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2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12524, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467304

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoallelic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies. We used the Oncoarray project to genotype two truncating FANCC variants (p.R185X and p.R548X) in 64,760 breast cancer cases and 49,793 controls of European descent. FANCC mutations were observed in 25 cases (14 with p.R185X, 11 with p.R548X) and 26 controls (18 with p.R185X, 8 with p.R548X). There was no evidence of an association with the risk of breast cancer, neither overall (odds ratio 0.77, 95%CI 0.44-1.33, p = 0.4) nor by histology, hormone receptor status, age or family history. We conclude that the breast cancer risk association of these two FANCC variants, if any, is much smaller than for BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations. If this applies to all truncating variants in FANCC it would suggest there are differences between FA genes in their roles on breast cancer risk and demonstrates the merit of large consortia for clarifying risk associations of rare variants.

3.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 109, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results of previous studies on the association of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) with colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis were inconsistent and mostly based on different CIMP definitions. The current study aimed to comprehensively investigate the associations between DNA methylation on genes previously used to define CIMP status with CRC survival. RESULTS: Patients with CRC followed up for a median of 5.2 years were divided into a study cohort (n = 568) and a validation cohort (n = 308). DNA methylation was measured in tumor tissue using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and restricted to 43 genes used to define CIMP status in previous studies. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of survival after CRC, including adjustment for tumor stage, microsatellite instability, and BRAF mutation status. In the study cohort, ten CpG sites were identified to be associated with CRC survival. Seven of these ten CpG sites were also associated with CRC survival in the validation cohort and were used to construct a prognostic score. CRC patients with a prognostic score of the lowest methylation level showed poorer disease-specific survival compared with patients with the highest methylation level in both the study cohort and the validation cohort (HR = 3.11 and 95% CI = 1.97-4.91, and HR = 3.06 and 95% CI = 1.71-5.45, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A CpG panel consisting of seven CpG sites was found to be strongly associated with CRC survival, independent from important clinical factors and mutations associated with CIMP. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.

4.
Epigenetics ; 14(5): 477-493, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931802

RESUMO

Involvement of sex hormones in colorectal cancer (CRC) development has been linked to oestrogen receptor ß (ERß). Expression of ERß is found reduced in tumour tissue and inversely related to mortality. However, mechanisms are not well understood. Our study aimed to detect differentially methylated genes associated with ERß expression, which could point to mechanisms by which ERß could influence risk and prognosis of CRC. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation profiling was performed using Illumina HumanMethylation450k BeadChip arrays in two independent tumour sample sets of CRC patients recruited in 2003-2010 by the German DACHS study (discovery cohort n = 917, replication cohort n = 907). ERß expression was measured using immunohistochemistry and scored as negative, moderate and high. Differentially methylated CpG sites and genomic regions were determined using limma in the R-package RnBeads. For the comparison of tumours with moderate/high ERß versus negative expression, differentially methylated CpG sites were identified but not confirmed by replication. Comparing tumours of high with tumours of negative ERß expression revealed 2,904 differentially methylated CpG sites of which 403 were replicated (FDR adjusted p-value<0.05). Replicated CpGs were annotated to genes such as CD36, HK1 or LRP5. A survival analysis indicates that 30 of the replicated CpGs are also associated with overall survival (FDR-adjusted p-value<0.05). The regional analysis identified 60 differentially methylated promotor regions. The epigenome-wide analysis identified both novel genes as well as genes already implicated in CRC. Follow-up mechanistic studies to better understand the regulatory role of ERß could inform potential targets for improving treatment or prevention of CRC.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1741, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988301

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
6.
Br J Cancer ; 120(6): 647-657, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using ~10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P < 5 × 10-8. For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 × 10-7, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7:rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 × 10-7, HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP < 15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.

