurrent, generally subclinical infectious-inflammatory disease that mostly affects children, and a non-communicable, cicatricial and, owing to trichiasis, eventually blinding disease that supervenes in some individuals later in life. At least 150 infection episodes over an individual's lifetime are needed to precipitate trichiasis; thus, opportunity exists for a just global health system to intervene to prevent trachomatous blindness. Trachoma is found at highest prevalence in the poorest communities of low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa; in June 2021, 1.8 million people worldwide were going blind from the disease. Blindness attributable to trachoma can appear in communities many years after conjunctival C. trachomatis transmission has waned or ceased; therefore, the two linked disease processes require distinct clinical and public health responses. Surgery is offered to individuals with trichiasis and antibiotic mass drug administration and interventions to stimulate facial cleanliness and environmental improvement are designed to reduce infection prevalence and transmission. Together, these interventions comprise the SAFE strategy, which is achieving considerable success. Although much work remains, a continuing public health problem from trachoma in the year 2030 will be difficult for the world to excuse.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Tracoma , Triquíase , Cegueira/etiologia , Criança , Chlamydia trachomatis , Gonorreia/complicações , Humanos , Tracoma/complicações , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Tracoma/prevenção & controle , Triquíase/complicações , Triquíase/etiologia
8.
Eye (Lond) ; 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Retinoblastoma is a common childhood intraocular malignancy, the bilateral form of which most commonly results from a de novo germline pathogenic variant in the RB1 gene. Both advanced maternal age and decreasing birth order are known to increase the risk of de novo germline pathogenic variants, while the influence of national wealth is understudied. This cohort study aimed to retrospectively observe whether these factors influence the ratio of bilateral retinoblastoma cases compared to unilateral retinoblastoma, thereby inferring an influence on the development of de novo germline pathogenic variants in RB1. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data from 688 patients from 11 centres in 10 countries were analysed using a series of statistical methods. RESULTS: No associations were found between advanced maternal age, birth order or GDP per capita and the ratio of bilateral to unilateral retinoblastoma cases (p values = 0.534, 0.201, 0.067, respectively), indicating that these factors do not contribute to the development of a de novo pathogenic variant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a lack of a definitive control group and genetic testing, this study demonstrates that advanced maternal age, birth order or GDP per capita do not influence the risk of developing a bilateral retinoblastoma.

9.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e057410, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428640

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gathering data on socioeconomic status (SES) is a prerequisite for any health programme that aims to assess and improve the equitable distribution of its outcomes. Many different modalities can be used to collect SES data, ranging from (1) face-to-face elicitation, to (2) telephone-administered questionnaires, to (3) automated text message-based systems. The relative costs and perceived benefits to patients and providers of these different data collection approaches is unknown. This protocol is for a systematic review that aims to compare the resource requirements, performance characteristics, and acceptability to participants and service providers of these three approaches to collect SES data from those enrolled in health programmes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: An information specialist will conduct searches on the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO ICTRP and OpenGrey. All databases will be searched from 1999 to present with no language limits used. We will also search Google Scholar and check the reference lists of relevant articles for further potentially eligible studies. Any empirical study design will be eligible if it compares two or more modalities to elicit SES data from the following three; in-person, voice call, or automated phone-based systems. Two reviewers will independently screen titles, abstracts and full-text articles; and complete data extraction. For each study, we will extract data on the modality characteristics, primary outcomes (response rate and equivalence) and secondary outcomes (time, costs and acceptability to patients and providers). We will synthesise findings thematically without meta-analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required, as our review will include published and publicly accessible data. This review is part of a project to improve equitable access to eye care services in low-ioncome and middle-income countries. However, the findings will be useful to policy-makers and programme managers in a range of health settings and non-health settings. We will publish our findings in a peer-reviewed journal and develop an accessible summary of results for website posting and stakeholder meetings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021251959.


Assuntos
Renda , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Coleta de Dados , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Classe Social , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 46: 101354, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35340626

RESUMO

Vision impairment (VI) can have wide ranging economic impact on individuals, households, and health systems. The aim of this systematic review was to describe and summarise the costs associated with VI and its major causes. We searched MEDLINE (16 November 2019), National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and the Health Technology Assessment database (12 December 2019) for partial or full economic evaluation studies, published between 1 January 2000 and the search dates, reporting cost data for participants with VI due to an unspecified cause or one of the seven leading causes globally: cataract, uncorrected refractive error, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, corneal opacity, trachoma. The search was repeated on 20 January 2022 to identify studies published since our initial search. Included studies were quality appraised using the British Medical Journal Checklist for economic submissions adapted for cost of illness studies. Results were synthesized in a structured narrative. Of the 138 included studies, 38 reported cost estimates for VI due to an unspecified cause and 100 reported costs for one of the leading causes. These 138 studies provided 155 regional cost estimates. Fourteen studies reported global data; 103/155 (66%) regional estimates were from high-income countries. Costs were most commonly reported using a societal (n = 48) or healthcare system perspective (n = 25). Most studies included only a limited number of cost components. Large variations in methodology and reporting across studies meant cost estimates varied considerably. The average quality assessment score was 78% (range 35-100%); the most common weaknesses were the lack of sensitivity analysis and insufficient disaggregation of costs. There was substantial variation across studies in average treatment costs per patient for most conditions, including refractive error correction (range $12-$201 ppp), cataract surgery (range $54-$3654 ppp), glaucoma (range $351-$1354 ppp) and AMD (range $2209-$7524 ppp). Future cost estimates of the economic burden of VI and its major causes will be improved by the development and adoption of a reference case for eye health. This could then be used in regular studies, particularly in countries with data gaps, including low- and middle-income countries in Asia, Eastern Europe, Oceania, Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa.

11.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(2)2022 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205955

RESUMO

Fungal corneal infection (keratitis) is a common clinical problem in South Asia. However, it is often challenging to distinguish this from other aetiologies, such as bacteria or acanthamoeba. In this prospective study, we investigated clinical and epidemiological features that can predict the microbial aetiology of microbial keratitis in Nepal. We recruited patients presenting with keratitis to a tertiary eye hospital in lowland eastern Nepal between June 2019 and November 2020. A structured assessment, including demographics, history, and clinical signs, was carried out. The aetiology was investigated with in vivo confocal microscopy and corneal scrape for microscopy and culture. A predictor score was developed using odds ratios calculated to predict aetiology from features. A fungal cause was identified in 482/642 (75.1%) of cases, which increased to 532/642 (82.9%) when including mixed infections. Unusually, dematiaceous fungi accounted for half of the culture-positive cases (50.6%). Serrated infiltrate margins, patent nasolacrimal duct, raised corneal slough, and organic trauma were independently associated with fungal keratitis (p < 0.01). These four features were combined in a predictor score. The probability of fungal keratitis was 30.1% if one feature was present, increasing to 96.3% if all four were present. Whilst microbiological diagnosis is the "gold standard" to determine the aetiology of an infection, certain clinical signs can help direct the clinician to find a presumptive infectious cause, allowing appropriate treatment to be started without delay. Additionally, this study identified dematiaceous fungi, specifically Curvularia spp., as the main causative agent for fungal keratitis in this region. This novel finding warrants further research to understand potential implications and any trends over time.

13.
Lancet Planet Health ; 6(3): e270-e280, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35219448

RESUMO

UN member states have committed to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. This Review examines the published evidence on how improving eye health can contribute to advancing the SDGs (beyond SDG 3). We identified 29 studies that showed direct benefits from providing eye health services on SDGs related to one or more of poverty (SDGs 1, 2, and 8), education (SDG 4), equality (SDGs 5 and 10), and sustainable cities (SDG 11). The eye health services included cataract surgery, free cataract screening, provision of spectacles, trichiasis surgery, rehabilitation services, and rural community eye health volunteers. These findings provide a comprehensive perspective on the direct links between eye health services and advancing the SDGs. In addition, eye health services likely have indirect effects on multiple SDGs, mediated through one of the direct effects. Finally, there are additional plausible links to other SDGs, for which evidence has not yet been established.


Assuntos
Pobreza , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Cidades , Humanos , População Rural
14.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 3(1): e31-e41, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We undertook a Grand Challenges in Global Eye Health prioritisation exercise to identify the key issues that must be addressed to improve eye health in the context of an ageing population, to eliminate persistent inequities in health-care access, and to mitigate widespread resource limitations. METHODS: Drawing on methods used in previous Grand Challenges studies, we used a multi-step recruitment strategy to assemble a diverse panel of individuals from a range of disciplines relevant to global eye health from all regions globally to participate in a three-round, online, Delphi-like, prioritisation process to nominate and rank challenges in global eye health. Through this process, we developed both global and regional priority lists. FINDINGS: Between Sept 1 and Dec 12, 2019, 470 individuals complete round 1 of the process, of whom 336 completed all three rounds (round 2 between Feb 26 and March 18, 2020, and round 3 between April 2 and April 25, 2020) 156 (46%) of 336 were women, 180 (54%) were men. The proportion of participants who worked in each region ranged from 104 (31%) in sub-Saharan Africa to 21 (6%) in central Europe, eastern Europe, and in central Asia. Of 85 unique challenges identified after round 1, 16 challenges were prioritised at the global level; six focused on detection and treatment of conditions (cataract, refractive error, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, services for children and screening for early detection), two focused on addressing shortages in human resource capacity, five on other health service and policy factors (including strengthening policies, integration, health information systems, and budget allocation), and three on improving access to care and promoting equity. INTERPRETATION: This list of Grand Challenges serves as a starting point for immediate action by funders to guide investment in research and innovation in eye health. It challenges researchers, clinicians, and policy makers to build collaborations to address specific challenges. FUNDING: The Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust, Moorfields Eye Charity, National Institute for Health Research Moorfields Biomedical Research Centre, Wellcome Trust, Sightsavers, The Fred Hollows Foundation, The Seva Foundation, British Council for the Prevention of Blindness, and Christian Blind Mission. TRANSLATIONS: For the French, Spanish, Chinese, Portuguese, Arabic and Persian translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Cegueira , Saúde Global , África ao Sul do Saara , Criança , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 106(7): 893-901, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712481