7.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 14, 2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species may be involved in epigenetic gene activation or silencing. We aimed to identify CpG sites, at which DNA methylation is related to urinary 8-isoprostane levels (biomarker of lipid peroxidation) and cancer or mortality outcomes. This investigation was based on a German, population-based cohort with linkage to cancer and mortality registry data (2000-2016). RESULTS: Blood DNA methylation in promoter regions of 519 genes, known to be involved in pathways from oxidative stress (OS) to cancer, was obtained at the cohort's baseline examination. Inverse associations of DNA methylation at cg25365794 (ALOXE3) and cg08862778 (MTOR) with 8-isoprostane levels were observed in a derivation set (n = 1000) and validated in two independent subsets of the cohort (n = 548 and n = 741). Multivariate regression models were used to evaluate the associations of DNA methylation at the two CpG sites with lung, colorectal, prostate, breast, and overall cancer incidence as well as CVD, cancer, and all-cause mortality. DNA methylation at cg25365794 (ALOXE3) was inversely associated with lung and prostate cancer incidence. DNA methylation at cg08862778 (MTOR) was associated with a 43% lower breast cancer incidence in the top vs. bottom tertile. CONCLUSION: The finding for ALOXE3 may not be causal. As ALOXE3 is mainly expressed in skin tissue, the observed association might reflect the fact that both DNA methylation at the ALOXE3 gene and urinary 8-isoprostane concentrations depend on the level of OS in tissues. Contrarily, the finding for the MTOR gene and breast cancer is biologically plausible because the MTOR protein plays an important role in PI3K/Akt signaling, which is a pathway related to cancer development and cell senescence.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Lipoxigenase/genética , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Dinoprosta/urina , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/urina , Estresse Oxidativo
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 21-34, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554720

RESUMO

Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57-1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628-0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426507

RESUMO

In recent years, metabolites have attracted substantial attention as promising novel biomarkers of various diseases. However, breast cancer plasma metabolite studies are still in their infancy. Here, we investigated the potential of metabolites to serve as minimally invasive, early detection markers of primary breast cancer. We profiled metabolites extracted from the plasma of primary breast cancer patients and healthy controls using tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS and FIA-MS/MS). Two metabolites were found to be upregulated, while 16 metabolites were downregulated in primary breast cancer patients compared with healthy controls in both the training and validation cohorts. A panel of seven metabolites was selected by LASSO regression analysis. This panel could differentiate primary breast cancer patients from healthy controls, with an AUC of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81 ~ 0.92) in the training cohort and an AUC of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.71 ~ 0.87) in the validation cohort. These significantly differentiated metabolites are mainly involved in the amino acid metabolism and breast cancer cell growth pathways. In conclusion, using a metabolomics approach, we identified metabolites that have potential value for development of a multimarker blood-based test to complement and improve early breast cancer detection. The panel identified herein might be part of a prescreening tool, especially for younger women or for closely observing women with certain risks, to facilitate decision making regarding which individuals should undergo further diagnostic tests. In the future, the combination of metabolites and other blood-based molecular marker sets, such as DNA methylation, microRNA, and cell-free DNA mutation markers, will be an attractive option. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30276763

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Serial longitudinal enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has shown its prognostic value on progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) in patients with stage IV breast cancer. This study prospectively evaluated the role of CTCs as a prognostic marker during further progression of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). METHODS: Among 476 MBC patients recruited between 2010 and 2015, the 103 patients with a known CTC status at baseline (CTCBL) and within 4 weeks of tumor progression (CTCPD) were included. Progressive disease (PD) was defined according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST, version 1.1). Using the CellSearch method, < 5 and ≥ 5 CTCs per 7.5 ml blood were determined as negative and positive, respectively. A shift in CTC status from baseline to progression ([Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] and vice versa) was considered as alternating KineticsBL-PD. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 29.9 [21.2, 40.0] months. CTCPD positivity (37%, n = 38) was associated with a significantly shorter OS than CTCPD negativity (8.0 [5.1, 10.9] vs 22.6 [15.3, 39.8] months; P < 0.001). Alternating KineticsBL-PD was observed in 24% of the patients. This significantly changed the OS prediction of [Formula: see text] patients ([Formula: see text] vs [Formula: see text], 11.4 [9.7, not available (NA)] vs. 7.6 [4.4, 11.5] months; P = 0.044) and [Formula: see text] patients ([Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text], 8.4 [4.0, NA] vs. 22.6 [18.9, NA] months, respectively; P < 0.001). Prediction of survival was significantly improved (P = 0.002) by adding CTCPD status to clinicopathological characteristics and CTCBL status. CONCLUSIONS: CTC status upon further disease progression is a prognostic factor that could significantly improve well-established models. Thus, it represents a potential additional instrument supporting treatment decision.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3166, 2018 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093612

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer of the female reproductive tract in developed countries. Through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we have previously identified eight risk loci for endometrial cancer. Here, we present an expanded meta-analysis of 12,906 endometrial cancer cases and 108,979 controls (including new genotype data for 5624 cases) and identify nine novel genome-wide significant loci, including a locus on 12q24.12 previously identified by meta-GWAS of endometrial and colorectal cancer. At five loci, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify candidate causal genes; risk alleles at two of these loci associate with decreased expression of genes, which encode negative regulators of oncogenic signal transduction proteins (SH2B3 (12q24.12) and NF1 (17q11.2)). In summary, this study has doubled the number of known endometrial cancer risk loci and revealed candidate causal genes for future study.

14.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 968-978, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915430

RESUMO

The breast cancer risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies explain only a small fraction of the familial relative risk, and the genes responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. To identify novel risk loci and likely causal genes, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study evaluating associations of genetically predicted gene expression with breast cancer risk in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry. We used data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project to establish genetic models to predict gene expression in breast tissue and evaluated model performance using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Of the 8,597 genes evaluated, significant associations were identified for 48 at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 5.82 × 10-6, including 14 genes at loci not yet reported for breast cancer. We silenced 13 genes and showed an effect for 11 on cell proliferation and/or colony-forming efficiency. Our study provides new insights into breast cancer genetics and biology.

15.
Cancer Med ; 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29845757

RESUMO

Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) is a key pathway essential for nucleotide synthesis, DNA methylation, and repair. This pathway is a critical target for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which is predominantly used for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. A comprehensive assessment of polymorphisms in FOCM-related genes and their association with prognosis has not yet been performed. Within 1,739 CRC cases aged ≥30 years diagnosed from 2003 to 2007 (DACHS study), we investigated 397 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 50 candidates in 48 FOCM-related genes for associations with overall- (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) using multiple Cox regression (adjusted for age, sex, stage, grade, BMI, and alcohol). We investigated effect modification by 5-FU-based chemotherapy and assessed pathway-specific effects. Correction for multiple testing was performed using false discovery rates (FDR). After a median follow-up time of 5.0 years, 585 patients were deceased. For one candidate SNP in MTHFR and two in TYMS, we observed significant inverse associations with OS (MTHFR: rs1801133, C677T: HRhet  = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.97; TYMS: rs1001761: HRhet  = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68-0.99 and rs2847149: HRhet  = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68-0.99). After FDR correction, one polymorphism in paraoxonase 1 (PON1; rs3917538) was significantly associated with OS (HRhet  = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07-1.53; HRhzv  = 2.02, 95% CI:1.46-2.80; HRlogAdd  = 1.31, pFDR  = 0.01). Adjusted pathway analyses showed significant associations for pyrimidine biosynthesis (P = 0.04) and fluorouracil drug metabolism (P < 0.01) with significant gene-chemotherapy interactions, including PON1 rs3917538. This study supports the concept that FOCM-related genes could be associated with CRC survival and may modify effects of 5-FU-based chemotherapy in genes in pyrimidine and fluorouracil metabolism, which are relevant targets for therapeutic response and prognosis in CRC. These results require confirmation in additional clinical studies.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(3)2018 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29562656

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women and has high mortality rates. Early detection is supposed to be critical for the patient's prognosis. In recent years, several studies have investigated global DNA methylation profiles and gene-specific DNA methylation in blood-based DNA to develop putative screening markers for cancer. However, most of the studies have not yet been validated. In our study, we analyzed the promoter methylation of RASSF1A and ATM in peripheral blood DNA of 229 sporadic patients and 151 healthy controls by the MassARRAY EpiTYPER assay. There were no significant differences in DNA methylation levels of RASSF1A and ATM between the sporadic BC cases and the healthy controls. Furthermore, we performed the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (450K) array analysis using 48 sporadic BC cases and 48 healthy controls (cases and controls are the same from those of the MassARRAY EpiTYPER assay) and made a comparison with the published data. No significant differences were presented in DNA methylation levels of RASSF1A and ATM between the sporadic BC cases and the healthy controls. So far, the evidence for powerful blood-based methylation markers is still limited and the identified markers need to be further validated.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/sangue , Adulto , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 170(1): 201-202, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29480447
18.
Hum Mutat ; 39(5): 729-741, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460995