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In its recent World Report on Vision, the WHO called for an updated approach to monitor eye health as part of universal health coverage (UHC). This project sought to develop a consensus among eye health experts from all world regions to produce a menu of indicators for countries to monitor eye health within UHC. METHODS: We reviewed the literature to create a long-list of indicators aligned to the conceptual framework for monitoring outlined in WHO's World Report on Vision. We recruited a panel of 72 global eye health experts (40% women) to participate in a two-round, online prioritisation exercise. Two-hundred indicators were presented in Round 1 and participants prioritised each on a 4-point Likert scale. The highest-ranked 95 were presented in Round 2 and were (1) scored against four criteria (feasible, actionable, reliable and internationally comparable) and (2) ranked according to their suitability as a 'core' indicator for collection by all countries. The top 30 indicators ranked by these two parameters were then used as the basis for the steering group to develop a final menu. RESULTS: The menu consists of 22 indicators, including 7 core indicators, that represent important concepts in eye health for 2020 and beyond, and are considered feasible, actionable, reliable and internationally comparable. CONCLUSION: We believe this list can inform the development of new national eye health monitoring frameworks, monitor progress on key challenges to eye health and be considered in broader UHC monitoring indices at national and international levels.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 106(6): 863-869, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Glaucoma accounts for 8% of global blindness and surgery remains an important treatment. We aimed to determine the impact of adding simulation-based surgical education for glaucoma. METHODS: We designed a randomised controlled, parallel-group trial. Those assessing outcomes were masked to group assignment. Fifty-one trainee ophthalmologists from six university training institutions in sub-Saharan Africa were enrolled by inclusion criteria of having performed no surgical trabeculectomies and were randomised. Those randomised to the control group received no placebo intervention, but received the training intervention after the initial 12-month follow-up period. The intervention was an intense simulation-based surgical training course over 1 week. The primary outcome measure was overall simulation surgical competency at 3 months. RESULTS: Twenty-five were assigned to the intervention group and 26 to the control group, with 2 dropouts from the intervention group. Forty-nine were included in the final intention-to-treat analysis. Surgical competence at baseline was comparable between the arms. This increased to 30.4 (76.1%) and 9.8 (24.4%) for the intervention and the control group, respectively, 3 months after the training intervention for the intervention group, a difference of 20.6 points (95% CI 18.3 to 22.9, p<0.001). At 1 year, the mean surgical competency score of the intervention arm participants was 28.6 (71.5%), compared with 11.6 (29.0%) for the control (difference 17.0, 95% CI 14.8 to 19.4, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: These results support the pursuit of financial, advocacy and research investments to establish simulation surgery training units and courses including instruction, feedback, deliberate practice and reflection with outcome measurement to enable trainee glaucoma surgeons to engage in intense simulation training for glaucoma surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PACTR201803002159198.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Trabeculectomia , Glaucoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Quênia , África do Sul , Tanzânia , Uganda , Zimbábue
17.
Ophthalmology ; 129(5): 530-541, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896126

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate if topical chlorhexidine 0.2%, which is low cost and easy to formulate, is noninferior to topical natamycin 5% for the treatment of filamentous fungal keratitis. DESIGN: Randomized controlled, single-masked, noninferiority clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Adults attending a tertiary-level ophthalmic hospital in Nepal with filamentous fungal infection confirmed on smear or confocal microscopy. METHODS: Participants were randomly allocated to receive topical chlorhexidine 0.2% or topical natamycin 5%. Primary analysis (intention-to-treat) was by linear regression, using baseline logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and treatment arm as prespecified covariates. Mixed fungal-bacterial infections were excluded from the primary analysis but included in secondary analyses and secondary safety-related outcomes. The noninferiority margin was 0.15 logMAR. This trial was registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN14332621. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was BSCVA at 3 months. Secondary outcome measures included perforation or therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty by 90 days. RESULTS: Between June 3, 2019, and November 9, 2020, 354 eligible participants were enrolled and randomly assigned: 178 to chlorhexidine and 176 to natamycin. Primary outcome data were available for 153 and 151 of the chlorhexidine and natamycin groups, respectively. Of these, mixed bacterial-fungal infections were found in 20 cases (12/153 chlorhexidine, 8/151 natamycin) and excluded from the primary analysis. Therefore, 284 patients were assessed for the primary outcome (141 chlorhexidine, 143 natamycin). We did not find evidence to suggest chlorhexidine was noninferior to natamycin and in fact found strong evidence to suggest that natamycin-treated participants had significantly better 3-month BSCVA than chlorhexidine-treated participants, after adjusting for baseline BSCVA (regression coefficient, -0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.42 to -0.18; P < 0.001). There were more perforations and emergency corneal grafts in the chlorhexidine arm (24/175, 13.7%) than in the natamycin arm (10/173, 5.8%; P = 0.018, mixed infections included), whereas natamycin-treated cases were less likely to perforate or require an emergency corneal graft, after adjusting for baseline ulcer depth (odds ratio, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.15-0.79; P = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with natamycin is associated with significantly better visual acuity, with fewer adverse events, compared with treatment with chlorhexidine. Natamycin remains the preferred first-line monotherapy treatment for filamentous fungal keratitis.


Assuntos
Úlcera da Córnea , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas , Ceratite , Micoses , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Úlcera da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera da Córnea/microbiologia , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/microbiologia , Fungos , Humanos , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite/microbiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Natamicina , Nepal , Resultado do Tratamento , Voriconazol
19.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The 1986 Gambia National Eye Health Survey provided baseline data for a National Eye Health Programme. A second survey in 1996 evaluated changes in population eye health a decade later. We completed a third survey in 2019, to determine the current state of population eye health, considering service developments and demographic change. METHODS: We estimated prevalence and causes of vision impairment (VI) in a nationally representative population-based sample of adults 35 years and older. We used multistage cluster random sampling to sample 10 800 adults 35 and above in 360 clusters of 30. We measured monocular distance visual acuity (uncorrected and with available correction) using Peek Acuity. Participants with either eye uncorrected or presenting (with available correction) acuity <6/12 were retested with pinhole and refraction, and dilated exams were completed on all eyes by ophthalmologists using a direct ophthalmoscope, slit lamp and 90 D lens. RESULTS: We examined 9188 participants (response rate 83%). The 2013 census age-sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting acuity<3/60 in better seeing eye) was 1.2% (95% CI 0.9 to 1.4) and of moderate or severe VI (MSVI,<6/18 to ≥3/60) was 8.9% (95% CI 9.1 to 9.7). Prevalence of all distance VI (<6/12) was 13.4% (12.4-14.4). Compared with 1996, the relative risk of blindness decreased (risk ratio 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) and MSVI increased (risk ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 0.17). CONCLUSION: Significant progress has been made to reduce blindness and increase access to eye health across the Gambia, with further work is needed to decrease the risk of MSVI.

20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19): 4773, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631159

RESUMO

The protective effects of breastfeeding on various childhood malignancies have been established but an association has not yet been determined for retinoblastoma (RB). We aimed to further investigate the role of breastfeeding in the severity of nonhereditary RB development, assessing relationship to (1) age at diagnosis, (2) ocular prognosis, measured by International Intraocular RB Classification (IIRC) or Intraocular Classification of RB (ICRB) group and success of eye salvage, and (3) extraocular involvement. Analyses were performed on a global dataset subgroup of 344 RB patients whose legal guardian(s) consented to answer a neonatal questionnaire. Patients with undetermined or mixed feeding history, family history of RB, or sporadic bilateral RB were excluded. There was no statistically significant difference between breastfed and formula-fed groups in (1) age at diagnosis (p = 0.20), (2) ocular prognosis measures of IIRC/ICRB group (p = 0.62) and success of eye salvage (p = 0.16), or (3) extraocular involvement shown by International Retinoblastoma Staging System (IRSS) at presentation (p = 0.74), lymph node involvement (p = 0.20), and distant metastases (p = 0.37). This study suggests that breastfeeding neither impacts the sporadic development nor is associated with a decrease in the severity of nonhereditary RB as measured by age at diagnosis, stage of disease, ocular prognosis, and extraocular spread. A further exploration into the impact of diet on children who develop RB is warranted.

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