RESUMO

Although the spliceogenic nature of the BRCA2 c.68-7T > A variant has been demonstrated, its association with cancer risk remains controversial. In this study, we accurately quantified by real-time PCR and digital PCR (dPCR), the BRCA2 isoforms retaining or missing exon 3. In addition, the combined odds ratio for causality of the variant was estimated using genetic and clinical data, and its associated cancer risk was estimated by case-control analysis in 83,636 individuals. Co-occurrence in trans with pathogenic BRCA2 variants was assessed in 5,382 families. Exon 3 exclusion rate was 4.5-fold higher in variant carriers (13%) than controls (3%), indicating an exclusion rate for the c.68-7T > A allele of approximately 20%. The posterior probability of pathogenicity was 7.44 × 10-115 . There was neither evidence for increased risk of breast cancer (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.86-1.24) nor for a deleterious effect of the variant when co-occurring with pathogenic variants. Our data provide for the first time robust evidence of the nonpathogenicity of the BRCA2 c.68-7T > A. Genetic and quantitative transcript analyses together inform the threshold for the ratio between functional and altered BRCA2 isoforms compatible with normal cell function. These findings might be exploited to assess the relevance for cancer risk of other BRCA2 spliceogenic variants.

19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 169(1): 69-82, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29340881

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Non-invasive blood-based molecular markers have been investigated for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Circulating free or cell-free DNA (cfDNA) variables have been shown to be putative markers in breast cancer prognosis. METHODS: Here, we investigated the potential prognostic ability of cfDNA concentration and cfDNA integrity (cfDI) in a study cohort of 268 patients by quantitative PCR. We compared cfDNA concentration and cfDI at baseline and after one cycle of therapy in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. RESULTS: A significantly increased cfDI (P = 1.21E-7 for ALU and P = 1.87E-3 for LINE1) and decreased cfDNA concentration (P = 1.17E-3 for ALU and P = 1.60E-2 for LINE1) in both repetitive DNA elements after one cycle of therapy was observed. A multiple Cox regression model indicated that cfDI and cfDNA concentration can serve as independent prognostic markers in patients at baseline with HR (95% CI) of 0.70 (0.48-1.01) for ALU cfDI, 0.63 (0.44-0.92) for LINE1 cfDI, 2.44 (1.68-3.53) for ALU cfDNA concentration, and 2.12 (1.47-3.06) for LINE1 cfDNA concentration and after one cycle of therapy with HR (95% CI) of 0.59 (0.42-0.84) for ALU cfDI, 0.51 (0.36-0.74) for LINE1 cfDI, 1.59 (1.31-1.92) for ALU cfDNA concentration, and 1.30 (1.17-1.45) for LINE1 cfDNA concentration, respectively. By comparing integrated prediction error of different models, cfDNA variables were shown to improve the prognostic power of the CTC status. CONCLUSIONS: We hereby show that cfDNA variables, especially in combination with other markers, can serve as attractive prognostic markers for MBC patients at baseline and during the systematic therapy.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 142(4): 757-768, 2018 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044504

RESUMO

Only a fraction of breast cancer (BC) cases can be yet explained by mutations in genes or genomic variants discovered in linkage, genome-wide association and sequencing studies. The known genes entailing medium or high risk for BC are strongly enriched for a function in DNA double strand repair. Thus, aiming at identifying low frequency variants conferring an intermediate risk, we here investigated 17 variants (MAF: 0.01-0.1) in 10 candidate genes involved in DNA repair or cell cycle control. In an exploration cohort of 437 cases and 1189 controls, we show the variant rs3810813 in the SLX4/FANCP gene to be significantly associated with both BC (≤60 years; OR = 2.6(1.6-3.9), p = 1.6E-05) and decreased DNA repair capacity (≤60 years; beta = 37.8(17.9-57.8), p = 5.3E-4). BC association was confirmed in a verification cohort (N = 2441). Both associations were absent from cases diagnosed >60 years and stronger the earlier the diagnosis. By imputation we show that rs3810813 tags a haplotype with 5 additional variants with the same allele frequency (R2 > 0.9), and a pattern of association very similar for both phenotypes (cases <60 years, p < 0.001, the Bonferroni threshold derived from unlinked variants in the region). In young cases (≤60 years) carrying the risk haplotype, micronucleus test results are predictive for BC (AUC > 0.9). Our findings propose a risk variant with high penetrance on the haplotype spanning SLX4/FANCP to be functionally associated to BC predisposition via decreased repair capacity and suggest this variant is carried by a fraction of these haplotypes that is enriched in early onset BC cases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Reparo do DNA , Recombinases/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penetrância
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